Fudai daimyō was a class of daimyōs who were hereditary vassals of the Tokugawa in Edo-period Japan. It was the fudai who filled the ranks of the Tokugawa administration. Many of the families who formed the ranks of the fudai daimyōs were families which had served the Tokugawa clan since before its rise to national primacy; some of these include the Honda, Sakakibara, Ii, Mizuno clans. Tokugawa Ieyasu's "Four Great Generals"—Honda Tadakatsu, Sakakibara Yasumasa, Sakai Tadatsugu, Ii Naomasa—were all pre-Edo period fudai, went on to become fudai daimyōs. In addition, some branches of the Matsudaira clan, while allowed to retain the Matsudaira surname, were fudai; as Tokugawa Ieyasu rose to power in the 16th century, his domains increased, as his domains increased, he began to hand out landholdings to his vassals, so that one by one, many of them became daimyōs. This was the birth of the fudai daimyō class. In contrast to the tozama, the fudai ruled small fiefs, many in strategic locations along the principal roads or in the Kantō region near the headquarters of the shogunate at Edo.
High posts in the shogunate, such as Rōjū and wakadoshiyori went to fudai. In addition, the post of Kyoto Shoshidai always went to a fudai daimyō. Other clans which were not pre-Azuchi–Momoyama period retainers of the Tokugawa came to be counted as fudai: the Ogasawara and Doi are among them. A family could be raised to or from fudai status. For instance, the Matsudaira clan to which Matsudaira Sadanobu belonged went from being a fudai house to being a recognized relative of the Tokugawa family. A hatamoto who had an increase in income which raised his income level over 10,000 koku became a fudai daimyō. Many fudai daimyōs were involved in the vigorous political activity of the Bakumatsu, as well as the renewed military activities which occurred in that period. Two such men of fudai daimyō background were Ogasawara Nagamichi and Itakura Katsukiyo, who were two of the last rōjū, worked for reform and strengthening of the ailing shogunate. Others, such as Matsudaira Munehide, were involved in diplomacy and foreign affairs.
In the Boshin War of 1868–69, some fudai houses such as the Toda of Ogaki and the Tōdō of Tsu sided with the shogunate during the first battle at Toba–Fushimi. However, after the shogunate's loss there, many fudai houses did not side with the shogunate or with the shōgun's former army which moved northward and set up the Ezo Republic; some remained neutral, while others switched allegiances and supported the Imperial Japanese Army. Ogasawara Nagamichi and Itakura Katsukiyo led small groups of their retainers during the fight against the imperial forces. However, their domains had been occupied by the imperial army, were forced to participate in the war on the imperial army's behalf. Only one fudai daimyō, Hayashi Tadataka of Jōzai Domain, willingly left his domain early in 1868, led most of his retainer force on behalf of the armies of the former shōgun, in the fight against the imperial army. A handful of fudai in the far north formed part of the Northern Alliance, fighting for the Alliance but not for the now-retired shōgun.
Most of the fudai in the country entered the Meiji era peacefully, ruled their domains until the domains' dissolution in 1871. After this, the former families of fudai daimyōs became peers in the new Japanese nobility system. Bolitho, Harold.. Treasures Among Men: The Fudai Daimyo in Tokugawa Japan. New Haven: Yale University Press. ISBN 978-0-300-01655-0. Japan Encyclopedia. Cambridge: Harvard University Press. ISBN 978-0-674-01753-5. Charismatic Bureaucrat. Chicago: University of Chicago Press. "Karatsu-han" Yamakawa Kenjirō. Aizu Boshin Senshi. Tokyo: Tokyo Daigaku Shuppankai. "Takada-han" on Edo 300 HTML "Shirakawa-han" on Edo 300 HTML
Tokugawa Ieyasu was the founder and first shōgun of the Tokugawa shogunate of Japan, which ruled Japan from the Battle of Sekigahara in 1600 until the Meiji Restoration in 1868. Ieyasu seized power in 1600, received appointment as shōgun in 1603, abdicated from office in 1605, but remained in power until his death in 1616, his given name is sometimes spelled Iyeyasu, according to the historical pronunciation of the kana character he. Ieyasu was posthumously enshrined at Nikkō Tōshō-gū with the name Tōshō Daigongen, he was one of the three unifiers of Japan, along with his former lord Nobunaga and Toyotomi Hideyoshi. During the Muromachi period, the Matsudaira clan controlled a portion of Mikawa Province. Ieyasu's father, Matsudaira Hirotada, was a minor local warlord based at Okazaki Castle who controlled a portion of the Tōkaidō highway linking Kyoto with the eastern provinces, his territory was sandwiched between stronger and predatory neighbors, including the Imagawa clan based in Suruga Province to the east and the Oda clan to the west.
