İzmir is a metropolitan city in the western extremity of Anatolia and the third most populous city in Turkey, after Istanbul and Ankara. It is the second most metropolitan area on the Aegean Sea after Greece. In 2017, the city of İzmir had a population of 3,028,323, while İzmir Province had a total population of 4,279,677. İzmir's metropolitan area extends along the outlying waters of the Gulf of İzmir and inland to the north across the Gediz River delta. In classical antiquity the city was known as Smyrna, a name which remained in use in English and other foreign languages until the Turkish Postal Service Law of 28 March 1930 came into effect, which sought to make the Turkish name İzmir the internationally recognized name of the city in most languages. However, the historic name Smyrna is still used today in some languages, such as Greek and Spanish. İzmir and Smyrna have more than 3,000 years of recorded urban history, up to 8,500 years of history as a human settlement since the Neolithic period.
Lying on an advantageous location at the head of a gulf running down in a deep indentation, midway along the western Anatolian coast, it has been one of the principal mercantile cities of the Mediterranean Sea for much of its history. İzmir hosted the Mediterranean Games in 1971 and the World University Games in 2005. The city of İzmir is composed of several metropolitan districts. Of these, the district of Konak corresponds to historical İzmir, with this district's area having constituted the city's central "İzmir Municipality" until 1984. With the formation of the "Greater İzmir Metropolitan Municipality", the city of İzmir grouped together its ten urban districts, namely Balçova, Bayraklı, Buca, Çiğli, Karabağlar, Karşıyaka and Narlıdere. In an ongoing process, the Mayor of İzmir was vested with authority over additional districts outside the city proper, extending from Bergama in the north to Selçuk in the south, bringing the number of districts considered part of İzmir to thirty – two of these having been only administratively included in İzmir.
İzmir has more than 3000 years of recorded urban history and up to 8500 years of history as a human settlement since the Neolithic period. Set in an advantageous location at the head of a gulf in a deep indentation midway along the western Anatolian coast, the city has been one of the principal mercantile cities of the Mediterranean Sea for much of its history. Modern İzmir incorporates the nearby ancient cities of Ephesus, Pergamon and Klazomenai, centers of international tourism such as Kuşadası, Çeşme, Mordoğan and Foça; when the Ottomans took over İzmir in the 15th century, they did not inherit compelling historical memories, unlike the two other key points of the trade network, namely Istanbul and Aleppo. The emergence of İzmir as a major international port by the 17th century was a result of the attraction it exercised over foreigners, the city's European orientation. Politically, İzmir is considered the Republican People's Party. Izmir's port is Turkey's primary port for exports in terms of the freight handled and its free zone, a Turkish-U.
S. Joint-venture established in 1990, is the leader among the twenty in Turkey; the workforce, its rising class of young professionals, is concentrated either in the city or in its immediate vicinity, as either larger companies or SMEs, affirm their names with an wider global scale and intensity.İzmir hosted the Mediterranean Games in 1971 and the World University Games in 2005. In March 2008, İzmir submitted its bid to the BIE for hosting the Universal Expo 2015, but it was won by Milan, Italy; the modern name "İzmir" is the Turkish rendering of the original Greek name "Smyrna" and "Smyrne", since the city was founded by Greeks. In medieval times, Westerners used forms like Smire, Esmira, rendered as İzmir into Turkish written as ايزمير with the Ottoman Turkish alphabet. In ancient Anatolia, the name of a locality called Ti-smurna is mentioned in some of the Level II tablets from the Assyrian colony in Kültepe, with the prefix ti- identifying a proper name, although it is not established with certainty that this name refers to modern-day İzmir.
