Mingo County, West Virginia
Mingo County is a county in the U. S. state of West Virginia. As of the 2010 census, the population was 26,839, its county seat is Williamson. Created in 1895, Mingo is West Virginia's newest county, named for the historic Iroquoian Mingo people. Mingo County is the newest county in the state, formed by an act of the state legislature in 1895 from parts of Logan County; the county was named for the Mingo Indians. The attempt to unionize coal miners in the county in the 1920s led to the Battle of Blair Mountain in neighboring Logan County. Politically, Mingo County is well known for its opposition to former President Barack Obama. In 2008, Obama netted only 8 % of the vote in one of his worst performances. In 2012, Mingo County Democrats voted for Keith Russell Judd, a convicted felon, the only other candidate on the ballot, over Obama. In 2014, Mingo County native Jeremy T. K. Farley published The Ghosts of Mingo County, based on the real life story of Timmy Barker, a history of what he described as "the bloodiest county in America."
The book met with mixed reviews. In 2016, Mingo County was "one of the places in America most touched by opioids." According to the U. S. Census Bureau, the county has a total area of 424 square miles, of which 423 square miles is land and 0.9 square miles is water. I‑73 I‑74 U. S. Highway 52 U. S. Highway 119 West Virginia Route 49 West Virginia Route 65 West Virginia Route 80 Lincoln County Logan County Wyoming County McDowell County Pike County, Kentucky Martin County, Kentucky Wayne County Buchanan County, Virginia As of the census of 2000, there were 28,253 people, 11,303 households, 8,217 families residing in the county; the population density was 67 people per square mile. There were 12,898 housing units at an average density of 30 per square mile; the racial makeup of the county was 96.39% White, 2.34% Black or African American, 0.24% Native American, 0.21% Asian, 0.02% Pacific Islander, 0.06% from other races, 0.74% from two or more races. 0.48% of the population were Hispanic or Latino of any race.
There were 11,303 households out of which 33.50% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 56.20% were married couples living together, 12.70% had a female householder with no husband present, 27.30% were non-families. 25.20% of all households were made up of individuals and 10.40% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.49 and the average family size was 2.98. In the county, the population was spread out with 24.20% under the age of 18, 9.20% from 18 to 24, 29.10% from 25 to 44, 25.00% from 45 to 64, 12.40% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 37 years. For every 100 females there were 93.70 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 90.20 males. The median income for a household in the county was $21,347, the median income for a family was $26,581. Males had a median income of $31,660 versus $18,038 for females; the per capita income for the county was $12,445. About 25.90% of families and 29.70% of the population were below the poverty line, including 38.90% of those under age 18 and 18.60% of those age 65 or over.
As of the 2010 United States Census, there were 26,839 people, 11,125 households, 7,707 families residing in the county. The population density was 63.4 inhabitants per square mile. There were 12,699 housing units at an average density of 30.0 per square mile. The racial makeup of the county was 97.1% white, 1.8% black or African American, 0.2% Asian, 0.1% American Indian, 0.0% from other races, 0.9% from two or more races. Those of Hispanic or Latino origin made up 0.4% of the population. In terms of ancestry, 12.6% were Irish, 11.9% were American, 7.0% were German, 6.9% were English. Of the 11,125 households, 30.8% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 52.6% were married couples living together, 11.8% had a female householder with no husband present, 30.7% were non-families, 27.7% of all households were made up of individuals. The average household size was 2.40 and the average family size was 2.91. The median age was 40.9 years. The median income for a household in the county was $32,902 and the median income for a family was $40,199.
