Swiss Reformed Church
The Swiss Reformed Church is the Reformed branch of Protestantism in Switzerland started in Zürich by Huldrych Zwingli and spread within a few years to Basel, Bern, St. Gallen, to cities in southern Germany and via Alsace to France. Switzerland is the birthplace of the Reformed tradition as it was Zwingli who first preached it in 1519. Since 1920, the Swiss Reformed Churches have been organized in 26 member churches of the Federation of Swiss Protestant Churches; as of 2017, 2,150,387 people are registered members of a Reformed cantonal church. The Reformation spread into the cities of Switzerland, composed of loosely connected cantons. Breakthrough began in the 1520s in Zurich under Zwingli, in Bern in 1528 under Berchtold Haller, in Basel in 1529 under Johannes Oecolampadius. After the early death of Zwingli in 1531, the Reformation continued; the French-speaking cities Neuchâtel and Lausanne changed to the Reformation ten years under William Farel and John Calvin coming from France. The Zwingli and Calvin branches had each their theological distinctions, but in 1549 under the lead of Bullinger and Calvin they came to a common agreement in the Consensus Tigurinus, 1566 in the Second Helvetic Confession.
The German Reformed ideological center was Zurich, the French speaking Reformed movement bastion was Geneva. A distinctive feature of the Swiss Reformed churches in the Zwinglian tradition is their almost symbiotic link to the state, only loosening in the present. In cities where the Reformed faith became leading theology, several confessions were written, some of them: The 67 Articles of Zurich Theses of Berne 1528 Berne Synodus 1532 Confession of Geneva 1537 Second Helvetic Confession written by Bullinger in 1566In the mid 19th century, opposition to liberal theology and interventions by the state led to secessions in several cantonal churches. One of these secessionist churches still exists today, the Evangelical Free Church of Geneva, founded in 1849, while a couple of others have reunited with the Swiss Reformed Church in 1943 and 1966. An important issue to liberal theologians was the Apostles' Creed, they questioned its binding character. This caused a heated debate; until the late 1870s, most cantonal reformed churches stopped prescribing any particular creed.
In 1920 the Federation of Swiss Protestant Churches, with 24 member churches — 22 cantonal churches and 2 free churches, was formed to serve as a legal umbrella before the federal government and represent the church in international relations. Like many European Protestant denominations, several of the Swiss Reformed churches have welcomed gay and lesbian members to celebrate their civil unions within a church context; as early as 1999, the Reformed Churches in St. Gallen and Lucerne had permitted prayer and celebration services for same-sex couples to recognize their civil unions. Since the Reformed Church in Aargau has allowed for prayer services to celebrate same-sex couples. To date, seven other Swiss Reformed churches, including Bern-Jura-Solothurn, Graubünden, Ticino, Vaud, Zürich, have allowed prayer or blessing services for same-sex civil unions. Organizationally, the Reformed Churches in Switzerland remain cantonal units; the German churches are more in the Zwinglian tradition. They are governed synodically and their relation to the respective canton ranges from independent to close collaboration, depending on historical developments.
Reformed Churches in the Swiss cantons: Reformed Church of Aargau Evangelical-Reformed Church of Appenzell Evangelical Reformed Church of the Canton Basel-Landschaft Evangelical-Reformed Church of the Canton Basel-Stadt Reformed Churches of the Canton Bern-Jura-Solothurn Evangelical Reformed Church of the Canton Freiburg Protestant Church of Geneva Evangelical Free Church of Geneva Evangelical Reformed Church of the Canton of Glarus Evangelical Reformed Church of Graubünden Evangelical Reformed Church of the Canton of Lucerne Reformed Church of the Canton of Neuchâtel Evangelical-Reformed Church of Nidwalen Association of Evangelical Reformed Churches in the Canton of Obwalden Evangelical Reformed Church of the Canton of St. Gallen Evangelical Reformed Church of the Canton of Schaffhausen Evangelical Reformed Church of the Canton of Schwyz Evangelical Reformed Church of the Canton of Solothurn Evangelical Reformed Church of Ticino Evangelical Church of the Canton of Thurgau Evangelical Reformed Church of Uri Evangelical Reformed Church of the Canton of Vaud Evangelical Reformed Church in Valais Evangelical Reformed Church of the Canton of Zürich Evangelical Reformed Church of the Canton of Zug
A shield is a piece of personal armour held in the hand or mounted on the wrist or forearm. Shields are used to intercept specific attacks, whether from close-ranged weaponry or projectiles such as arrows, by means of active blocks, as well as to provide passive protection by closing one or more lines of engagement during combat. Shields vary in size and shape, ranging from large panels that protect the user's whole body to small models that were intended for hand-to-hand-combat use. Shields vary a great deal in thickness. Shields vary in shape, ranging in roundness to angularity, proportional length and width and edge pattern. In prehistory and during the era of the earliest civilisations, shields were made of wood, animal hide, woven reeds or wicker. In classical antiquity, the Barbarian Invasions and the Middle Ages, they were constructed of poplar tree, lime or another split-resistant timber, covered in some instances with a material such as leather or rawhide and reinforced with a metal boss, rim or banding.
