Henri Guisan was a Swiss army officer who held the office of the General of the Swiss Armed Forces during the Second World War. He was the fourth and the most recent man to be appointed to the rarely used Swiss rank of General and he is best remembered for effectively mobilizing the Swiss Armed Forces and Swiss people in order to prepare resistance against a possible invasion by Nazi Germany in 1940. Henri Guisan was born in 1874 in Mézières, in the canton of Vaud and he attended school in Lausanne, and initially studied agricultural medicine. Upon entering the Swiss military in 1894, he was assigned to an artillery unit in Bière as a Lieutenant. He was promoted several times, reaching the rank of Colonel in 1920, on 28 August 1939, a Federal Assembly called a United Federal Assembly to elect a General, a unique rank chosen only in time of war or national emergency. On 30 August 1939, Guisan was elected as General, by 204 votes to 21 for Jules Borel and he was given the directive to safeguard the independence of the country and to maintain the integrity of the Swiss territory.
In 1939 the Swiss military could muster 430,000 men, at one point, up to 850,000 Swiss soldiers were mobilized. However, Swiss military equipment was not on a par with that of the German military, Guisans appointment came despite his membership in the Fédération patriotique suisse, a largely pro-Nazi organisation. However, his command was dominated by conflict with the government, with the politicians continually airing German, whereas the government preferred an understated and politically riskless neutrality, charged with actually preventing invasion, opted to call for determined resistance. After the Battle of France, Germany found documents proving that Guisan had been secretly making military preparations with France, the Swiss military would have been remiss in not pursuing contacts with the French based on their perception of a German threat. Guisan became a symbol of resistance to Nazism that was widespread amongst the Swiss public and he made it very clear that Switzerland would resist any Nazi invasion.
If they ran out of bullets they were to resort to the bayonet and he said that Switzerland would defend itself against any invader and would never surrender. The Swiss government had a structure, so even the Federal President was a relatively powerless official with no authority to surrender the country. Indeed, Swiss citizens had been instructed to regard any surrender broadcast as enemy lies, however and Switzerlands main strategy was deterrence rather than fighting, and Germany never risked invasion. On 20 August 1945, General Guisan left his command, considering his mission to be fulfilled, having become a national hero by successfully avoiding war, Guisan died in Pully on 7 April 1960. He was buried on 12 April 1960 in the cemetery of Pully and his grave is a work by Edouard-Marcel Sandoz. Guisans former home Verte Rive in Pully is now used as Centre Général Guisan and his office, living room and dining room are preserved as a museum. There is a quai du Général-Guisan on Lake Geneva in Geneva, General-Guisan-Quai on Lake Lucerne in Lucerne and Stansstad, a military march titled General-Guisan-Marsch was composed in 1939 by Stephan Jaeggi
Historiography of Switzerland
The historiography of Switzerland is the study of the history of Switzerland. While these chronicles were written from the point of view of the individual states, with the introduction of movable type in Europe, chroniclers could reach a wider audience and begin to write about Swiss history as a whole. The 1507 Chronicle of the Swiss Confederation by Petermann Etterlin exerted great influence on writers because, as a printed work and this development came to a close with Josias Simlers 1576 De Helvetiorum republica libri duo, a sober account of the Confederacys constitutional status and historical background. The work remained the definitive account of Swiss political history for centuries – it saw some 30 editions up until the 18th century, the rest of the world learnt of Swiss history essentially through Simlers treatise. The continuation of the last great work of Swiss humanist historiography, the baroque appetite for curiosa was allayed by Matthäus Merians great engravings. Conditions were not optimal – state archives remained mostly closed to private researchers, the early 18th century saw the first critical editions of ancient sources and the publication of the first Swiss historical journals.
The first comprehensive historiography was Gottlieb Emanuel Hallers six-volume Bibliothek der Schweizergeschichte, all these works, in general, hewed closely to the popular account of the Confederacys creation as established in the 15th and 16th century. Their 1760 book Der Wilhelm Tell, ein dänisches Mährgen, in which they showed the Tell saga to be an adaptation of a Danish legend, was banned and burnt in public. The 19th centurys most influential work of historiography was Johannes von Müllers epic, the work, which did not go beyond the Swabian War of 1499 – Switzerlands war of independence – was soon continued in the works of an entire generation of historians. The democratic reforms of the 18th century caused a broadening of public education, cantonal archives along with the new Federal Archives were opened to researchers, and chairs of Swiss history were established in Swiss universities. The first historical society in Switzerland was founded in 1841 and this tradition is being continued in the ongoing publication of Swiss diplomatic archives by several Swiss universities starting in 1979.