Males had a median income of $46,917 versus $27,168 for females. The per capita income for the county was $17,629. About 16.9% of families and 21.6% of the population were below the poverty line, including 30.1% of those under age 18 and 10.8% of those age 65 or over. The youngest of West Virginia’s 55 counties, Mingo was created from powerfully secessionist Logan County. For the 110 years following its creation, Mingo County was powerfully Democratic, voting for Walter Mondale – who came within 3,819 votes of losing all 50 states – by a two-to-one margin in 1984, voting Republican only for William Howard Taft in 1908, Herbert Hoover in 1928 due to powerful anti-Catholic sentiment against Al Smith, Richard Nixon against the left-wing George McGovern in 1972. Like all of West Virginia, since 2000 a combination of declining unionization and differences with the Democratic Party’s liberal views on social issues has produced a dramatic swing to the Republican Party. In 2016, this heavily Democratic county voted only eight percentage points less Republican than Unionist and rock-ribbed GOP Grant County.
Williamson Delbarton Gilbert Kermit Matewan Chattaroy Gilbert Creek Justice Red Jacket Beech Ben Mate District Kermit Harvey District Lee District Magnol
Body of water
A body of water or waterbody is any significant accumulation of water on a planet's surface. The term most refers to oceans and lakes, but it includes smaller pools of water such as ponds, wetlands, or more puddles. A body of water contained. Most are occurring geographical features, but some are artificial. There are types. For example, most reservoirs are created by engineering dams, but some natural lakes are used as reservoirs. Most harbors are occurring bays, but some harbors have been created through construction. Bodies of water that are navigable are known as waterways; some bodies of water collect and move water, such as rivers and streams, others hold water, such as lakes and oceans. The term body of water can refer to a reservoir of water held by a plant, technically known as a phytotelma. Bodies of water are affected by gravity, what creates the tidal effects on Earth. Note that there are some geographical features involving water that are not bodies of water, for example waterfalls and rapids.
Arm of the sea – sea arm, used to describe a sea loch. Arroyo – a dry creek bed or gulch that temporarily fills with water after a heavy rain, or seasonally. See wadi. Artificial lake or artificial pond – see Reservoir. Barachois – a lagoon separated from the ocean by a sand bar. Bay – an area of water bordered by land on three sides, similar to, but smaller than a gulf. Bayou – a slow-moving stream or a marshy lake. Beck – a small stream. Bight – a large and only receding bay, or a bend in any geographical feature. Billabong – an oxbow lake in Australia. Boil – see Seep Brook – a small stream. Burn – a small stream. Canal – an artificial waterway connected to existing lakes, rivers, or oceans. Channel – the physical confine of a river, slough or ocean strait consisting of a bed and banks. See stream bed and strait. Cove – a coastal landform. Earth scientists use the term to describe a circular or round inlet with a narrow entrance, though colloquially the term is sometimes used to describe any sheltered bay.
Creek – a small stream. Creek – an inlet of the sea, narrower than a cove. Delta – the location where a river flows into an ocean, estuary, lake, or reservoir. Distributary or distributary channel – a stream that branches off and flows away from a main stream channel. Drainage basin – a region of land where water from rain or snowmelt drains downhill into another body of water, such as a river, lake, or reservoir. Draw – a dry creek bed or gulch that temporarily fills with water after a heavy rain, or seasonally. See wadi. Estuary – a semi-enclosed coastal body of water with one or more rivers or streams flowing into it, with a free connection to the open sea Firth – a regional term of Scotland used to denote various coastal waters, such as large sea bays, estuaries and straits. Fjord – a narrow inlet of the sea between cliffs or steep slopes. Glacier – a large collection of ice or a frozen river that moves down a mountain. Glacial pothole – a kettle Gulf – a part of a lake or ocean that extends so that it is surrounded by land on three sides, similar to, but larger than a bay.
Headland – an area of water bordered by land on three sides. Harbor – an artificial or occurring body of water where ships are stored or may shelter from the ocean's weather and currents. Impoundment – an artificially-created body of water, by damming a source. Used for flood control, as a drinking water supply, ornamentation, or other purpose or combination of purposes. Note that the process of creating an "impoundment" of water is itself called "impoundment." Inlet – a body of water seawater, which has characteristics of one or more of the following: bay, estuary, fjord, sea loch, or sound. Kettle – a shallow, sediment-filled body of water formed by retreating glaciers or draining floodwaters. Kill – used in areas of Dutch influence in New York, New Jersey and other areas of the former New Netherland colony of Dutch America to describe a strait, river, or arm of the sea. Lagoon – a body of comparatively shallow salt or brackish water separated from the deeper sea by a shallow or exposed sandbank, coral reef, or similar feature.