They were carried by foot soldiers and cavalry. Depending on time and place, shields could be round, square, triangular, bilabial or scalloped. Sometimes they took on the form of kites or flatirons, or had rounded tops on a rectangular base with an eye-hole, to look through when used with combat; the shield was held by straps that went over or around the user's arm. Shields were decorated with a painted pattern or an animal representation to show their army or clan; these designs developed into systematized heraldic devices during the High Middle Ages for purposes of battlefield identification. After the introduction of gunpowder and firearms to the battlefield, shields continued to be used by certain groups. In the 18th century, for example, Scottish Highland fighters liked to wield small shields known as targes, as late as the 19th century, some non-industrialized peoples employed them when waging war. In the 20th and 21st century, shields have been used by military and police units that specialize in anti-terrorist actions, hostage rescue, riot control and siege-breaking.
The modern term refers to a device, held in the hand or attached to the arm, as opposed to an armored suit or a bullet-proof vest. Shields are sometimes mounted on vehicle-mounted weapons to protect the operator; the oldest form of shield was a protection device designed to block attacks by hand weapons, such as swords and maces, or ranged weapons like sling-stones and arrows. Shields have varied in construction over time and place. Sometimes shields were made of metal. Many surviving examples of metal shields are felt to be ceremonial rather than practical, for example the Yetholm-type shields of the Bronze Age, or the Iron Age Battersea shield. Size and weight varied greatly. Armored warriors relying on speed and surprise would carry light shields that were either small or thin. Heavy troops might be equipped with robust shields. Many had a strap called a guige that allowed them to be slung over the user's back when not in use or on horseback. During the 14th–13th century BC, the Sards or Shardana, working as mercenaries for the Egyptian pharaoh Ramses II, utilized either large or small round shields against the Hittites.
The Mycenaean Greeks used two types of shields: the "figure-of-eight" shield and a rectangular "tower" shield. These shields were made from a wicker frame and reinforced with leather. Covering the body from head to foot, the figure-of-eight and tower shield offered most of the warrior's body a good deal of protection in head-to-head combat; the Ancient Greek hoplites used a round, bowl-shaped wooden shield, reinforced with bronze and called an aspis. Another name for this type of shield is a hoplon; the hoplon shield inspired the name for hoplite soldiers. The hoplon was the longest-lasting and most famous and influential of all of the ancient Greek shields; the Spartans used the aspis to create the Greek phalanx formation. Their shields offered protection not only for their comrades to their left. Examples of Germanic wooden shields circa 350 BC – 500 AD survive from weapons sacrifices in Danish bogs; the armored Roman legionaries carried large shields that could provide far more protection, but made swift movement a little more difficult.