The conservative Roman Catholic cantons – who had defeated in the 1847 Sonderbund war – received little attention from scholars situated in the liberal Protestant mainstream of the time. On the whole, Swiss historiography up until the early 20th century was focused on the political, the liberal, Radical intellectual mainstream, which viewed Swiss history as a steady progression of liberty culminating in the founding of the 1848 federal state, was dominant. Some academic attention shifted to the economic and social history of Switzerland and these developments, inspired by Anglo-American historiographical trends, were however cut short by the World Wars. Attempts by non-historians including Robert Grimm to write a Socialist history of Switzerland had no impact, one historian, Karl Meyer, even attempted to rehabilitate the historicity of the national founding legends in a 1933 work. The early Cold War periods emphasis on geistige Landesverteidigung – intellectual defense of the country – did not encourage a re-thinking of Swiss history.
Picking up where Rappard and Fueter had left off, historians of the 1960s and 1970s published large treatises on the social and economic history of Switzerland. Adapting the newer methods of research in the United States
Seelisberg is a municipality in the canton of Uri in Switzerland. The Rütli meadow, according to legend the site of the original oath foundational to the Old Swiss Confederacy, is situated in the territory of the municipality, the Seelisberg Conference against anti-Semitism was held in this locality in 1947. The global headquarters of the Transcendental Meditation movement headed by Maharishi Mahesh Yogi was situated in a hotel in Seelisberg from 1968 to 1992. Seelisberg has an area, as of 2006, of 13.3 km2, of this area,34. 3% is used for agricultural purposes, while 48. 7% is forested. Of the rest of the land, 4% is settled and the remainder is non-productive, in the 1993 land survey,43. 5% of the total land area was heavily forested, while 0. 7% is covered in small trees and shrubbery. Of the agricultural land,0. 7% is used for farming or pastures, while 23. 6% is used for orchards or vine crops and 10. 0% is used for alpine pastures. Of the settled areas,2. 0% is covered with buildings,0. 5% is classed as special developments,0. 2% is listed as parks and greenbelts and 1. 3% is transportation infrastructure.
Of the unproductive areas,1. 9% is unproductive standing water,0. 2% is unproductive flowing water,5. 7% is too rocky for vegetation, Seelisberg has a population of 688. As of 2007,11. 1% of the population was made up of foreign nationals, over the last 10 years the population has grown at a rate of 4. 2%. Most of the population speaks German, with French being second most common, as of 2007 the gender distribution of the population was 49. 9% male and 50. 1% female. In the 2007 federal election the FDP party received 93. 4% of the vote, in Seelisberg about 67. 8% of the population have completed either non-mandatory upper secondary education or additional higher education. Seelisberg has an unemployment rate of 0. 88%, as of 2005, there were 72 people employed in the primary economic sector and about 31 businesses involved in this sector. 18 people are employed in the sector and there are 7 businesses in this sector. 151 people are employed in the sector, with 29 businesses in this sector. Treib is linked to the centre of Seelisberg by the Treib–Seelisberg funicular
Switzerland, officially the Swiss Confederation, is a federal republic in Europe. It consists of 26 cantons, and the city of Bern is the seat of the federal authorities. The country is situated in western-Central Europe, and is bordered by Italy to the south, France to the west, Germany to the north, and Austria and Liechtenstein to the east. Switzerland is a country geographically divided between the Alps, the Swiss Plateau and the Jura, spanning an area of 41,285 km2. The establishment of the Old Swiss Confederacy dates to the medieval period, resulting from a series of military successes against Austria. Swiss independence from the Holy Roman Empire was formally recognized in the Peace of Westphalia in 1648. The country has a history of armed neutrality going back to the Reformation, it has not been in a state of war internationally since 1815, nevertheless, it pursues an active foreign policy and is frequently involved in peace-building processes around the world. In addition to being the birthplace of the Red Cross, Switzerland is home to international organisations.
On the European level, it is a member of the European Free Trade Association. However, it participates in the Schengen Area and the European Single Market through bilateral treaties, spanning the intersection of Germanic and Romance Europe, Switzerland comprises four main linguistic and cultural regions, French and Romansh. Due to its diversity, Switzerland is known by a variety of native names, Suisse, Svizzera. On coins and stamps, Latin is used instead of the four living languages, Switzerland is one of the most developed countries in the world, with the highest nominal wealth per adult and the eighth-highest per capita gross domestic product according to the IMF. Zürich and Geneva have each been ranked among the top cities in the world in terms of quality of life, with the former ranked second globally, according to Mercer. The English name Switzerland is a compound containing Switzer, a term for the Swiss. The English adjective Swiss is a loan from French Suisse, in use since the 16th century.