The region of İzmir was situated on the southern fringes of the Yortan culture in Anatolia's prehistory, knowledge of, entirely drawn from its cemeteries. In the second half of the 2nd millennium BC, it was in the western end of the extension of the still obscure Arzawa Kingdom, an offshoot and a dependency of the Hittites, who themselves spread their direct rule as far as the coast during their Great Kingdom; that the realm of the 13th century BC local Luwian ruler, depicted in the Kemalpaşa Karabel rock carving at a distance of only 50 km from İzmir was called the Kingdom of Myra may leave grounds for association with the city's name. The latest known rendering in Greek of the city's name is the Aeolic Greek Μύρρα Mýrrha, corresponding to the Ionian and Attic Σμύρνα or Σμύρνη, both descendants of a Proto-Greek form *Smúrnā; some would see in the city's name a reference to the name of an Amazon called Smyrna said to have seduced Theseus, leading him to name the city in her honor. Others link the name to the Myrrha commifera shrub, a plant producing the aromatic resin called myrrh, indig
The Byzantine Empire referred to as the Eastern Roman Empire or Byzantium, was the continuation of the Roman Empire in its eastern provinces during Late Antiquity and the Middle Ages, when its capital city was Constantinople. It survived the fragmentation and fall of the Western Roman Empire in the 5th century AD and continued to exist for an additional thousand years until it fell to the Ottoman Turks in 1453. During most of its existence, the empire was the most powerful economic and military force in Europe. Both the terms "Byzantine Empire" and "Eastern Roman Empire" are historiographical terms created after the end of the realm. Several signal events from the 4th to 6th centuries mark the period of transition during which the Roman Empire's Greek East and Latin West diverged. Constantine I reorganised the empire, made Constantinople the new capital, legalised Christianity. Under Theodosius I, Christianity became the Empire's official state religion and other religious practices were proscribed.
Under the reign of Heraclius, the Empire's military and administration were restructured and adopted Greek for official use in place of Latin. Thus, although the Roman state continued and its traditions were maintained, modern historians distinguish Byzantium from ancient Rome insofar as it was centred on Constantinople, oriented towards Greek rather than Latin culture, characterised by Eastern Orthodox Christianity; the borders of the empire evolved over its existence, as it went through several cycles of decline and recovery. During the reign of Justinian I, the empire reached its greatest extent after reconquering much of the Roman western Mediterranean coast, including North Africa and Rome itself, which it held for two more centuries; the Byzantine–Sasanian War of 602–628 exhausted the empire's resources and contributed to major territorial losses during the Early Muslim conquests of the 7th century, when it lost its richest provinces and Syria, to the Arab caliphate. During the Macedonian dynasty, the empire expanded again and experienced the two-century long Macedonian Renaissance, which came to an end with the loss of much of Asia Minor to the Seljuk Turks after the Battle of Manzikert in 1071.
This battle opened the way for the Turks to settle in Anatolia. The empire recovered during the Komnenian restoration, by the 12th century Constantinople was the largest and wealthiest European city. However, it was delivered a mortal blow during the Fourth Crusade, when Constantinople was sacked in 1204 and the territories that the empire governed were divided into competing Byzantine Greek and Latin realms. Despite the eventual recovery of Constantinople in 1261, the Byzantine Empire remained only one of several small rival states in the area for the final two centuries of its existence, its remaining territories were progressively annexed by the Ottomans over the 15th century. The Fall of Constantinople to the Ottoman Empire in 1453 ended the Byzantine Empire; the last of the imperial Byzantine successor states, the Empire of Trebizond, would be conquered by the Ottomans eight years in the 1461 Siege of Trebizond. The first use of the term "Byzantine" to label the years of the Roman Empire was in 1557, when the German historian Hieronymus Wolf published his work Corpus Historiæ Byzantinæ, a collection of historical sources.
The term comes from "Byzantium", the name of the city of Constantinople before it became Constantine's capital. This older name of the city would be used from this point onward except in historical or poetic contexts; the publication in 1648 of the Byzantine du Louvre, in 1680 of Du Cange's Historia Byzantina further popularised the use of "Byzantine" among French authors, such as Montesquieu. However, it was not until the mid-19th century that the term came into general use in the Western world; the Byzantine Empire was known to its inhabitants as the "Roman Empire", the "Empire of the Romans", "Romania", the "Roman Republic", as "Rhōmais". The inhabitants called themselves Romaioi and as late as the 19th century Greeks referred to Modern Greek as Romaiika "Romaic." After 1204 when the Byzantine Empire was confined to its purely Greek provinces the term'Hellenes' was used instead. While the Byzantine Empire had a multi-ethnic character during most of its history and preserved Romano-Hellenistic traditions, it became identified by its western and northern contemporaries with its predominant Greek element.