The scutum had an oval shape, but the curved tops and sides were cut to produce the familiar rectangular shape most seen in the early Imperial legions. Famously, the Romans used their shields to create a tortoise-like formation called a testudo in which entire groups of soldiers would be enclosed in an armoured box to provide protection against missiles. Many ancient shield designs featured incuts of another; this was done to accommodate the shaft of a spear, thus facilitating tactics requiring the soldiers to stand close together forming a wall of shields. Typical in the early European Middle Ages were round shields with light, non-splitting wood like linden, alder or poplar reinforced with leather cover on one or both sides and metal rims, encircling a metal s
The Reformation was a movement within Western Christianity in 16th-century Europe that posed a religious and political challenge to the Roman Catholic church – and papal authority in particular. Although the Reformation is considered to have started with the publication of the Ninety-five Theses by Martin Luther in 1517, there was no schism between the Catholics and the nascent Lutheran branch until the 1521 Edict of Worms; the edict condemned Luther and banned citizens of the Holy Roman Empire from defending or propagating his ideas. The end of the Reformation era is disputed: it could be considered to end with the enactment of the confessions of faith which began the Age of Orthodoxy. Other suggested ending years relate to the Counter-Reformation, the Peace of Westphalia, or that it never ended since there are still Protestants today. Movements had been made towards a Reformation prior to Luther, so some Protestants in the tradition of the Radical Reformation prefer to credit the start of the Reformation to reformers such as Arnold of Brescia, Peter Waldo, Jan Hus, Tomáš Štítný ze Štítného, John Wycliffe, Girolamo Savonarola.
Due to the reform efforts of Huss and others in the Lands of the Bohemian Crown, Utraquist Hussitism was acknowledged by both the Pope and the Holy Roman Emperor, although other movements were still subject to persecution, as were the including Lollards in England and Waldensians in Italy and France. Luther began by criticising the sale of indulgences, insisting that the Pope had no authority over purgatory and that the Treasury of Merit had no foundation in the Bible; the Reformation developed further to include a distinction between Law and Gospel, a complete reliance on Scripture as the only source of proper doctrine and the belief that faith in Jesus is the only way to receive God's pardon for sin rather than good works. Although this is considered a Protestant belief, a similar formulation was taught by Molinist and Jansenist Catholics; the priesthood of all believers downplayed the need for saints or priests to serve as mediators, mandatory clerical celibacy was ended. Simul justus et peccator implied that although people could improve, no one could become good enough to earn forgiveness from God.
Sacramental theology was simplified and attempts at imposing Aristotelian epistemology were resisted. Luther and his followers did not see these theological developments as changes; the 1530 Augsburg Confession concluded that "in doctrine and ceremonies nothing has been received on our part against Scripture or the Church Catholic", after the Council of Trent, Martin Chemnitz published the 1565–73 Examination of the Council of Trent in order to prove that Trent innovated on doctrine while the Lutherans were following in the footsteps of the Church Fathers and Apostles. The initial movement in Germany diversified, other reformers arose independently of Luther such as Zwingli in Zürich and Calvin in Geneva. Depending on the country, the Reformation had varying causes and different backgrounds, unfolded differently than in Germany; the spread of Gutenberg's printing press provided the means for the rapid dissemination of religious materials in the vernacular. During Reformation-era confessionalization, Western Christianity adopted different confessions.
Radical Reformers, besides forming communities outside state sanction, sometimes employed more extreme doctrinal change, such as the rejection of the tenets of the councils of Nicaea and Chalcedon with the Unitarians of Transylvania. Anabaptist movements were persecuted following the German Peasants' War. Leaders within the Roman Catholic Church responded with the Counter-Reformation, initiated by the Confutatio Augustana in 1530, the Council of Trent in 1545, the Jesuits in 1540, the Defensio Tridentinæ fidei in 1578, a series of wars and expulsions of Protestants that continued until the 19th century. Northern Europe, with the exception of most of Ireland, came under the influence of Protestantism. Southern Europe remained predominantly Catholic apart from the much-persecuted Waldensians. Central Europe was the site of much of the Thirty Years' War and there were continued expulsions of Protestants in central Europe up to the 19th century. Following World War II, the removal of ethnic Germans to either East Germany or Siberia reduced Protestantism in the Warsaw Pact countries, although some remain today.
Absence of Protestants however, does not imply a failure of the Reformation. Although Protestants were excommunicated and ended up worshipping in communions separate from Catholics contrary to the original intention of the Reformers, they were suppressed and persecuted in most of Europe at one point; as a result, some of them lived as crypto-Protestants called Nicodemites, contrary to the urging of John Calvin who wanted them to live their faith openly. Some crypto-Protestants have been identified as late as the 19th century after immigrating to Latin America; as a result Reformation impulses continued to affect the Latin Church well past the end of what is considered the Reformation era. The oldest Protestant churches, such as the Unitas Fratrum and Moravian Church, date their origins to Jan Hus in the early 15th century; as it was led by a Bohemian noble majority, recognised, for a time, by the Basel Compacts, the Hussite Reformation was Europe's first "Magisterial Reformation" because the ruling magistrates supported it, unlike the "Radical Reformation", which the state did not support.