The name Switzer is from the Alemannic Schwiizer, in origin an inhabitant of Schwyz and its associated territory, the Swiss began to adopt the name for themselves after the Swabian War of 1499, used alongside the term for Confederates, used since the 14th century. The data code for Switzerland, CH, is derived from Latin Confoederatio Helvetica. The toponym Schwyz itself was first attested in 972, as Old High German Suittes, ultimately related to swedan ‘to burn’
Neo-Nazism consists of post-World War II social or political movements seeking to revive the far-right tenets of Nazism. The term neo-Nazism can refer to the ideology of these movements, Neo-Nazism borrows elements from Nazi doctrine, including ultranationalism, ableism, homophobia, antiziganism and initiating the Fourth Reich. Holocaust denial is a feature, as is incorporation of Nazi symbols. Neo-Nazi activity is a phenomenon, with organized representation in many countries. In some European and Latin American countries, laws have been enacted that prohibit the expression of pro-Nazi, Many Nazi-related symbols are banned in European countries in an effort to curtail neo-Nazism. The major postwar far-right party was the Austrian National Democratic Party, until it was banned in 1988 for violating Austrias anti-Nazi legislation, the Freedom Party of Austria served as a shelter for ex-Nazis almost from its inception. In 1980, scandals undermined Austrias two main parties, and the economy stagnated, jörg Haider became leader of the FPÖ and offered partial justification for Nazism, calling its employment policy effective.
Professor Ali Mazrui, identified the FPÖ as neo-Nazi in a BBC world lecture, who in 2005 left the Freedom Party and formed the Alliance for Austrias Future, was killed in a traffic accident in October,2008. Barbara Rosenkranz, the Freedom Partys candidate for the Austrian presidential election,2010, is controversial for having made allegedly pro-Nazi statements, Rosenkranz is married to Horst Rosenkranz, a key member of a banned neo-Nazi party, who is known for publishing far-right books. Rosenkranz says she cannot detect anything dishonourable in her husbands activities, the volume Rechtsextremismus in Österreich seit 1945, issued by DÖW in 1979, listed nearly 50 active far right organizations in Austria. Their influence waned gradually, partly due to programs in secondary schools and universities which emphasized Austrian identity. Votes for the RFS, the Freedom Partys academic student organization, in the 1995 elections for the student representative body Österreichische Hochschülerschaft, the RFS got 4% of the vote.
The FPÖ won 22% of the votes at the General Election in the same year, in 1993 Küssel was repeatedly convicted on charges of NS-Wiederbetätigung under the Austrian anti-Nazi law and sentenced to ten years in prison. The VAPO de facto disbanded in the course of the imprisonment of its leading figures, due to procedural errors Küssels sentence was revoked by the OGH and his trial was reheld in 1994 at the end of which he was sentenced to eleven years in prison. A Belgian neo-Nazi organization, Bodem, Eer en Trouw, was created in 2004 after splitting from the international network. The group rose to prominence in September 2006, after 17 members were arrested under the December 2003 anti-terrorist laws and laws against racism, antisemitism. According to Justice Minister Laurette Onkelinx and Interior Minister Patrick Dewael, a police operation, which mobilized 150 agents, searched five military barracks as well as 18 private addresses in Flanders. They found weapons, explosives and a homemade bomb large enough to make a car explode, the leading suspect, B. T.
was organizing the trafficking of weapons and was developing international links, in particular with the Dutch far-right movement De Nationale Alliantie
The Swiss Path is the name given to a special national path in central Switzerland opened in 1991. It makes a loop around one arm of Lake Lucerne, starting in Rütli and passing through Bauen, Flüelen and Morschach, the total length is around 35 km, taking 2 or 3 days to complete. The route recognises each of the making up Switzerland, with markers announcing each canton along the route. The length of route for each canton is proportional to the population at the time of building, and the order is determined by the order in which the cantons joined the Swiss federation
Traditionally an oath is either a statement of fact or a promise with wording relating to something considered sacred as a sign of verity. A common legal substitute for those who object to making sacred oaths is to give an affirmation instead. Nowadays, even when theres no notion of sanctity involved, certain promises said out loud in ceremonial or juridical purpose are referred to as oaths, to swear is a verb used to describe the taking of an oath, to making a solemn vow. Usually oaths have referred to a deity significant in the sphere in question. The reciters personal views upon the divinity of the aspects considered sacred in a text of an oath may or may not be taken in to account. There might not be alternative personal proclamations with no mention of the dogma in question, such as affirmations. This might mean an impasse to those with unwillingness to edify the dogma they see as untrue, the essence of a divine oath is an invocation of divine agency to be a guarantor of the oath takers own honesty and integrity in the matter under question.