Lake – a body of water freshwater, of large size contained on a body of land. Lick — a small watercourse or an ephemeral stream Loch – a body of water such as a lake, sea inlet, fjord, estuary or bay. Mangrove swamp – Saline coastal habitat of mangrove trees and shrubs. Marsh – a wetland featuring grasses, reeds, typhas and other herbaceous plants in a context of shallow water. See Salt marsh. Mediterranean sea – a enclosed sea that has limited exchange of deep water with outer oceans and where the water circulation is dominated by salinity and temperature differences rather than winds Mere – a lake or body of water, broad in relation to its depth. Mill pond – a reservoir built to provide flowing water to a watermill Moat – a deep, broad trench, either dry or filled with water and protecting a structure, installation, or town. Ocean – a major body of salty water that, in totality, covers about 71% of the Earth's surface. Oxbow lake – a U-shaped lake formed when a wide meander from the mainstem of a riv
West Virginia is a state located in the Appalachian region in the Southern United States, considered to be a part of the Middle Atlantic States. It is bordered by Pennsylvania to the north, Maryland to the east and northeast, Virginia to the southeast, Kentucky to the southwest, Ohio to the northwest. West Virginia is the 41st largest state by area, is ranked 38th in population; the capital and largest city is Charleston. West Virginia became a state following the Wheeling Conventions of 1861, after the American Civil War had begun. Delegates from some Unionist counties of northwestern Virginia decided to break away from Virginia, although they included many secessionist counties in the new state. West Virginia was admitted to the Union on June 20, 1863, was a key border state during the war. West Virginia was the only state to form by separating from a Confederate state, the first to separate from any state since Maine separated from Massachusetts, was one of two states admitted to the Union during the American Civil War.
While a portion of its residents held slaves, most of the residents were yeomen farmers, the delegates provided for gradual abolition of slavery in the new state Constitution. The Census Bureau and the Association of American Geographers classify West Virginia as part of the Southern United States; however the Bureau of Labor Statistics classifies West Virginia as a part of the Mid-Atlantic. The northern panhandle extends adjacent to Pennsylvania and Ohio, with the West Virginia cities of Wheeling and Weirton just across the border from the Pittsburgh metropolitan area, while Bluefield is less than 70 miles from North Carolina. Huntington in the southwest is close to the states of Ohio and Kentucky, while Martinsburg and Harpers Ferry in the Eastern Panhandle region are considered part of the Washington metropolitan area, in between the states of Maryland and Virginia; the unique position of West Virginia means that it is included in several geographical regions, including the Mid-Atlantic, the Upland South, the Southeastern United States.
It is the only state, within the area served by the Appalachian Regional Commission. The state is noted for its mountains and rolling hills, its significant logging and coal mining industries, its political and labor history, it is known for a wide range of outdoor recreational opportunities, including skiing, whitewater rafting, hiking, mountain biking, rock climbing, hunting. Many ancient man-made earthen mounds from various prehistoric mound builder cultures survive in the areas of present-day Moundsville, South Charleston, Romney; the artifacts uncovered in these give evidence of village societies. They had a tribal trade system culture. In the 1670s during the Beaver Wars, the powerful Iroquois, five allied nations based in present-day New York and Pennsylvania, drove out other American Indian tribes from the region in order to reserve the upper Ohio Valley as a hunting ground. Siouan language tribes, such as the Moneton, had been recorded in the area. A century the area now identified as West Virginia was contested territory among Anglo-Americans as well, with the colonies of Pennsylvania and Virginia claiming territorial rights under their colonial charters to this area before the American Revolutionary War.