Common factors that played a role during the Reformation and the Counter-Reformation included the rise of nationalism, the
Education in Switzerland
The education system in Switzerland is diverse, because the constitution of Switzerland delegates the authority for the school system to the cantons. The Swiss constitution sets the foundations, namely that primary school is obligatory for every child and is free in public schools and that the confederation can run or support universities; the minimum age for primary school is about six years in all cantons but Obwalden, where it is five years and three months. After primary schools, the pupils split up according to their abilities and intentions of career paths. 25% of all students attend lower and upper secondary schools leading after 12 school years in total to the federal recognized matura or an academic Baccalaureate which grants access to all universities. The other students split in two or more school-types, depending on the canton, differing in the balance between theoretical and practical education, it is obligatory for all children to attend school for at least 9 years. The first university in Switzerland was founded in 1460 with a faculty of medicine.
This place has a long tradition of chemical and medical research in Switzerland. In total, there are 12 Universities in Switzerland. In addition, there are seven regional associations of Universities for Applied Sciences which require vocational education and a special Berufsmatura, or a Fachmatura to study. Switzerland has a high rate of foreign students in tertiary education including one of the highest in the world of doctoral level students. Many Nobel prizes have been awarded to Swiss scientists. More Vladimir Prelog, Heinrich Rohrer, Richard Ernst, Edmond Fischer, Rolf Zinkernagel and Kurt Wüthrich have received nobel prizes in the sciences. In total, 113 Nobel Prize winners stand in relation to Switzerland and the Nobel Peace Prize has been awarded nine times to organizations residing in Switzerland. Geneva hosts the world's largest particle physics laboratory, the CERN. Other important research centers are the Empa and Paul Scherrer Institute which belong to the ETH domain; the obligatory school system includes primary education and secondary education I.
Before that, children go to Kindergarten, with one or two years is required in most cantons. In the Canton of Ticino, an optional, third year is available for three-year-old children. In some German speaking cantons kindergarten and the first one or two years may be combined into a Grundstufe or Basisstufe where they are all taught together in a single class. In French speaking cantons kindergarten is combined into a four-year cycle primaire 1 or cycle 1, followed by a four-year cycle primaire 2 or cycle 2 which completes their primary school; the minimum age for primary school is about six years in all cantons but Obwalden, where it is five years and three months. The cantons Nidwalden allow five-year-olds to start primary school in exceptional cases. Primary school continues until grade five or six, depending on the school/canton. Any child can take part in school if they choose to, but pupils are separated depending on whether they speak French, German or Italian. At around age 11–12, depending on which canton in Switzerland the child goes to school in, there could be a screening exam to decide how to separate the students for secondary school.
Some cantons have a system of examination in the second semester of the final year of primary school, some cantons have an exam in second semester and continuous evaluation in both first and second semesters. In some cases, parents or legal guardians of the child are asked for their recommendations along with a self-evaluation done by the child. Parents' recommendation in combination with child's self-evaluation is called the third indicator for evaluating the student, the first being teacher's evaluation, the second the results of tests held in first semester; the fourth criteria is the final exam that takes place in the middle of the second semester of the final year primary school. At the end of primary school, pupils are separated according to their capacities and career-intentions in several sections for a period of 2–3 years in either Pre-higher secondary school section, General section or Basic section. Students who aspire for an academic career enter Mittelschule to be prepared for further studies and the Matura.
Students intending to pursue a trade or vocation complete three to four additional years before entering Vocational Educations which are regulated by federal law and are based on a cooperation of private business offering educational job-positions and public schools offering obligatory school-lessons complementary to the on-the-job education. This so-called "dual system" splitting academic and vocational training has its continuation in the higher education system. While the academic training leads to the matura and free admission to univers
Winterthur is a city in the canton of Zürich in northern Switzerland. It has the country's sixth-largest population, estimated at over 108,000 people, is the ninth largest agglomeration with about 138,000 inhabitants. Today Winterthur is a service and high-tech industrial satellite city within Greater Zürich, located about 20 kilometres northeast of downtown Zürich, only 20 minutes by train; the official language of Winterthur is German, but the main spoken language is the local variant of the Alemannic Swiss German dialect. Winterthur is abbreviated as Winti in the local dialect and by its inhabitants. Winterthur has links to Zürich Airport, it is a regional transport hub: the A1 motorway from Geneva through to St. Margrethen connects in Winterthur with the A4 motorway heading north toward Schaffhausen and the A7 motorway heading close to the Swiss-German border at Kreuzlingen. There are roads leading to other places such as Turbenthal; the railway station is one of the busiest railway stations in Switzerland.
