Stadtmitte (Berlin U-Bahn)
Stadtmitte is a Berlin U-Bahn station located on the U 2 and the U 6 in the Mitte district. The U2 platform opened on 1 October 1908 with the new U-Bahn section from Potsdamer Platz to Spittelmarkt; the station beneath the crossing of Friedrichstraße and Mohrenstraße was designed by Alfred Grenander and called Friedrichstraße. The second platform of the present-day U6 line was finished on 30 January 1923, but was built about 160 m southwards at the corner of Friedrichstraße and Leipziger Straße, the main east-west thoroughfare of the Friedrichstadt quarter; the platforms are connected by a pedestrian underpass colloquially called the Mäusetunnel. The station received its current name in 1936; this station was damaged in World War II. On 7 May 1944, massive fire damage in the entire station area. On 3 February 1945, there was a heavy destruction in the entire station area involving gunshots, badly damaged by a fire. Several pillars were torn from their anchorage. A wall was pushed in by pure air pressure.
The ceiling was destroyed on the Battle of Berlin. The U6 station was closed from 13 August 1961 due to the construction of the Berlin Wall; this station is again, once the border station, it is well connected to the U2 station respectively. The only difference to Schwartzkopffstraße, consists only in the presence of the compound where the tracks have become store rooms; the rolls of barbed wire were installed so as to prevent escapees from crawling, the entrances and transfer linkways were all locked with a baby-lock gate. Armed guards were patrolled at the southern side of the entrance. All were eliminated by 29 June 1990 and reopened on 1 July 1990
Breitenbachplatz (Berlin U-Bahn)
Breitenbachplatz is a Berlin U-Bahn station located in the Dahlem district on the U 3. It opened on 12 October 1913; the station, the eponymous square, were named after Minister of State Paul von Breitenbach. It was constructed by W. Leitgebel and closed for a few months during 1945 because of World War II. In 2011 the station was renovated to include a lift; the underground station Breitenbachplatz is a Berlin underground station of the underground line U3 under the Breitenbachplatz in the district Dahlem on the border to the districts Steglitz and Wilmersdorf in the district Charlottenburg-Wilmersdorf. The station was like the other stations of the Wilmersdorf-Dahlemer-Schnellbahn on October 12, 1913 in operation. With the construction of the station, the aboveground space was created. Named Rastatter Platz, this oval was renamed'Breitenbachplatz' when the subway station below the square was opened; the subway station Breitenbachplatz was built as part of the construction of the Wilmersdorf-Dahlemer subway between Wittenbergplatz and Thielplatz in the south of the Dahlem domain.
Just like the similarly designed Rüdesheimer Platz station and the Heidelberger Platz underground station, the Breitenbachplatz underground station was designed by the architect Wilhelm Leitgebel. For the two original entrances to the north and south Leitgebel designed similar to the Rüdesheimer Platz stone pylons with lamp attachment and a Steinumwehrung. For the metal entrance gates Leitgebel chose Andrea crosses and flower medallions as design features; the mid-rise to the extended Schildhornstraße was planned in 1909, but was not completed until 1979. This opens into an above-ground stone-glass pavilion; the platform hall is designed as a central platform. The walls are divided into a red-brown ceramic base, a bright wall with semicircular niches and a dark brown fireplace cornice as a conclusion. In the niches nameplates and paintings of Joachim Szymczak alternate, since 1988 instead of advertising signs the 150-year existence of the Prussian railway and the eponymous Prussian Minister of Public Works, Paul von Breitenbach, thematize.