The occasional use of the term "Empire of the Greeks" in the West to refer to the Eastern Roman Empire and of the Byzantine Emperor as Imperator Graecorum were used to separate it from the prestige of the Roman Empire within the new kingdoms of the West. No such distinction existed in the Islamic and Slavic worlds, where the Empire was more straightforwardly seen as the continuation of the Roman Empire. In the Islamic world, the Roman Empire was known as Rûm; the name millet-i Rûm, or "Roman nation," was used by the Ottomans through the 20th century to refer to the former subjects of the Byzantine Empire
Cappadocian Greeks known as Greek Cappadocians or Cappadocians are a Greek community native to the geographical region of Cappadocia in central-eastern Anatolia the Nevşehir Province and surrounding provinces of modern Turkey. There had been a continuous Greek presence in Cappadocia since antiquity, the native Indo-European populations of Cappadocia, some of whose languages may have been related to Greek, were Greek in their language and culture by at least the 5th century. Following the terms of the Greek–Turkish population exchange of 1923 the remaining Cappadocian Greek natives were forced to leave their homeland and resettle in modern Greece. Today their descendants can be found throughout Greece and the Greek diaspora worldwide across the globe; the area known as Cappadocia today was known to the Ancient Persians as Katpatuka, a name which the Greeks altered into Kappadokia. Before Greeks and Greek culture arrived in Asia Minor, the area was controlled by another Indo-European people, the Hittites.
Mycenaean Greeks set up trading posts along the west coast around 1300 B. C. and soon started spreading Hellenic culture and language. In the Hellenistic era, following the conquest of Anatolia by Alexander the Great, Greek settlers began arriving in the mountainous regions of Cappadocia at this time; this Greek population movement of the 3rd and 2nd centuries BC solidified a Greek presence in Cappadocia. As a result, Greek became the lingua franca of the region's natives, it would become the sole spoken language of the region's inhabitants within three centuries and would remain so for the next one thousand years. After the death of Alexander the Great, Eumenes of Cardia, one of the Diadochi of Alexander the Great, was appointed satrap of Cappadocia, where he set up Greek settlements and distributed cities to his associates. Eumenes left behind administrators and selected garrison commanders in Cappadocia. In the following centuries the Seleucid Greek Kings founded many Greek settlements in the interior of Asia Minor, this region would become popular for the recruitment of soldiers.
Unlike other regions of Asia Minor where Greeks would settle in cities, most of the Greek settlements in Cappadocia and other interior Anatolian regions were villages. The Hellenistic Kings would make new Greek settlements in Cappadocia and other surrounding regions in order to secure their hold on this volatile region, under their rule Greek settlements would increase in the Anatolian interior. In the centuries following Alexander the Great's death, the son of a Persian satrap who controlled Cappadocia, gained control of Cappadocia and left it to a line of his successors, who bore the name of the founder of the dynasty; these kings began to intermarry with neighboring Greek Hellenistic kingdoms, such as the Seleucids. During their reign Greek towns were beginning to appear in the southern regions of Cappadocia. Ariarathes V of Cappadocia who reigned from 163 to 130 BC is considered to have been the greatest of the Kings of Cappadocia, he was predominantly Greek by descent, his father Ariarathes IV of Cappadocia was half Greek Macedonian and Persian and his mother was Antiochis, was the daughter of the Seleucid Greek King Antiochus III of the Seleucid dynasty.
