Daibutsuyō is a Japanese religious architectural style which emerged in the late 12th or early 13th century. Together with Wayō and Zenshūyō, it is one of the three most significant styles developed by Japanese Buddhism on the basis of Chinese models. Called tenjikuyō, because it had nothing to do with India it was rechristened by scholar Ōta Hirotarō during the 20th century, the new term stuck. Ōta derived the name from Chōgen's work Tōdai-ji's Daibutsuden. Soon abandoned after its creator's death because it didn't harmonize with Japanese tastes, it nonetheless influenced other building styles with its rational solutions; the combination of wayō and daibutsuyō in particular became so frequent that sometimes it is classed separately by scholars under the name Shin-wayō. This grandiose and monumental style is the antithesis of the traditional wayō style; the Nandaimon at Tōdai-ji and the Amida-dō at Jōdo-ji in Ono are its best extant examples. The style was introduced by priest Chōgen, who in 1180 directed the reconstruction of Tōdai-ji, destroyed during the Genpei war.
Chōgen had just come back from the last of his three travels to China and therefore chose as a basis for the work Song Dynasty architecture. He was supported in his innovative work by first shōgun Minamoto no Yoritomo. Of his work at the temple only three structures remain, the mentioned Nandaimon, which remains the best Daibutsuyō example, the Kaizandō and the Hokkedō; the gate's most characteristic features are the six-tier bracket groups projecting directly out of the columns and connected to each other by ties as long as the facade. During the Edo period the temple's Main Hall, the Daibutsuden, was rebuilt in the style, to which it would give its name. Chōgen built other buildings in this style near and around Nara, of which the Amida-dō at Jōdo-ji in Ono is a good extant example; the style declined after its creator's death because it did not agree with Japanese tastes. Structural elements are treated as design elements, the building's deliberate roughness is supposed to be part of its beauty, but the concept was too alien to Chōgen's contemporaries, was rejected.
The Daibutsuyō style was short-lived but innovative, many of the ideas it introduced were adopted by other styles as well. In particular, during the Muromachi period the traditional Wayō style was so influenced that the mix of the two is sometimes called Shin-wayō. Thick woodwork and imposing general look Use of penetrating tie beamsDuring the Heian period temples were built using only non-penetrating tie beams made to fit around columns and pillars and nailed; the daibutsuyō style and the zenshūyō style replaced them with penetrating tie-beams, which pierced the column, were therefore much more effective against earthquakes. The nageshi was however retained as a purely decorative element. Thick, visible structural elements with decorative functionAs mentioned, many structural elements are left uncovered and have a decorative function. For example, the roof's supporting members are not covered by a ceiling and are therefore visible from within the temple; the Nandaimon's stabilizing bracket ties which run the entire width of the gate are fully visible.
Structural elements are much thicker than in Zen buildings. SashihijikiThe sashihijiki is a bracket arm inserted directly into a pillar instead of resting onto a supporting block on top of a pillar, as was normal in the preceding wayō style. At Tōdai-ji, both the Nandaimon and the Daibutsuden have six sashihijiki one on top of the other.. ŌgidarukiAnother detail unique to this style are the ōgidaruki. The rafters supporting each roof corner spread in a fan-like pattern. KibanaThe tips of each protruding beam ends in a nose-like structure called kibana. Japanese Buddhist architecture - Heian period Wayō Setchūyō Zenshūyō Fletcher, Sir Banister. Sir Banister Fletcher's a history of architecture. Architectural Press. ISBN 0-7506-2267-9. Retrieved 2009-11-11. "JAANUS". Japanese Architecture and Art Net Users System. Nishi, Kazuo. What is Japanese architecture?. Kodansha International. ISBN 4-7700-1992-0. Retrieved 2009-11-11. Young, David. Introduction to Japanese architecture. Periplus Asian architecture. Tuttle Publishing.
ISBN 0-7946-0100-6. Retrieved 2010-01-11
Hiyoshi-zukuri or hie-zukuri called shōtei-zukuri / shōtai-zukuri or sannō-zukuri is a rare Shinto shrine architectural style presently found in only three instances, all at Hiyoshi Taisha in Ōtsu, hence the name. They are the Sessha Usa Jingū Honden, it is characterized by a hip-and gable roof with verandas called hisashi on the sides. It has a hirairi structure, that is, the building has its main entrance on the side which runs parallel to the roof's ridge; the building is composed of a 3x2 ken core called moya surrounded on three sides by a 1-ken wide hisashi, totaling 5x3 ken. The three-sided hisashi is typical of this style; the gabled roof extends in small porticos on the two gabled sides. The roof on the back has a characteristic shape
Minka are vernacular houses constructed in any one of several traditional Japanese building styles. In the context of the four divisions of society, minka were the dwellings of farmers and merchants; this connotation no longer exists in the modern Japanese language, any traditional Japanese-style residence of an appropriate age could be referred to as minka. Minka are characterised by their roof structure and their roof shape. Minka developed through history with distinctive styles emerging in the Edo period; the term minka means "houses of the people". It covers houses that accommodated a wide variety of people from farmers to village headmen and low level samurai. Minka come in a wide range of styles and sizes as a result of differing geographic and climatic conditions as well as the lifestyle of the inhabitants, they fall into one of four classifications: farmhouses nōka town houses machiya, fishermen's dwellings gyoka and mountain dwellings sanka. Unlike other forms of Japanese architecture, it is the structure rather than the plan, of primary importance to the minka.