Vitudurum was a vicus in. It was fortified into a castrum at the end of the 3rd century in reaction to the incipient Alamannic invasion. There was an Alamannic settlement on the site in the 7th century. In a battle near Winterthur in 919, Burchard II of Swabia asserted his control over the Thurgau within the Duchy of Swabia against the claims of Rudolph II of Burgundy; the counts of Winterthur, a cadet branch of the family of the counts of Bregenz, built Kyburg castle in the 10th century. With the extinction of the counts of Winterthur in 1053, the castle passed to the counts of Dillingen. Winterthur as a city was founded by Hartmann III of Dillingen in 1180, shortly before his death in the same year. From 1180 to 1263, Winterthur was ruled by the cadet line of the House of Kyburg; when the counts of Kyburg became extinct in the male line in 1263, Winterthur passed to the House of Habsburg, who established a comital line of Neu-Kyburg in 1264 and granted city rights to Winterthur in the same year.
From 1415 until 1442 Winterthur was reichsfrei. However, in the Old Zürich War they lost this freedom and came back under the control of the Austrian Habsburgs. Needing money, in 1467, the Habsburgs sold Winterthur to the city of Zürich. While it was under the leadership of Zürich, Winterthur's economic freedom was restricted, it lost the right to trade in some goods. This ended in 1798. On 27 May 1799, it was the site of the Battle of Winterthur between elements of the French Army of the Danube and elements of the Habsburg army, commanded by Friedrich, Baron von Hotze during the War of the Second Coalition, in the French Revolutionary Wars; because Winterthur lies near Zürich and at the junction of seven roads, the army that held the town held the access to most of Switzerland and points crossing the Rhine into southern Germany. Although the forces involved were small, the ability of the Austrians to sustain an 11-hour assault against the French line, on the plateau north of Zürich, resulted in the consolidation of three Austrian forces.
This led to the French defeat a few days later. In the 19th century, Winterthur became an industrial town when companies, like Sulzer, Rieter and SLM, built large industrial plants. Winterthur suffered from its investments in and guarantee of loans to the National Railway of Switzerland. In 1878, Winterthur had to sell its shares in the line, from 1881 to 1885 it was in great difficulties due to a loan of nine million francs guaranteed in 1874 by the town, together with three others in Aargau, to the enterprise; as the three co-guarantor towns were unable to pay their shares, the whole burden fell on Winterthur, which struggled to meet its liabilities. But it was assisted by large loans from the federal governments; the Great Depression, in the 1930s, hit Winterthur hard. 60% of the total employees in town worked in the machine industry. Jobs became hard to find. However, with the outbreak of World War II, industry grew again in the city. In 2008, Winterthur reached 100,000 inhabitants. Winterthur is located at an elevation of 439 meters.
The city is located in a basin south and east of the river Töss before it meets the High Rhine after 10 kilometres. The Eulach, a little river, flows from the town's east end through the middle of the town to meet the Töss at the west exit of the city; because of this the town is colloquially called "Eulachstadt". Zürich lies about 20 km southwest of Winterthur. Winterthur has an area of 68.1 km2. Of this area, 27 % is used for agricultural purposes. Of the rest of the land, 30.8% is settled and the remainder is non-productive. In 1996 housing and buildings made up 21.9% of the total area, while transportation infrastructure made up the rest. Of the total unproductive area, water made up 0.6% of the area. As of 2007, 27.6% of the total municipal area was undergoing some type of construction. Winterthur has seven city districts: 1 - Winterthur-Stadt, 2 - Oberwinterthur, 3 - Seen, 4 - Töss, 5 - Veltheim, 6 - Wülflingen, 7 - Mattenbach The City Council constitutes the executive government of the City of Winterthur and operates as a collegiate authority.