By the 1st century BC, regions of Cappadocia had been ravaged by Armenian King Tigranes the Great, who had relocated a great number of Cilician and Cappadocian Greeks to Mesopotamia Archelaus, a Roman client prince was the last to rule as a king of Cappadocia. He was a Cappadocian Greek nobleman of Macedonian descent and was the first king of Cappadocia of wholly non-Persian blood, he ruled over Cappadocia for many years before being deposed by Tiberius who took possession of Cappadocia for Rome. The region of Cappadocia produced some notable Greek individuals in antiquity, such as Apollonius of Tyana, a Greek Neo-Pythagorean philosopher who became well known in the Roman Empire and Aretaeus of Cappadocia, a native Greek, born in Cappadocia and is considered to have been one of the foremost surgeons on antiquity, he was the first to distinguish between diabetes mellitus and diabetes insipidus, the first to provide a detailed description of an asthma attack. By late antiquity the Cappadocian Greeks had converted to Christianity.
They were so devout to Christianity that by the 1st century AD, the region of Cappadocia served as a stronghold for Christian Monasticism and was of significance importance in the history of early Christianity. In the early centuries of the Common Era Cappadocia produced three prominent Greek patristic figures, known as the three hierarchs, they were Basil the Bishop of Caesarea in Cappadocia. Gregory of Nazianzus and Gregory of Nyssa; these Cappadocian Greek fathers of the fourth century revered the ancient Greek cultural pursuit of virtue studying Homer and Hesiod and “stood squarely in the tradition of Greek culture”. By the fifth century the last of the Indo-European native languages of Anatolia ceased to be spoken, replaced by Koine Greek. At the same time the Greek communities of central Anatolia were becoming involved in affairs of the Byzantine Empire and some Greek Cappadocians such as Maurice Tiberius and Heraclius would serve as Emperors; the region became a key Byzantine military district after the advent of Islam and the subsequent Muslim conquest of Syria led to the establishment of a militarized frontier zone (cf kleisoura
State of Palestine
Palestine the State of Palestine, is a de jure sovereign state in Western Asia claiming the West Bank and Gaza Strip with Jerusalem as the designated capital, although its administrative center is located in Ramallah. The entirety of territory claimed by the State of Palestine has been occupied by Israel since the Six-Day War in 1967. Palestine has a population of 4,816,503 as of 2016, ranked 123rd in the world. After World War II, in 1947, the United Nations adopted a Partition Plan for Mandatory Palestine recommending the creation of independent Arab and Jewish states and an internationalized Jerusalem. After the establishment of a Jewish state in Eretz Israel, to be known as the State of Israel on 14 May 1948, neighboring Arab armies invaded the former British mandate on the next day and fought the Israeli forces; the All-Palestine Government was established by the Arab League on 22 September 1948 to govern the Egyptian-controlled enclave in Gaza. It was soon recognized by all Arab League members except Transjordan.
Though jurisdiction of the Government was declared to cover the whole of the former Mandatory Palestine, its effective jurisdiction was limited to the Gaza Strip. Israel captured the Gaza Strip and the Sinai Peninsula from Egypt, the West Bank from Jordan, the Golan Heights from Syria in June 1967 following the Six-Day War. On 15 November 1988, Yasser Arafat, Chairman of the Palestine Liberation Organization, in Algiers proclaimed the establishment of the State of Palestine. A year after the signing of the Oslo Accords in 1993, the Palestinian National Authority was formed to govern the areas A and B in the West Bank and Gaza Strip. Gaza would be ruled by Hamas in 2007, two years after the Israeli withdrawal from Gaza; the State of Palestine is recognized by 136 UN members and since 2012 has a status of a non-member observer state in the United Nations – which implies recognition of statehood. It is a member of the Arab League, Organisation of Islamic Cooperation, G77, the International Olympic Committee and other international bodies.