Hirotada's main enemy was the father of Oda Nobunaga. Tokugawa Ieyasu was born in Okazaki Castle on the 26th day of the twelfth month of the eleventh year of Tenbun, according to the Japanese calendar. Named Matsudaira Takechiyo, he was the son of Matsudaira Hirotada, the daimyō of Mikawa of the Matsudaira clan, Odai-no-kata, the daughter of a neighbouring samurai lord, Mizuno Tadamasa, his mother and father were step-siblings. They were just 17 and 15 years old when Ieyasu was born. In the year of Ieyasu's birth, the Matsudaira clan was split. In 1543, Hirotada's uncle, Matsudaira Nobutaka defected to the Oda clan; this gave Oda Nobuhide the confidence to attack Okazaki. Soon afterwards, Hirotada's father-in-law died, his son Mizuno Nobumoto revived the clan's traditional enmity against the Matsudaira and declared for Oda Nobuhide as well; as a result, Hirotada sent her back to her family. As both husband and wife remarried and both went on to have further children, Ieyasu had 11 half-brothers and sisters.
As Oda Nobuhide continued to attack Okazaki, in 1548 Hirotada turned to his powerful eastern neighbor, Imagawa Yoshimoto for assistance. Yoshimoto agreed to an alliance under the condition that Hirotada send his young heir to Sunpu Domain as a hostage. Oda Nobuhide, learned of this arrangement and had Ieyasu abducted from his entourage en route to Sunpu. Ieyasu was just five years old at the time. Nobuhide threatened to execute Ieyasu. Despite this refusal, Nobuhide chose not to kill Ieyasu, but instead held him as a hostage for the next three years at the Mansho-ji Temple in Nagoya. In 1549, when Ieyasu was 6, his father Hirotada was murdered by his own vassals, bribed by the Oda clan. At about the same time, Oda Nobuhide died during an epidemic. Nobuhide's death dealt a heavy blow to the Oda clan. An army under the command of Imagawa Sessai laid siege to the castle where Oda Nobuhiro, Nobuhide's eldest son and the new head of the Oda, was living. With the castle about to fall, Sessai offered a deal to Nobuhide's second son.
Sessai offered to give up the siege. Nobunaga agreed, so Ieyasu was taken as a hostage to Sumpu. At Sumpu, he remained a hostage, but was treated well as a useful future ally of the Imagawa clan until 1556 when he was 15 years old. In 1556 Ieyasu came of age, with Imagawa Yoshimoto presiding over his genpuku ceremony. Following tradition, he changed his name from Matsudaira Takechiyo to Matsudaira Jirōsaburō Motonobu, he was briefly allowed to visit Okazaki to pay his respects to the tomb of his father, receive the homage of his nominal retainers, led by the karō Torii Tadayoshi. One year at the age of 13, he married his first wife, Lady Tsukiyama, a relative of Imagawa Yoshitmoto, changed his name again to Matsudaira Kurandonosuke Motoyasu. Allowed to return to his native Mikawa, the Imagawa ordered him to fight the Oda clan in a series of battles. Motoyasu fought his first battle in 1558 at the Siege of Terabe; the castellan of Terabe in western Mikawa, Suzuki Shigeteru, betrayed the Imagawa by defecting to Oda Nobunaga.
This was nominally within Matsudaira territory, so Imagawa Yoshimoto entrusted the campaign to Ieyasu and his retainers from Okazaki. Ieyasu led the attack in person, but after taking the outer defences, grew fearful of a counterattack to the rear, so he burned the main castle and withdrew; as anticipated, the Oda forces attacked his rear lines, but Motoyasu was prepared and drove off the Oda army. He succeeded in delivering supplies in the 1559 Siege of Odaka. Odaka was the only one of five disputed frontier forts under attack by the Oda which remained in Imagawa hands. Motoyasu launched diversionary attacks against the two neighboring forts, when the garrisons of the other forts went to their assistance, Ieyasu's supply column was able to reach Odaka. By 1560 the leadership of the Oda clan had passed to the brilliant leader Oda Nobunaga. Imagawa Yoshimoto, leading a large army invaded Oda clan territory. Motoyasu was assigned a separate mission to capture the stronghold of Marune; as a result, he and his men were not present at the Battle of Okehazama where Yoshimoto was killed in Nobunaga's surprise assault.