Minka are divided up with primary posts that form the basic framework and bear the structural load of the building. Despite the wide variety of minka, there are eight basic forms. The'inverted U' consists of two vertical posts fixed at the top with a horizontal beam; the beam can be fixed to the top of the post either by resting upon it or via a mortise and tenon joint. This latter method is found in minka on the island of Shikoku. The'ladder' has post and beam units connected with larger beams including beams that are closer to the foundation level; this form of structure originated in townhouses of the Edo period. The system allows the irregular placement of posts and, allows flexibility in the plan. With the'umbrella' style, four beams radiate out from a central post; these posts sit at the centre of the square rather than the corners. Minka of this type are found in Shiga Prefecture. The'cross' has two beams at right angles to one another with the posts in the centre of the sides, it is used for small minka that have no other posts erected in the space or for large minka in the earth-floored area.
The style is most found in Shiga and Fukui prefectures.'Parallel crosses' are found in Shizuoka Prefecture and cover an area 5 metres by 10 metres. This system doubles up the ` cross' structure with eight posts; the ` box' structure connects four or more beam units to create a box-like structure. It can be found in Toyama and Ishikawa prefectures. The'interconnected box' can be found in Kyoto and Osaka.'Rising beams' is a form that enables better use of the second storey. It uses beams that rise from the posts to a secondary ridge, below the one formed by the rafters. Thatched roof farmhouses based upon the'rising beam' structure can be further classified into four major types; the yojiro-gumi and the wagoya are rare. The latter of these, the wagoya, is popular for machiya houses. Far more common are the odachi types; the odachi style has rafters and short vertical posts to support the ridge. These posts would have extended to the ground resulting in a row of posts extending down the centre of the house and dividing it.
Although these could be accommodated in the layout of the main house, they were impractical in the earth-floored entrance area—so they were omitted and a special beam structure used instead. This style was in wide use until the Edo period; the sasu style is a simpler triangular shape with a pair of rafters joined at the top to support the ridge pole. The ends of these rafters were sharpened to fit into mortice holes at either end of crossbeam; as this system does not rely on central posts it leaves a more unobstructed plan than the odachi style. There were two main methods for setting out the floor plan of the minka; the kyoma method uses a standard size of tatami mat, whereas the inakama method is based upon column spacing. The kyoma method works well for minka without central columns as the mats and the sliding partitions can be based on a standard size, it was used in minka in eastern Japan. The method has its disadvantages if used with posts because variations in post width can make the prefabrication of the sliding partitions difficult.
The inakama method is based upon the distance between centre of one post and centre of the post adjacent to it and it was used on the eastern side of Japan. The size and decoration of a minka was dependent upon its location and social status of its owner. Minka were influenced by local building techniques and were built with materials that were abundant in the immediate locality. For example, minka in Shizuoka used abundant bamboo for roofs, eaves and floors; when miscanthus reeds were difficult to obtain for thatched roofs, shingles were used instead. Climate had a bearing on construction: In Kyoto in the late Heian and Muromachi periods, roofs were clad in thin wooden shingles so owners would put stones on top to prevent the shingles from flying away in the wind; the social status of the minka owner was indicated by the complexity of the building. For thatched roof minka the nu
National Treasure (Japan)
A National Treasure is the most precious of Japan's Tangible Cultural Properties, as determined and designated by the Agency for Cultural Affairs. A Tangible Cultural Property is considered to be of historic or artistic value, classified either as "buildings and structures" or as "fine arts and crafts." Each National Treasure must show outstanding workmanship, a high value for world cultural history, or exceptional value for scholarship. 20% of the National Treasures are structures such as castles, Buddhist temples, Shinto shrines, or residences. The other 80% are paintings; the items span the period of ancient to early modern Japan before the Meiji period, including pieces of the world's oldest pottery from the Jōmon period and 19th-century documents and writings. The designation of the Akasaka Palace in 2009 and of the Tomioka Silk Mill in 2014 added two modern, post-Meiji Restoration, National Treasures. Japan has a comprehensive network of legislation for protecting and classifying its cultural patrimony.