Since the British Mandate, the term "Palestine" has been associated with the geographical area that covers the State of Israel, the West Bank and the Gaza Strip. General use of the term "Palestine" or related terms to the area at the southeast corner of the Mediterranean Sea beside Syria has been taking place since the times of Ancient Greece, with Herodotus writing of a "district of Syria, called Palaistine" in which Phoenicians interacted with other maritime peoples in The Histories; some other terms that have been used to refer to all or part of the geographical region of "Palestine" include Canaan, Land of Israel, Greater Syria, the Holy Land, Iudaea Province, Coele-Syria, "Israel HaShlema", Kingdom of Israel, Kingdom of Jerusalem, Retenu, Southern Syria, Southern Levant and Syria Palaestina. The areas claimed by the State of Palestine lie in the Levant; the Gaza Strip borders the Mediterranean Sea to the west, Egypt to the south, Israel to the north and east. The West Bank is bordered by Jordan to the east, Israel to the north and west.
Thus, the two enclaves constituting the area claimed by State of Palestine have no geographical border with one another, being separated by Israel. These areas would constitute the world's 163rd largest country by land area. In 1947, the UN adopted a partition plan for a two-state solution in the remaining territory of the mandate; the plan was accepted by the Jewish leadership but rejected by the Arab leaders, Britain refused to implement the plan. On the eve of final British withdrawal, the Jewish Agency for Israel declared the establishment of the State of Israel according to the proposed UN plan; the Arab Higher Committee did not declare a state of its own and instead, together with Transjordan and the other members of the Arab League of the time, commenced military action resulting in the 1948 Arab–Israeli War. During the war, Israel gained additional territories that were designated to be part of the Arab state under the UN plan. Egypt occupied the Gaza Strip and Transjordan occupied and annexed the West Bank.
Egypt supported the creation of an All-Palestine Government, but disbanded it in 1959. Transjordan never recognized it and instead decided to incorporate the West Bank with its own territory to form Jordan; the annexation was rejected by the international community. The Six-Day War in 1967, when Israel fought against Egypt and Syria, ended with Israel occupying the West Bank and the Gaza Strip, besides other territories. In 1964, when the West Bank was controlled by Jordan, the Palestine Liberation Organization was established there with the goal to confront Israel; the Palestinian National Charter of the PLO defines the boundaries of Palestine as the whole remaining territory of the mandate, including Israel. Following the Six-Day War, the PLO moved to Jordan, but relocated to Lebanon after Black September in 1971; the October 1974 Arab League summit designated the PLO as the "sole legitimate representative of the Palestinian people" and reaffirmed "their right to establish an independent state of urgency."
In November 1974, the PLO was recognized as competent on all matters concerning the question of Palestine by the UN General Assembly granting them observer status as a "non-state entity" at the UN. After the 1988 Declaration of Independence, the UN General Assembly acknowledged the proclamation and decided to use the designation "Palestine" instead of "Palestine Liberation Organization" in the UN. In spite of thi
Ionia was an ancient region on the central part of the western coast of Anatolia in present-day Turkey, the region nearest İzmir, Smyrna. It consisted of the northernmost territories of the Ionian League of Greek settlements. Never a unified state, it was named after the Ionian tribe who, in the Archaic Period, settled the shores and islands of the Aegean Sea. Ionian states were identified by their use of Eastern Greek. Ionia proper comprised a narrow coastal strip from Phocaea in the north near the mouth of the river Hermus, to Miletus in the south near the mouth of the river Maeander, included the islands of Chios and Samos, it was bounded by Aeolia to Lydia to the east and Caria to the south. The cities within the region figured large in the strife between the Persian Empire and the Greeks. According to Greek tradition, the cities of Ionia were founded by colonists from the other side of the Aegean, their settlement was connected with the legendary history of the Ionic people in Attica, which asserts that the colonists were led by Neleus and Androclus, sons of Codrus, the last king of Athens.