With Yoshimoto dead, the Imagawa clan in a state of confus
Arai Hakuseki was a Confucianist, scholar-bureaucrat, administrator and politician in Japan during the middle of the Edo period, who advised the shōgun Tokugawa Ienobu. His personal name was Kimiyoshi. Hakuseki was his pen name, his father was a Kururi han samurai Arai Masazumi. Hakuseki was born in Edo and from a early age displayed signs of genius. According to one story, at the age of three Hakuseki managed to copy a Confucian book written in Kanji, character by character; because he was born on the same year as the Great Fire of Meireki and because he was hot tempered and his brow would crease looking like 火 or "fire", he was affectionately called Hi no Ko or child of fire. He was a retainer of Hotta Masatoshi, but after Masatoshi was assassinated by Inaba Masayasu, the Hotta clan was forced to move from Sakura to Yamagata to Fukushima and the domain's income declined. Hakuseki studied under Confucianist Kinoshita Jun ` an, he was offered a post by the largest han, that of Kaga Domain, but he offered the position to a fellow samurai.
In 1693, Hakuseki was called up to serve by the side of Manabe Akifusa as a "brain" for the Tokugawa shogunate and shogun Tokugawa Ienobu. He went on to displace the official Hayashi advisers to become the leading confucianist for Ienobu and Tokugawa Ietsugu. While some of Hakuseki's policies were still carried out after Ienobu's death, after the 6th shogun, Tokugawa Ietsugu and Tokugawa Yoshimune's rule began, Hakuseki left his post to begin his career as a prolific writer of Japanese history and Occidental studies, he was buried in Asakusa, Hoonji temple but was moved to Nakano, Kotokuji temple. Under the top Rōjū, Abe Seikyo, with strong support from Ienobu, he launched Shōtoku no chi, a series of economic policies designed to improve the shogunate's standing. By minting new and better quality currency, inflation was controlled. Calculating from trade records, Hakuseki deduced that 25% of gold and 75% of silver in Japan had been spent on trades with foreign countries. Concerned that Japan's national resources were at risk, he implemented a new trade policy, the Kaihaku Goshi Shinrei, to control payments to Chinese and Dutch merchants by demanding that instead of precious metals, products like silk and dried seafoods should be used for trading.
However, the beneficial effects of this policy were limited as the trade of precious metals from Tsushima and Satsuma was uncontrolled by the bakufu. He simplified rituals for welcoming the Joseon dynasty's ambassadors, in the face of opposition from the Tsushima Confucianist Amenomori Hōshu. Hakuseki applied the mandate of heaven to the shōgun. Since there had been no revolution to change Japan's basic institutions, he argued that the shogun was subordinate to the emperor and that in showing good governance, moral fortitude and respect to the emperor a shogun proved that he held divine right, he traced Tokugawa family roots back to the Minamoto clan and thus to a line of imperial descent in order to show that Ieyasu's political supremacy had been fitting. To strengthen the shogun's power and maintain national prestige he proposed changing the title to koku-ō – nation-king. Hakuseki's published writings encompass 237 works in 390 publications in 6 languages and 3,163 library holdings. 1709 – 本朝軍器考 1709 – Sairan Igen.
1711 – Hōka shiryaku known as Honchō hōka tsūyō jiryaku._________.. Fookoua Siriak: traité sur l'origins des richesses au japon. Paris..' 1712 – Tokushi Yoron. 1715 – Seiyō Kibun. A work describing the Occident, based on Hakuseki's conversations with Giovanni Battista Sidotti 1729 – 蝦夷志 1760 – 同文通考 1805 – 東雅 1894 – Hankanfu. A list of daimyo's family tree 1936 – 新井白石集 1964 – 戴恩記 1977 – 新井白石全集 1977 – 新編藩翰譜 1981 – 新令句解 Koshitsu. A work that detailed ancient history of Japan Oritaku Shiba-no-ki. A diary and memoir Arai Hakuseki Trans. Joyce Ackroyd. Told Round a Brushwood Fire: The Autobiography of Arai Hakuseki. Princeton University Press. ISBN 0-691-04671-9. Arai Hakuseki Trans. Joyce Ackroyd. Lessons from History: The Tokushi Yoron. University of Queensland Press. ISBN 0-7022-1485-X. Ackroyd, Joyce. "Correspondence". Monumenta Nipponica. 40: 97–106. Brownlee, John S. Japanese historians and the national myths, 1600–1945: The Age of the Gods and Emperor Jimmu. Vancouver: University of British Columbia Press. ISBN 0-7748-0644-3 Tokyo: University of Tokyo Press.