The regard for physical and intangible properties and their protection is typical of Japanese preservation and restoration practices. Methods of protecting designated National Treasures include restrictions on alterations and export, as well as financial support in the form of grants and tax reduction; the Agency for Cultural Affairs provides owners with advice on restoration and public display of the properties. These efforts are supplemented by laws that protect the built environment of designated structures and the necessary techniques for restoration of works. Kansai, the region of Japan's capitals from ancient times to the 19th century, has the most National Treasures. Fine arts and crafts properties are owned or are in museums, including national museums such as Tokyo and Nara, public prefectural and city museums, private museums. Religious items are housed in temples and Shinto shrines or in an adjacent museum or treasure house. Japanese cultural properties were in the ownership of Buddhist temples, Shinto shrines, aristocratic or samurai families.
Feudal Japan ended abruptly in 1867/68 when the Tokugawa shogunate was replaced by the Meiji Restoration. During the ensuing haibutsu kishaku triggered by the official policy of separation of Shinto and Buddhism and anti-Buddhist movements propagating the return to Shinto, Buddhist buildings and artwork were destroyed. In 1871, the government confiscated temple lands, considered symbolic of the ruling elite. Properties belonging to the feudal lords were expropriated, historic castles and residences were destroyed, an estimated 18,000 temples were closed. During the same period, Japanese cultural heritage was impacted by the rise of industrialization and westernization; as a result and Shinto institutions became impoverished. Temples decayed, valuable objects were exported. In 1871, the Daijō-kan issued a decree to protect Japanese antiquities called the Plan for the Preservation of Ancient Artifacts. Based on recommendations from the universities, the decree ordered prefectures and shrines to compile lists of important buildings and art.
However, these efforts proved to be ineffective in the face of radical westernisation. In 1880, the government allotted funds for the preservation of ancient temples. By 1894, 539 shrines and temples had received government funded subsidies to conduct repairs and reconstruction; the five-storied pagoda of Daigo-ji, the kon-dō of Tōshōdai-ji, the hon-dō of Kiyomizu-dera are examples of buildings that underwent repairs during this period. A survey conducted in association with Okakura Kakuzō and Ernest Fenollosa between 1888 and 1897 was designed to evaluate and catalogue 210,000 objects of artistic or historic merit; the end of the 19th century was a period of political change in Japan as cultural values moved from the enthusiastic adoption of western ideas to a newly discovered interest in Japanese heritage. Japanese architectural history began to appear on curricula, the first books on architectural history were published, stimulated by the newly compiled inventories of buildings and art. On June 5, 1897, the Ancient Temples and Shrines Preservation Law was enacted.
Formulated under the guidance of architectural historian and architect Itō Chūta, the law established government funding for the preservation of buildings and the restoration of artworks. The law applied to architecture and pieces of art relating to an architectural structure, with the proviso that historic uniqueness and exceptional quality were to be established. Applications for financial support were to be made to the Ministry of Internal Affairs, the responsibility for restoration or preservation lay in the hands of local officials. Restoration works were financed directly from the national coffers. A second law was passed on December 15, 1897, that provided supplementary provisions to designate works of art in the possession of temples or shrines as "National Treasures"; the new law provided for pieces of religious architecture to be designated as a "Specially Protected Building"
The nijūmon is one of two types of two-story gate presently used in Japan, can be found at most Japanese Buddhist temples. This gate is distinguishable from its relative by the roof above the first floor which skirts the entire upper story, absent in a rōmon. Accordingly, it has a series of brackets supporting the roof's eaves both at the first and at the second story. In a rōmon, the brackets support a balcony; the tokyō are three-stepped with tail rafters at the third step. A nijūmon is covered by a hip-and-gable roof. Unlike a rōmon, whose second story is inaccessible and unusable, a nijūmon has stairs leading to the second story; some gates have at their ends 2 x 1 bay structures housing the stairs. The second story of a nijūmon contains statues of Shakyamuni or of goddess Kannon, of the 16 Rakan, hosts periodical religious ceremonies. Large nijūmon' are 5 bays wide, 2 bays deep and have three entrances, however Tokyo's Zōjō-ji, the Tokugawa clan's funerary temple, has a gate, 5 x 3 bays. Smaller ones are 3 x 2 bays and have one, two or three entrances.