In accordance with this view the "Ionic migration", as it was called by chronologers, was dated by them one hundred and forty years after the Trojan War, or sixty years after the return of the Heracleidae into the Peloponnese. Ionia was of small extent, not exceeding 150 kilometres in length from north to south, with a breadth varying from 60 to 90 kilometres, but to this must be added the peninsula of Mimas, together with the two islands. So intricate is the coastline that the voyage along its shores was estimated at nearly four times the direct distance. A great part of this area was, occupied by mountains. Of these the most lofty and striking were Mimas and Corycus, in the peninsula which stands out to the west, facing the island of Chios. None of these mountains attains a height of more than 1,200 metres; the district comprised three fertile valleys formed by the outflow of three rivers, among the most considerable in Asia Minor: the Hermus in the north, flowing into the Gulf of Smyrna, though at some distance from the city of that name.
With the advantage of a peculiarly fine climate, for which this part of Asia Minor has been famous in all ages, Ionia enjoyed the reputation in ancient times of being the most fertile of all the rich provinces of Asia Minor. The geography of Ionia placed it in a strategic position, both advantageous and disadvantageous. Ionia was always a maritime power founded by a people who made their living by trade in peaceful times and marauding in unsettled times; the coast was rocky and the arable land slight. The native Luwians for the most part kept their fields further inland and used the rift valleys for wooded pasture; the coastal cities were placed in defensible positions on islands or headlands situated so as to control inland routes up the rift valleys. The people of those valleys were of different ethnicity; the populations of the cities came from many civilizations in the eastern Mediterranean. Ancient demographics are available only from literary sources. Herodotus states that in Asia the Ionians kept the division into twelve cities that had prevailed in Ionian lands of the north Peloponnese, their former homeland, which became Achaea after they left.
These Asian cities were Miletus, Priene, Colophon, Teos, Erythrae and Phocaea, together with Samos and Chios. Smyrna an Aeolic colony, was afterwards occupied by Ionians from Colophon, became an Ionian city — an event which had taken place before the time of Herodotus; these cities do not match those of Achaea. Moreover, the Achaea of Herodotus' time spoke Doric, but in Homer it is portrayed as being in the kingdom of Mycenae, which most spoke Mycenaean Greek, not Doric. If the Ionians came from Achaea, they departed during or after the change from East Greek to West Greek there. Mycenaean continued to evolve in the mountainous region of Arcadia. There is no record of any people named Ionians in Late Bronze Age Anatolia but Hittite texts record the Achaeans of Ahhiyawa, of location not certain, but in touch with the Hittites of that time. Miletus and some other cities founded earlier by non-Greeks received populations of Mycenaean Greeks under the name of Achaeans; the tradition of Ionian colonizers from Achaea suggests that they may have been known by both names then.
In the absence of archaeological evidence of discontinuity at Miletus the Achaean population whatever their name appears to have descended to archaic Ionia, which does not exclude the possibility of another colonizing and founding event from Athens. In the Indian historic literary texts, the Ionians are referred to as "yavana" or "yona", are described as wearing leather and wielding whips. In modern Turkish, the people of that region and the Greeks were called "yunan" and
Arabic is a Central Semitic language that first emerged in Iron Age northwestern Arabia and is now the lingua franca of the Arab world. It is named after the Arabs, a term used to describe peoples living in the area bounded by Mesopotamia in the east and the Anti-Lebanon mountains in the west, in northwestern Arabia, in the Sinai Peninsula. Arabic is classified as a macrolanguage comprising 30 modern varieties, including its standard form, Modern Standard Arabic, derived from Classical Arabic; as the modern written language, Modern Standard Arabic is taught in schools and universities, is used to varying degrees in workplaces and the media. The two formal varieties are grouped together as Literary Arabic, the official language of 26 states, the liturgical language of the religion of Islam, since the Quran and Hadith were written in Arabic. Modern Standard Arabic follows the grammatical standards of Classical Arabic, uses much of the same vocabulary. However, it has discarded some grammatical constructions and vocabulary that no longer have any counterpart in the spoken varieties, has adopted certain new constructions and vocabulary from the spoken varieties.