ISBN 4-13-027031-1 Brownlee, John S.. Political Thought in Japanese Historical Writing: From Kojiki to Tokushi Yoron. Waterloo, Ontario: Wilfrid Laurier University Press. ISBN 0-88920-997-9 Daehwan, Noh. "The Eclectic Development of Neo-Confucianism and Statecraft from the 18th to the 19th Century,". Korea Journal. Archived from the original on June 14, 2011. Henderson, Dan Fenno. "Chinese legal studies in early 18th century Japan". Journal of Asian Studies; the Journal of Asian Studies, Vol. 30, No. 1. 30: 21–56. Doi:10.2307/2942722. JSTOR 2942722. Kazui, Tashiro. "Foreign Relations during the Edo Period: Sakoku Reexamined". Journal of Japanese Studies. Journal of Japanese Studies, Vol. 8, No. 2. 8: 283–306. Doi:10.2307/132341. JSTOR 132341. Screech, Timon.. Secret Memoirs of the Shoguns: Isaac Titsingh and Japan, 1779–1822. London: RoutledgeCurzon. ISBN 0-7007-1
Yanagisawa Yoshiyasu was a Japanese samurai of the Edo period. He was an official in the Tokugawa shogunate and he was a favorite of the fifth shōgun, Tokugawa Tsunayoshi, he served Tsunayoshi from an early age, becoming his wakashū and rose to the position of soba yōnin. He was the daimyō of the Kawagoe han, of the Kōfu han. Having been named Yasuakira, he received a kanji from the name of the shōgun, came to call himself Yoshiyasu, he built Rikugien Garden, a traditional Japanese garden, in 1695. He had an adopted son named Yanagisawa Yoshisato by Tokugawa Tsunayoshi with Yoshiyasu's concubune, Sumeko. Yanagisawa played a pivotal role in the matter of the forty-seven rōnin. Yanagisawa appears as a character in most of the novels by American mystery writer Laura Joh Rowland set in Genroku-era Japan as the antagonist to the books' main character Sano Ichiro. Rowland's chronology differs from history by having Yanagisawa exiled in disgrace in 1694 and being replaced by Sano as Tsunayoshi's chief advisor, only to return from exile in the series.
Other details of Yanagisawa's life, are portrayed accurately, including his relationship to the shōgun. Samurai Shudō Bodart-Bailey, Beatrice.. Yanagisawa Yoshiyasu: a Reappraisal. Canberra: Australian National University. OCLC 222149819 Nussbaum, Louis Frédéric and Käthe Roth.. Japan Encyclopedia. Cambridge: Harvard University Press. ISBN 978-0-674-01753-5.
Doi Toshikatsu was a top-ranking official in Japan's Tokugawa shogunate during its early decades, one of the chief advisors to the second Tokugawa shōgun, Hidetada. The adopted son of Doi Toshimasa, Toshikatsu is believed to be the biological son of Mizuno Nobumoto, though there are some who claim he was an illegitimate son of shōgun Tokugawa Ieyasu, he served the shogunate as advisor to shōgun Tokugawa Hidetada for many years, played an important role in communicating and overseeing the enforcement of shogunal policy across the country. He lost much of his influence and power upon Hidetada's death in 1632. Six years Doi became one of the first to be appointed to the newly created post of Tairō, was made daimyō of Koga Domain in Shimōsa Province, with a revenue of 160,000 koku. Doi clan Frederic, Louis. Japan Encyclopedia. Cambridge, Massachusetts: Harvard University Press. Khamchoo, Chaiwat and E. Bruce Reynolds. Thai–Japanese Relations in Historical Perspective. Bangkok: Innomedia Co, Ltd Press.
Sansom, George. A History of Japan: 1615–1867. Stanford, California: Stanford University Press
Japan is an island country in East Asia. Located in the Pacific Ocean, it lies off the eastern coast of the Asian continent and stretches from the Sea of Okhotsk in the north to the East China Sea and the Philippine Sea in the south; the kanji that make up Japan's name mean "sun origin", it is called the "Land of the Rising Sun". Japan is a stratovolcanic archipelago consisting of about 6,852 islands; the four largest are Honshu, Hokkaido and Shikoku, which make up about ninety-seven percent of Japan's land area and are referred to as home islands. The country is divided into 47 prefectures in eight regions, with Hokkaido being the northernmost prefecture and Okinawa being the southernmost one; the population of 127 million is the world's tenth largest. 90.7 % of people live in cities. About 13.8 million people live in the capital of Japan. The Greater Tokyo Area is the most populous metropolitan area in the world with over 38 million people. Archaeological research indicates; the first written mention of Japan is in Chinese history texts from the 1st century AD.