By implication, this invokes divine displeasure if the oath taker fails in their sworn duties and it therefore implies greater care than usual in the act of the performance of ones duty, such as in testimony to the facts of the matter in a court of law. A person taking an oath indicates this in a number of ways. The most usual is the explicit I swear, but any statement or promise that includes with * as my witness or so help me *, with * being something or someone the oath-taker holds sacred, is an oath. However, the purpose of such an act is for ceremony or solemnity. Making vows and taking oaths became a concept in law practice that developed over time in different cultures. The concept of oaths is deeply rooted within Judaism and it is found in Genesis 8,21, when God swears that he will never again curse the ground because of man and never again smite every living thing. This repetition of the term never again is explained by Rashi, according to the Rabbis, a neder refers to the object, a shâmar to the person.
In the Roman tradition, oaths were sworn upon Iuppiter Lapis or the Jupiter Stone located in the Temple of Jupiter, the punisher of broken oaths was the infernal deity Orcus. Various religious groups have objected to the taking of oaths, most notably the Religious Society of Friends and Anabaptist groups, like Mennonites, Amish and this is principally based on Matthew 5, 34-37, the Antithesis of the Law. Here, Christ is written to say I say to you, James the Just stated in James 5,12, Above all, my brothers, do not swear—not by heaven or by earth or by anything else. Let your Yes be yes, and your No, no, not all Christians interpret this reading as forbidding all types of oaths, however
The French invaded Switzerland and turned it into an ally known as the Helvetic Republic. The interference with localism and traditional liberties was deeply resented, although some modernizing reforms took place, resistance was strongest in the more traditional Catholic bastions, with armed uprisings breaking out in spring 1798 in the central part of Switzerland. During the French Revolutionary Wars of the 1790s, the French Republican armies expanded eastward, the French Republican armies enveloped Switzerland on the grounds of liberating the Swiss people, whose own system of government was deemed as feudal, especially for annexed territories such as Vaud. Some Swiss nationals, including Frédéric-César de La Harpe, had called for French intervention on these grounds, the invasion proceeded largely peacefully, since the Swiss people failed to respond to the calls of their politicians to take up arms. On 5 March 1798, French troops completely overran Switzerland and the Old Swiss Confederation collapsed, on 12 April 1798,121 cantonal deputies proclaimed the Helvetic Republic and Indivisible.
On 14 April 1798, an assembly was called in the canton of Zürich. The new régime abolished cantonal sovereignty and feudal rights, the occupying forces established a centralised state based on the ideas of the French Revolution. Many Swiss citizens resisted these ideas, particularly in the central areas of the country. Some of the controversial aspects of the new regime limited freedom of worship. In response, the Cantons of Uri and Nidwalden raised an army of about 10,000 men led by Alois von Reding to fight the French and this army was deployed along the defensive line from Napf to Rapperswil. Reding besieged French-controlled Lucerne and marched across the Brünig pass into the Berner Oberland to support the armies of Bern, at the same time, the French General Balthasar Alexis Henri Antoine of Schauenburg marched out of occupied Zürich to attack Zug and the Sattel pass. Even though Redings army won victories at Rothenthurm and Morgarten, Schauenburgs victory near Sattel allowed him to threaten the town of Schwyz, on 4 May 1798, the town council of Schwyz surrendered.
On 13 May and Schauenburg agreed to a cease-fire, no general agreement existed about the future of Switzerland. Leading groups split into the Unitaires, who wanted a republic, and the Federalists. Coup-attempts became frequent, and the new régime had to rely on the French to survive, the occupying forces insisted that the accommodation and feeding of the soldiers be paid for by the local populace, which drained the economy. The treaty of alliance with France broke the tradition of neutrality established by the Confederation, all this made it difficult to establish a new working state. Instability in the Republic reached its peak in 1802–1803, which included the Bourla-papey uprising, by then, it was 12 million francs in debt having started with a treasury of 6 million francs. This together with local resistance caused the Helvetic Republic to collapse, at that time, Napoleon Bonaparte, First Consul of France, summoned representatives of both sides to Paris in order to negotiate a solution
Switzerland during the World Wars
During both World War I and World War II, Switzerland managed to keep a stance of armed neutrality, and was not involved militarily. However, precisely because of its status, Switzerland was of considerable interest to all parties involved, as the scene for diplomacy, commerce. Switzerland maintained a state of armed neutrality during the First World War, with two of the Central Powers and two of the Entente Powers all sharing borders and populations with Switzerland, neutrality proved difficult. From December 1914 until the spring of 1918 Swiss troops were deployed in the Jura along the French border over concern that the war might spill into Switzerland. Of lesser concern was the Italian border, but troops were stationed in the Unterengadin region of Graubünden. However, the managed to keep out of the war. During the war Switzerland was blockaded by the Allies and therefore suffered some difficulties, because Switzerland was centrally located and generally undamaged, the war allowed the growth of the Swiss banking industry.