Much of the new vocabulary is used to denote concepts that have arisen in the post-classical era in modern times. Due to its grounding in Classical Arabic, Modern Standard Arabic is removed over a millennium from everyday speech, construed as a multitude of dialects of this language; these dialects and Modern Standard Arabic are described by some scholars as not mutually comprehensible. The former are acquired in families, while the latter is taught in formal education settings. However, there have been studies reporting some degree of comprehension of stories told in the standard variety among preschool-aged children; the relation between Modern Standard Arabic and these dialects is sometimes compared to that of Latin and vernaculars in medieval and early modern Europe. This view though does not take into account the widespread use of Modern Standard Arabic as a medium of audiovisual communication in today's mass media—a function Latin has never performed. During the Middle Ages, Literary Arabic was a major vehicle of culture in Europe in science and philosophy.
As a result, many European languages have borrowed many words from it. Arabic influence in vocabulary, is seen in European languages Spanish and to a lesser extent Portuguese, Catalan, owing to both the proximity of Christian European and Muslim Arab civilizations and 800 years of Arabic culture and language in the Iberian Peninsula, referred to in Arabic as al-Andalus. Sicilian has about 500 Arabic words as result of Sicily being progressively conquered by Arabs from North Africa, from the mid-9th to mid-10th centuries. Many of these words relate to related activities; the Balkan languages, including Greek and Bulgarian, have acquired a significant number of Arabic words through contact with Ottoman Turkish. Arabic has influenced many languages around the globe throughout its history; some of the most influenced languages are Persian, Spanish, Kashmiri, Bosnian, Bengali, Malay, Indonesian, Punjabi, Assamese, Sindhi and Hausa, some languages in parts of Africa. Conversely, Arabic has borrowed words from other languages, including Greek and Persian in medieval times, contemporary European languages such as English and French in modern times.
Classical Arabic is the liturgical language of 1.8 billion Muslims, Modern Standard Arabic is one of six official languages of the United Nations. All varieties of Arabic combined are spoken by as many as 422 million speakers in the Arab world, making it the fifth most spoken language in the world. Arabic is written with the Arabic alphabet, an abjad script and is written from right to left, although the spoken varieties are sometimes written in ASCII Latin from left to right with no standardized orthography. Arabic is a Central Semitic language related to the Northwest Semitic languages, the Ancient South Arabian languages, various other Semitic languages of Arabia such as Dadanitic; the Semitic languages changed a great deal between Proto-Semitic and the establishment of the Central Semitic languages in grammar. Innovations of the Central Semitic languages—all maintained in Arabic—include: The conversion of the suffix-conjugated stative formation into a past tense; the conversion of the prefix-conjugated preterite-tense formation into a present tense.
The elimination of other prefix-conjugated mood/aspect forms in favor of new moods formed by endings attached to the prefix-conjugation forms. The development of an internal passive. There are several features which Classical Arabic, the modern Arabic varieties, as well as the Safaitic and Hismaic inscriptions share which are unattested in any other Central Semitic language variety, including the Dadanitic and Taymanitic languages of the northern Hejaz; these features are evidence of common descent from Proto-Arabic. The following features can be reconstructed with confidence for Proto-Arabic: negative particles m *mā.
Hatay Province is a province in southern Turkey, on the eastern Mediterranean coast. The administrative capital is Antakya, the other major city in the province is the port city of İskenderun, it is bordered by Syria to the south and east and the Turkish provinces of Adana and Osmaniye to the north. The province is part of Çukurova, a geographical and cultural region that covers the provinces of Mersin, Adana and Hatay. There are border crossing points with Syria in the district of Yayladağı and at Cilvegözü in the district of Reyhanlı. Sovereignty over the province remains disputed with neighbouring Syria, which claims that the province was separated from itself against the stipulations of the French Mandate of Syria in the years following Syria's independence from the Ottoman Empire after World War I. Although the two countries have remained peaceful in their dispute over the territory, Syria has never formally renounced its claims to it. Settled since the early Bronze Age, Hatay was once part of the Akkadian Empire the Amorite Kingdom of Yamhad an Mitannis a succession of Hittites, the Neo-Hittite "Hattena" people that gave the modern province of Hatay its name the Assyrians and Persians.