On the pillars between the niches are representations of animals and scientific instruments as an indication of the nearby institutes of the Kaiser Wilhelm Society in Dahlem. The hall ceiling is designed as a coffered ceiling supported by granite-faced Doric pillars in the center of the platform; the cassettes contain octagonal mosaic panels with geometric patterns. Through four elliptical openings daylight falls on the today with granite occupied with asphalt plates platform. During the Second World War, the station remained intact. Only the northern access area was damaged and rebuilt only simplified. From the original equipment can be found still three wooden double benches and in the southern entrance area, the former switch house; the station is a listed building. The underground station is barrier-free; the equipment with a lift was put into operation on 7 October 2010. A guidance system is available
Uhlandstraße (Berlin U-Bahn)
The underground station Uhlandstraße is the western terminus of U1 line, part of the Berlin U-Bahn network. It is located on Kurfürstendamm boulevard in the central Charlottenburg quarter of Berlin, among a mix of chain and high end shopping facilities; the station opened on October 12, 1913 at the intersection of Kurfürstendamm and Uhlandstraße, named after the poet Ludwig Uhland. Built according to plans designed by Alfred Grenander it was meant as the first section of a projected metro line connecting Wittenbergplatz with Berlin-Halensee station which, was never built. Damaged by the bombing of Berlin in World War II, the station was closed in 1945. From 1970, trains only went to Wittenbergplatz station but since 1993 trains are going to Warschauer Straße station again; the second entrance at the eastern end of the station, at the junction of Kurfürstendamm and Fasanenstraße, was closed in 1964, but re-opened in 2005. Up to today, the area is somewhat reminiscent of the period of promoterism and the Wirtschaftswunder days of the 1950s.
Quiet, green roads with expensive flats make the area one of the most desirable but unaffordable in Berlin, comparable for instance to the area between Westminster and Kensington in London
Märkisches Museum (Berlin U-Bahn)
Märkisches Museum is a Berlin U-Bahn station located on the U 2 in the Mitte district. Since 1935 it has been named after the nearby Märkisches Museum, the municipal museum of the history of Berlin and the Mark Brandenburg; the station called Inselbrücke, opened on 1 July 1913 in the course of the eastern continuation of Berlin's second U-Bahn line from Spittelmarkt to Alexanderplatz. Architect Alfred Grenander designed a vaulted hall deep beneath street level due to the adjacent Spree underpass leading to Klosterstrasse, it was renamed in 1935 to Märkisches Museum. There was a slight damage to the ceiling on 24 May 1944, it is one of only 2 Berlin U-Bahn stations with no central columns, the other being Platz der Luftbrücke. In 1987 and 1988, as part of events for the 750th anniversary of Berlin, the GDR government commissioned decorations for the station with the theme of "the history of Berlin". Artist Jo Doese constructed twelve mosaics depicting maps of the city of Berlin, from its beginnings as the twin towns of Berlin and Cölln in 1237 through to the modern city in 1987, with each mosaic being constructed from building materials that would have been used in the city at the time.
There are two copies of each of six maps on opposite walls of one set near each track. In between the maps are reliefs by artists Karl-Heinz Schäfer and Ulrich Jörke, each in a style appropriate to the time period of the adjacent map. Märkisches Museum is operated by the provider of most of Berlin's rapid transit. Situated on the U 2 line, trains from Märkisches Museum serve Pankow to the north, stopping at significant destinations such as Alexanderplatz, Ruhleben to the west, stopping at Potsdamer Platz, Kurfürstendamm and the Olympic Stadium
Schlesisches Tor (Berlin U-Bahn)
Schlesisches Tor is a Berlin U-Bahn station on the U 1 and U 3 lines. It is located in eastern Kreuzberg, near Oberbaumbrücke, in the Bohemian quarter known as SO36; the station is named after one of the former city gates of Berlin built in the early 18th century. The exceptionally richly designed station opened on 18 February 1902, on the first Berlin U-Bahn line erected by the Siemens & Halske company. On 11/12 March 1945, this station was directly hit, the track area was damaged. During the division of Berlin after 13 August 1961, the station was the eastern terminus of the U1, as the final station, Warschauer Straße, was in East Berlin; the link was reopened in 1995. An intermediate station at the Spree river, Stralauer Tor, had been destroyed in 1945 and never reopened. Schlesisches Tor was an atmospheric location in the 1966 espionage film The Quiller Memorandum starring George Segal and Alec Guinness
Nollendorfplatz (Berlin U-Bahn)
Nollendorfplatz is a Berlin U-Bahn station located on the U 1, the U 2, the U 3, the U 4. It opened in 1902 and today is the only station in Berlin, served by four metro lines; the station and the eponymous square named after Nakléřov in the Czech Republic lie in the north of Schöneberg at the junction of Motzstraße, Kleiststraße and Bülowstraße. The area is an important centre of gay culture and the nearby Winterfeldtplatz is home to a known market; the quarter, which used to be a unstable center of heroin addicts and squatters twenty years ago has seen a remarkable comeback into the mainstream culture with high rents and upscale restaurants and bookshops. In this it resembles for the western part of Kreuzberg; the subway station itself received an art nouveau glass dome which resembles the one it had before the war, designed by Cremer & Wolffenstein. Media related to Nollendorfplatz at Wikimedia Commons Hoch- und Untergrundbahnhof Nollendorfplatz entry in the list of Berlin cultural monuments
Hesse or Hessia the State of Hesse, is a federal state of the Federal Republic of Germany, with just over six million inhabitants. The state capital is Wiesbaden; as a cultural region, Hesse includes the area known as Rhenish Hesse in the neighbouring state of Rhineland-Palatinate. The German name Hessen, like the name of other German regions is derived from the dative plural form of the name of the inhabitants or eponymous tribe, the Hessians, short for the older compound name Hessenland; the Old High German form of the name is recorded as Hessun, in Middle Latin as Hassia, Hassonia. The name of the Hessians continues the tribal name of the Chatti; the ancient name Chatti by the 7th century is recorded as Chassi, from the 8th century as Hassi or Hessi. An inhabitant of Hesse is called a "Hessian"; the American English term Hessian for 18th-century British auxiliary troops originates with Landgrave Frederick II of Hesse-Cassel hiring out regular army units to the government of Great Britain to fight in the American Revolutionary War.