For the same reasons, Switzerland became a haven for refugees and revolutionaries, following the organisation of the army in 1907 and military expansion in 1911, the Swiss Army consisted of about 250,000 men with an additional 200,000 in supporting roles. Both European alliance-systems took the size of the Swiss military into account in the prior to 1914. Following the declarations of war in late July 1914, on August 1,1914 Switzerland mobilized its army, by August 11 Wille had deployed much of the army along the Jura border with France, with smaller units deployed along the eastern and southern borders. This remained unchanged until May 1915 when Italy entered the war on the Entente side, at which point troops were deployed to the Unterengadin valley, Val Müstair and along the southern border. Once it became clear that the Allies and the Central Powers would respect Swiss neutrality, after September 1914, some soldiers were released to return to their farms and to vital industries. By November 1916 the Swiss had only 38,000 men in the army and this number increased during the winter of 1916–17 to over 100,000 as a result of a proposed French attack that would have crossed Switzerland.
When this attack failed to occur the army began to shrink again, because of widespread workers strikes, at the end of the war the Swiss army had shrunk to only 12,500 men. During the war belligerents crossed the Swiss borders about 1,000 times, Switzerland had an outpost and a hotel on the peak. During the war, fierce battles were fought in the ice and snow of the area, the three nations made an agreement not to fire over Swiss territory which jutted out between Austria and Italy. Instead they could fire down the pass, as Swiss territory was around the peak, during the fighting, Switzerland became a haven for many politicians, artists and thinkers. Bern, Zürich, and Geneva became centers of debate and discussion, in Zürich two very different anti-war groups would bring lasting changes to the world, the Bolsheviks and the Dadaists
A national monument is a monument constructed in order to commemorate something of national importance such as the countrys founding, independence or a war. The term may refer to a specific monument status, such as a national heritage site. The National monument aims to represent the nation, and serve as a focus for national identity, a series of structures or areas deemed to be of national importance and therefore afforded protection by the state are part of a countrys cultural heritage. These national heritage sites are often called something different per country and are listed by national conservation societies, romania has listed at least one plant as a national monument, Nymphaea lotus f. thermalis
Swiss National Day
The Swiss National Day is the national holiday of Switzerland, set on 1 August. The document is one of several dozen pacts attested for the territory of Switzerland in the period of the mid-13th to mid-14th century. The foundation of the Old Swiss Confederacy had been associated with the Bund of Brunnen of 1315, or with the Rütlischwur. 1 August is celebrated each year with paper lantern parades, hanging strings of Swiss flags, the day of independence is typically celebrated at a local municipality level though certain events draw nationwide attention. Since the mid-19th century, the Rhine Falls near Schaffhausen has illuminated its 25 meter high waterfalls for special events, beginning in 1920, the waterfall has been regularly lit for the national holiday and since 1966 is now lit only for this holiday. In Basel there are fireworks at the Rhine on the evening of 31 July, until 2013 the largest Swiss National Day event in the USA was organized and held annually by the Swiss Benevolent Society of New York.
Usually held in Manhattan, New York, the event draws thousands of Swiss, Swiss-Americans and Friends of Switzerland from around New York, New Jersey and Pennsylvania. This tradition goes back decades, where the event was originally held at their former hospice in Mount Kisco. Since,2014 the event format has changed, back to the roots has become the new motto. It is a family event again where one can enjoy everything Swiss. The offerings go from Swiss sausages to Raclette and all the way to Swiss wine and they organize Swiss bands and DJs and a wonderful kids corner. Since 2014 the event is being co-organized by the Swiss Society of New York, the Swiss Benevolent Society of New York, the Swiss Park celebration features Swiss cultural events and games, including a crossbow competition. In Britain it is Yorkshire Day, celebrating the county of Yorkshire and Taylors of Harrogate, founded in 1919 by a Swiss baker, celebrate both of these days in their 6 cafe-tearooms across Yorkshire. Mont Sutton Quebec hosts one of the largest Swiss National Day celebrations outside Switzerland, each year, it features one canton, with food and products from that canton.
Swiss National Day New York, USA Swiss National Day in London, UK Swiss National Day in Quebec, CA