The region was the center of the Hellenistic Seleucid empire, home to the four Greek cities of the Syrian tetrapolis. From 64 BC onwards the city of Antioch became an important regional centre of the Roman Empire; the area was conquered by the Rashidun Caliphate in 638 and it came under the control of the Ummayad and Abbasid Arab dynasties. From the 11th century onwards, the region was controlled by the Aleppo-based Hamdanids after a brief rule of Ikhshidids. In 969 the city of Antioch was recaptured by the Byzantine Empire, it was conquered by Philaretos Brachamios, a Byzantine general in 1078. He founded a principality from Antioch to Edessa, it was captured by Suleiman I, Sultan of Rum, in 1084. It passed to Tutush I, Sultan of Aleppo, in 1086. Seljuk rule lasted 14 years until Hatay's capture by the Crusaders in 1098, when it became the centre of the Principality of Antioch. Hatay was captured from the Crusaders by the Mameluks in 1268. By the time it was taken from the Mameluks by the Ottoman Sultan Selim I in 1516, Antakya was a medium-sized town on 2 km² of land between the Orontes River and Mount Habib Neccar.
Under the Ottomans the area was known as the sanjak of Alexandretta. Gertrude Bell in her book Syria The Desert & the Sown published in 1907 wrote extensively about her travels across Syria including Antioch & Alexandretta and she noted the heavy mix between Turks and Arabs in the region at that time. A map published circa 1911 highlighted that the ethnic make up was majority Arab with smaller communities of Armenians and Turks. Many consider. Maps as far back as 1764 confirm this. During the First World War in which the Ottoman Empire was defeated most of Syria was occupied by the British forces, but when the Armistice of Mudros was signed at the end of the war, Hatay was a still part of the Ottoman Empire. After the armistice it was occupied by the British forces an operation, never accepted by the Ottoman side. Like the rest of Syria it was handed to France by the British Empire. After World War I and the Turkish War of Independence, the Ottoman Empire was disbanded and the modern Republic of Turkey was created, Alexandretta was not part of the new republic, it was put within the French mandate of Syria after a signed agreement between the Allies and Turkey, the Treaty of Sèvres, neither ratified by the Ottoman parliament nor by the Turkish National Movement in Ankara.
The subsequent Treaty of Lausanne put Alexandretta within Syria. The document detailing the boundary between Turkey and Syria around 1920 and subsequent years is presented in a report by the Official Geographer of The Bureau of Intelligence and Research of the US Department of State. A French-Turkish treaty of 20 October 1921 rendered the Sanjak of Alexandretta autonomous, remained so from 1921 to 1923. Out of 220,000 inhabitants in 1921, 87,000 were Turks. Along with Turks the population of the Sanjak included: Arabs of various religious denominations. In 1923 Hatay was attached to the State of Aleppo, in 1925 it was directly attached to the French mandate of Syria, still with special administrative status. Despite this, a Turkish community remained in Alexandretta, Mustafa Kemal said that Hatay had been a Turkish homeland for 4,000 years; this was due to the contested nationalist pseudoscientific Sun Language Theory prevalent in the 1930s in Turkey, which presumed that some ancient peoples of Anatolia and the Middle East such as the Sumerians and Hittites, hence the name Hatay, were related to the Turks.
In truth, the Turks first appeared in Anatolia during the 11th century when the Seljuk Turks occupied the eastern province of the Abbasid Empire and captured Baghdad. Resident Arabs organised under the banner of Arabism, in 1930, Zaki al-Arsuzi, a teacher and lawyer from Arsuz on the coast of Alexandretta published a newspaper called'Arabism' in Antioch, shut down by Turkish and French authorities; the 1936 elections returned two MPs favouring the independence of Syria from France, this prompted communal riots as well as passionate articles in the Turkish and Syrian press. This became the subject of a complaint to the League of Nations by the Turkis