Influence from other regions China, followed by periods of isolation from Western Europe, has characterized Japan's history. From the 12th century until 1868, Japan was ruled by successive feudal military shōguns who ruled in the name of the Emperor. Japan entered into a long period of isolation in the early 17th century, ended in 1853 when a United States fleet pressured Japan to open to the West. After nearly two decades of internal conflict and insurrection, the Imperial Court regained its political power in 1868 through the help of several clans from Chōshū and Satsuma – and the Empire of Japan was established. In the late 19th and early 20th centuries, victories in the First Sino-Japanese War, the Russo-Japanese War and World War I allowed Japan to expand its empire during a period of increasing militarism; the Second Sino-Japanese War of 1937 expanded into part of World War II in 1941, which came to an end in 1945 following the Japanese surrender. Since adopting its revised constitution on May 3, 1947, during the occupation led by SCAP, the sovereign state of Japan has maintained a unitary parliamentary constitutional monarchy with an Emperor and an elected legislature called the National Diet.
Japan is a member of the ASEAN Plus mechanism, UN, the OECD, the G7, the G8, the G20, is considered a great power. Its economy is the world's third-largest by nominal GDP and the fourth-largest by purchasing power parity, it is the world's fourth-largest exporter and fourth-largest importer. Japan benefits from a skilled and educated workforce. Although it has renounced its right to declare war, Japan maintains a modern military with the world's eighth-largest military budget, used for self-defense and peacekeeping roles. Japan is a developed country with a high standard of living and Human Development Index, its population enjoys the highest life expectancy and third lowest infant mortality rate in the world, but is experiencing issues due to an aging population and low birthrate. Japan is renowned for its historical and extensive cinema, influential music industry, video gaming, rich cuisine and its major contributions to science and modern technology; the Japanese word for Japan is 日本, pronounced Nihon or Nippon and means "the origin of the sun".
The character nichi means "sun" or "day". The compound therefore means "origin of the sun" and is the source of the popular Western epithet "Land of the Rising Sun"; the earliest record of the name Nihon appears in the Chinese historical records of the Tang dynasty, the Old Book of Tang. At the end of the seventh century, a delegation from Japan requested that Nihon be used as the name of their country; this name may have its origin in a letter sent in 607 and recorded in the official history of the Sui dynasty. Prince Shōtoku, the Regent of Japan, sent a mission to China with a letter in which he called himself "the Emperor of the Land where the Sun rises"; the message said: "Here, I, the emperor of the country where the sun rises, send a letter to the emperor of the country where the sun sets. How are you". Prior to the adoption of Nihon, other terms such as Yamato and Wakoku were used; the term Wa is a homophone of Wo 倭, used by the Chinese as a designation for the Japanese as early as the third century Three Kingdoms period.
Another form of Wa, Wei in Chinese) was used for an early state in Japan called Nakoku during the Han dynasty. However, the Japanese disliked some connotation of Wa 倭, it was therefore replaced with the substitute character Wa, meaning "togetherness, harmony"; the English word Japan derives from the historical Chinese pronunciation of 日本. The Old Mandarin or early Wu Chinese pronunciation of Japan was recorded by Marco Polo as Cipangu. In modern Shanghainese, a Wu dialect, the pronunciation of characters 日本; the old Malay word for Japan, Japun or Japang, was borrowed from a southern coastal Chinese dialect Fukienese or Ningpo – and this Malay word was encountered by Portuguese traders in Southeast Asia in the 16th century. These Early Portuguese traders brought the word
Honda Masanobu was a commander and daimyō in the service of Tokugawa Ieyasu in Japan during the Azuchi-Momoyama and Edo periods. In 1563, when an uprising against Ieyasu occurred in Mikawa Province, Masanobu took the side of the peasants against Ieyasu, he fled from the Tokugawa, rejoining them in the 1570s or 1580s at the behest of Ōkubo Tadayo, accompanied Ieyasu as he crossed Iga Province following the assassination of Oda Nobunaga at Honnō-ji. In 1600, Masanobu joined Tokugawa Hidetada's army for the march along the Nakasendō. En route, Hidetada attacked Sanada Masayuki at Ueda Castle against Masanobu's advice, together they arrived late for the Battle of Sekigahara. Masanobu was a member of the Tokugawa shogunate and ruled a Han in Sagami Province assessed at 22,000 koku, he was present at the Siege of Osaka in 1614. Masanobu died several weeks after Ieyasu in 1616