It is composed of each presiding over a department. Dep
Lake Zürich is a lake in Switzerland, extending southeast of the city of Zürich. Depending on the context, Lake Zürich or Zürichsee can be used to describe the lake as a whole, or just that part of the lake downstream of the Seedamm at Rapperswil, whilst the part upstream of Rapperswil may be called the Obersee or Upper Lake. Lake Zürich is formed by the Linth river, which rises in the glaciers of the Glarus Alps and was diverted by the Escher canal into Lake Walen from where its waters are carried to the east end of Lake Zürich by means of the Linth canal; the waters of the Lake of Zürich flow out of the lake at its north-west end, passing through the city of Zürich. The culminating point of the lake's drainage basin is the Tödi at 3,614 metres above sea level. No streams of importance flow into the lake besides the Linth; the Seedamm, a artificial causeway and bridge, crosses a narrow point of the lake carrying a railway line and road from Rapperswil to Pfäffikon. The eastern section of the lake is known as the Obersee, German for "upper lake".
West of this dam lie the small islands of Lützelau and Ufenau, where in 1523 Ulrich von Hutten took refuge and died. Both shores are well fertile. Another touristic destination is the Au peninsula at the village of Au between Horgen. To the east – separated by Zürichberg-Adlisberg and Pfannenstiel – are two minor lakes: Greifensee and Pfäffikersee. Zimmerberg and the Etzel regions lie to the west. Administratively, Lake Zürich is split between the cantons of St. Gallen and Schwyz; the lower lake, to the west of the Seedamm, is in the canton of Zürich, whilst the upper lake is shared between the cantons of St. Gallen and Schwyz; the lake was frozen in the following years 1223, 1259, 1262 1407, 1491 1514, 1517, 1573 1600, 1660, 1684, 1695 1709, 1716, 1718, 1740, 1755, 1763, 1789 1830, 1880, 1891, 1895 1929, 1963 The three population and transportation centres are Zürich, Pfäffikon SZ and Rapperswil. Besides Bürkliplatz in Zürich and the Seedamm, there are no bridges across the lake; the Zürichsee-Schifffahrtsgesellschaft – the Lake Zürich Navigation Company – provides with its 17-passenger ships touristic services on Lake Zürich.
There are a number of passenger ferry services, noticeably the Horgen–Meilen ferry, an auto ferry between Horgen and Meilen. Zürich, at the north-western end of the lake, is the largest city on Lake Zürich. On the west shore are Rüschlikon, Horgen, Wädenswil, Richterswil, Pfäffikon, Lachen. On the opposite shore are Küsnacht, Meilen, Stäfa, Rapperswil-Jona with the medieval town of Rapperswil, whose castle is home to the Polish museum. Schmerikon is close to the east end of the lake, a little further east is the larger town of Uznach. Lake Zürich's water is clean and reaches, during summer, temperatures well beyond 20 °C. Swimming in the public baths and beaches is popular; the best weather for swimming has been late August, with August 28 having the nicest weather at around 5:30pm. The lake's water is fed into Zürich's water system; the Prehistoric pile dwellings around Zürichsee comprises 11 of total 56 Prehistoric pile dwellings around the Alps in Switzerland, that are located around Zürichsee in the cantons of Schwyz, St. Gallen and Zürich.
Located on Zürichsee lakeshore, there are Freienbach–Hurden Rosshorn, Freienbach–Hurden Seefeld, Rapperswil-Jona/Hombrechtikon–Feldbach, Rapperswil-Jona–Technikum, Erlenbach–Winkel, Meilen–Rorenhaab, Wädenswil–Vorder Au, Zürich–Enge Alpenquai, Grosser Hafner and Kleiner Hafner. Because the lake has grown in size over time, the original piles are now around 4 metres to 7 metres under the water level of 406 metres. On the small area of about 40 square kilometres around Zürichsee, there the settlements Greifensee–Storen/Wildsberg on Greifensee and Wetzikon–Robenhausen on Pfäffikersee lakeshore; as well as being part of the 56 Swiss sites of the UNESCO World Heritage Site, each of these 11 prehistoric pile dwellings is listed as a Class object in the Swiss inventory of cultural property of national and regional significance. Obersee Prehistoric pile dwellings around Zürichsee Paddle steamer Stadt Rapperswil Paddle steamer Stadt Zürich Radio Zürisee Seedamm Zürichsee-Zeitung Media related to Lake Zurich at Wikimedia Commons Media related to Obersee at Wikimedia Commons Peter Ziegler: Zürichsee in German and Italian in the online Historical Dictionary of Switzerland, 28 February 2014.