Of all temple gate types, the nujūmon has the highest status, is accordingly used for important gates like the chūmon of ancient temples as Hōryū-ji. The sanmon, the gate of a Zen temple of highest prestige, is a nijūmon; some nijūmon are called chūmon because they are situated between the temple. Some interior images of the second story of a nijūmon, in this case Kōmyō-ji's sanmon in Kamakura, Kanagawa prefecture. Iwanami Nihonshi Jiten, CD-Rom Version. Iwanami Shoten, 1999-2001 "Nijuumon". JAANUS – Japanese Architecture and Art Net User System. Retrieved 2009-06-19. Fujita Masaya, Koga Shūsaku, ed.. Nihon Kenchiku-shi. Shōwa-dō. ISBN 4-8122-9805-9
Zenshūyo is a Japanese Buddhist architectural style derived from Chinese Song Dynasty architecture. Named after the Zen sect of Buddhism which brought it to Japan, it emerged in the late 12th or early 13th century. Together with Wayō and Daibutsuyō, it is one of the three most significant styles developed by Japanese Buddhism on the basis of Chinese models; until World War II, this style was called karayō but, like the Daibutsuyō style, it was re-christened by Ōta Hirotarō, a 20th-century scholar. Its most typical features are a more or less linear layout of the garan, paneled doors hanging from hinges, intercolumnar tokyō, cusped windows, tail rafters, ornaments called kibana, decorative pent roofs. Kōzan-ji's butsuden in Shimonoseki, Zenpuku-in's shaka-dō in Kainan and Anraku-ji's pagoda in Ueda, all dating to the Kamakura period, are considered the three most important Zenshūyō buildings. Kōzan-ji's butsuden is the oldest extant building in the Zenshūyō style in Japan. At the end of the 12th century, more or less while in Nara Chōgen was rebuilding Tōdai-ji, in the process was creating the architectural style that would be called Daibutsuyō, two monks were introducing Zen to Japan.
First was Eisai. Having the support of shōgun Minamoto no Yoriie, he was able to found temples in both Kamakura and Kyoto. A little Dōgen introduced the Sōtō school to Japan. Unlike Eisai, he declined the support of Kamakura's regent Hōjō Tokiyori and open his head temple, Eihei-ji, within the forests of today's Fukui prefecture; the success of the Zen sects, which were embraced by the warrior caste, meant that they were able to introduce to the country a new architectural style, like the Daibutsuyō derived from Song Dynasty architecture, but different in spirit. After arriving in Japan the style started to evolve in response to local tastes. Among its innovations is the roof, covered in wood shingles rather than tiles, as in China. Zen temple buildings have a so-called "hidden roof" structure, consisting in two roofs, the true one and a second underneath it; the second, false roof hides the first, making it possible to obtain sloping roofs and shallow eaves. The invention of the hidden roof in the 10th century allowed the inclination of the roof's underside to be different from that of the exterior, thus making Japanese temples feel different from their Chinese counterparts.
The Zen sect was successful, therefore imitated. Many of its innovations were therefore adopted by other Buddhist schools. Zenshūyō's characteristics are decorative pent roofs and pronouncedly curved main roofs, cusped windows, earthen floors and paneled doors. Wood structures are light, design light and orderly. All buildings have either stone or earthen floors. Other important characteristics are: More or less fixed garan composition and layoutZen's discipline is strict and its rules many and complex; as a consequence, the Zen garan has a typical elongated and bilaterally symmetrical layout where each building's shape, position and use are predetermined. To the contrary, older schools like Tendai and Shingon use more irregular building dispositions which take into account terrain characteristics; the typical Zen garan, of which Kenchō-ji's is a good example, begins with a gate followed by another, larger one, the main hall, the lecture hall, the chief abbot's residence all aligned more or less on a north to south axis, with the bath house and the sūtra repository to its east, the monks' hall to its west.
Use of penetrating tie beamsDuring the Heian period temples were built using only non-penetrating tie beams made to fit around columns and pillars nailed. The daibutsuyō style and the zenshūyō style replaced them with penetrating tie-beams, which pierced the column, were therefore much more effective against earthquakes; the nageshi was however retained as a purely decorative element. Tokyō between postsWhile other styles put roof-supporting brackets only above columns, Zen temples have them between columns. TōrihijikiEach bracket step has its own tōrihijiki or tōshihijiki, a long horizontal beam parallel to the wall and inserted into the bracket step, it strengthens the structure while at the same time supporting the roof rafters. OdarukiA tokyō's third step is supported by a so-called tail rafter, a cantilever set between the second and the third step; the name refers to its typical shape, similar to a tail protruding from the bracket. KibanaAnother Zenshūyō feature is the kobushibana or kibana, a nose-like decoration with a spiraling motif carved on a rafter after the last protruding bracket.
Fan-shaped roof raftersRoof rafters radiate outwards from a single central point. Paneled doorsDoors called sankarado are made of separate panels and do not slide, but are fixed to the tie beams by heavy hinges called waraza. Above the door's panels runs a transom. Sōmon and sanmonThe entrance to a Zen temple is straddled by two symbolic gates, the sōmon and the more important sanmon. MokoshiTypical of the style is the main hall, which has just one story but seems to have two because of the presence of a roofed corridor called mokoshi. Having the width of one bay, it makes the three-bay, one-story building look like a two-storey, five-bay building. Cusped windowsZen temple