The English form Hesse is in common use by the 18th century, first in the hyphenated names Hesse-Cassel and Hesse-Darmstadt, but the latinate form Hessia remains in common English usage well into the 19th century. The German term Hessen is used by the European Commission in English-language contexts because their policy is to leave regional names untranslated; the synthetic element hassium, number 108 on the periodic table, was named after the state of Hesse in 1997, following a proposal of 1992. The territory of Hesse was delineated only as Greater Hesse, under American occupation, it corresponds only loosely to the medieval Landgraviate of Hesse. In the 19th century, prior to the unification of Germany, the territory of what is now Hesse comprised the territories of Grand Duchy of Hesse, the Duchy of Nassau, the free city of Frankfurt and the Electorate of Hesse; the Central Hessian region was inhabited in the Upper Paleolithic. Finds of tools in southern Hesse in Rüsselsheim suggest the presence of Pleistocene hunters about 13,000 years ago.
A fossil hominid skull, found in northern Hesse, just outside the village of Rhünda, has been dated at 12,000 years ago. The Züschen tomb is a prehistoric burial monument, located between Lohne and Züschen, near Fritzlar, Germany. Classified as a gallery grave or a Hessian-Westphalian stone cist, it is one of the most important megalithic monuments in Central Europe. Dating to c. 3000 BC, it belongs to the Late Neolithic Wartberg culture. An early Celtic presence in what is now Hesse is indicated by a mid-5th-century BC La Tène-style burial uncovered at Glauberg; the region was settled by the Germanic Chatti tribe around the 1st century BC, the name Hesse is a continuation of that tribal name. The ancient Romans had a military camp in Dorlar, in Waldgirmes directly on the eastern outskirts of Wetzlar was a civil settlement under construction; the provincial government for the occupied territories of the right bank of Germania was planned at this location. The governor of Germania, at least temporarily had resided here.
The settlement appears to have been abandoned by the Romans after the devastating Battle of the Teutoburg Forest failed in the year AD 9. The Chatti were involved in the Revolt of the Batavi in AD 69. Hessia, from the early 7th century on, served as a buffer between areas dominated by the Saxons and the Franks, who brought the area to the south under their control in the early sixth century and occupied Thuringia in 531. Hessia occupies the northwestern part of the modern German state of Hesse, its geographic center is Fritzlar. To the west, it occupies the valleys of the Rivers Lahn, it measured 90 kilometers north-south, 80 north-west. The area around Fritzlar shows evidence of significant pagan belief from the 1st century on. Geismar was a particular focus of such activity. Excavations have produced bronze artifacts. A possible religious cult may have centered on a natural spring in Geismar, called Heilgenbron; the village of Maden, now a part of Gudensberg near Fritzlar and less than ten miles from Geismar, was an ancient religious center.
By the mid-7th century, the Franks had established themselves as overlords, suggested by archeological evidence of burials, they built fortifications in various places, including Christenberg. By 690, they took direct control over Hessia to counteract expansion by the Saxons, who built fortifications in Gaulskopf and Eresburg across the River Diemel, the northern boundary of Hessia; the Büraburg