Zürichsee Schifffahrtsgesellschaft—Boat schedules non-English. Zürichsee-Fähre Horgen-Meilen—Ferry schedules, in German. Waterlevels Lake Zürich at Zürich
Tertiary sector of the economy
The tertiary sector or service sector is the third of the three economic sectors of the three-sector theory. The others are the secondary sector, the primary sector; the service sector consists of the production of services instead of end products. Services include attention, access and affective labor; the production of information has long been regarded as a service, but some economists now attribute it to a fourth sector, the quaternary sector. The tertiary sector of industry involves the provision of services to other businesses as well as final consumers. Services may involve the transport and sale of goods from producer to a consumer, as may happen in wholesaling and retailing, pest control or entertainment; the goods may be transformed in the process of providing the service, as happens in the restaurant industry. However, the focus is on people interacting with people and serving the customer rather than transforming physical goods, it is sometimes hard to define whether a given company is part and parcel of the secondary or tertiary sector.
And it is not only companies. In order to classify a business as a service, one can use classification systems such as the United Nations' International Standard Industrial Classification standard, the United States' Standard Industrial Classification code system and its new replacement, the North American Industrial Classification System, the Statistical Classification of Economic Activities in the European Community in the EU and similar systems elsewhere; these governmental classification systems have a first-level hierarchy that reflects whether the economic goods are tangible or intangible. For purposes of finance and market research, market-based classification systems such as the Global Industry Classification Standard and the Industry Classification Benchmark are used to classify businesses that participate in the service sector. Unlike governmental classification systems, the first level of market-based classification systems divides the economy into functionally related markets or industries.
The second or third level of these hierarchies reflects whether goods or services are produced. For the last 100 years, there has been a substantial shift from the primary and secondary sectors to the tertiary sector in industrialized countries; this shift is called tertiarisation. The tertiary sector is now the largest sector of the economy in the Western world, is the fastest-growing sector. In examining the growth of the service sector in the early Nineties, the globalist Kenichi Ohmae noted that: "In the United States 70 percent of the workforce works in the service sector; these are not busboys and live-in maids. Many of them are in the professional category, they are earning as much as manufacturing workers, more.”Economies tend to follow a developmental progression that takes them from a heavy reliance on agriculture and mining, toward the development of manufacturing and toward a more service-based structure. The first economy to follow this path in the modern world was the United Kingdom.
The speed at which other economies have made the transition to service-based economies has increased over time. Manufacturing tended to be more open to international trade and competition than services. However, with dramatic cost reduction and speed and reliability improvements in the transportation of people and the communication of information, the service sector now includes some of the most intensive international competition, despite residual protectionism. Service providers face obstacles selling services that goods-sellers face. Services are intangible, making it difficult for potential customers to understand what they will receive and what value it will hold for them. Indeed, such as consultants and providers of investment services, offer no guarantees of the value for price paid. Since the quality of most services depends on the quality of the individuals providing the services, "people costs" are a high fraction of service costs. Whereas a manufacturer may use technology and other techniques to lower the cost of goods sold, the service provider faces an unrelenting pattern of increasing costs.
Product differentiation is difficult. For example, how does one choose one investment adviser over another, since they are seen to provide identical services? Charging a premium for services is an option only for the most established firms, who charge extra based upon brand recognition. Examples of tertiary industries may include: Telecommunication Hospitality industry/tourism Mass media Healthcare/hospitals Public health Pharmacy Information technology Waste disposal Consulting Gambling Retail sales Fast-moving consumer goods Franchising Real estate Education Financial services Banking Insurance Investment management Professional services Accounting Legal services Management consultingTransportation Below is a list of countries by service output at market exchange rates in 2016. Quaternary sector of the economy Indigo Era National Occupational Research Agenda Service Sector Council, USA Media related to Service industries at Wikimedia Commons