Some speculative land companies, such as the Vandalia Company, the Ohio Company and Indiana Company, tried to legitimize their claims to land in parts of West Virginia and present day Kentucky, but failed. This rivalry resulted in some settlers petitioning the Continental Congress to create a new territory called Westsylvania. With the federal settlement of the Pennsylvania and Virginia border dispute, creating Kentucky County, Kentuckians "were satisfied, the inhabitants of a large part of West Virginia were grateful."The Crown considered the area of West Virginia to be part of the British Virginia Colony from 1607 to 1776. The United States considered this area to be the western part of the state of Virginia from 1776 to 1863, before the formation of West Virginia, its residents were discontented for years with their position in Virginia, as the government was dominated by the planter elite of the Tidewater and Piedmont areas. The legislature had electoral malapportionment, based on the counting of slaves toward regional populations, the western white residents were underrepresented in the state legislature.
More subsistence and yeoman farmers lived in the west and they were less supportive of slavery, although many counties were divided on their support. The residents of this area became more divided after the planter elite of eastern Virginia voted to secede from the Union during the Civil War. Residents of the western and northern counties set up a separate government under Francis Pierpont in 1861, which they called the Restored Government. Most voted to separate from Virginia, the new state was admitted to the Union in 1863. In 1864 a state constitutional convention drafted a constitution, ratified by the legislature without putting it to popular vote. West Virginia abolished slavery by a gradual process and temporarily disenfranchised men who had held Confederate office or fought for the Confederacy. West Virginia's history has been profoundly affected by its mountainous terrain and vast river valleys, rich natural resources; these were all factors driving its economy and the lifestyles of its residents, who tended to live in many small isolated communities in the mountain valleys.
A 2010 analysis of
The Guyandotte River is a tributary of the Ohio River 166 mi long, in southwestern West Virginia in the United States. It was named after the French term for the Wendat Native Americans, it drains an area of the unglaciated Allegheny Plateau south of the Ohio between the watersheds of the Kanawha River to the northeast and Twelvepole Creek and the Big Sandy River to the southwest. Via the Ohio River, it is part of the Mississippi River watershed; the Guyandotte River is formed in southwestern Raleigh County by the confluence of three streams, Winding Gulf, Stonecoal Creek, the Devils Fork. and flows west-northwestwardly into Wyoming and Mingo counties. It turns northward in Mingo County and enters Logan County, where it turns north-northwestwardly for the remainder of its meandering course through Logan and Cabell counties, it enters the Ohio River from the south at Huntington, about 5 mi east of the city's downtown. A U. S. Army Corps of Engineers dam in Mingo County causes the river to widen as R.
D. Bailey Lake in Mingo and western Wyoming Counties; the Mud River joins the Guyandotte at Barboursville in Cabell County. The Slab Fork joins the Guyandotte in downtown Mullens in Wyoming County. Big Ugly Creek joins the Guyandotte in Lincoln County. In Mullens, an active watershed organization is working to reduce pollution in the headwaters of the Guyandotte River; the Upper Guyandotte Watershed Association is a grassroots, community-based organization working to reduce sources of pollution in order to clean up streams and make the watershed a better place to live. UGWA has garnered much public support and produced results in partnering with numerous local and federal agencies. Barboursville Branchland, West Virginia Chapmanville Gilbert Harts Huntington Logan Man Corinne Mullens Pineville West Hamlin West Logan According to the Geographic Names Information System, the Guyandotte River has been known as: Arbuckles River Big Laurel Fork Guiandotte River Guyan Dot River Guyan Dott River Guyan River Guyandates Creek Guyandot Creek Guyandot River Guyandott River La-ke-we-ke-ton Little Guiandot Se-co-ne Se-co-nee Secone Seconec List of West Virginia rivers R.
D. Bailey Lake website, US Army Corps of Engineers "Guyandotte" City of Huntington website Upper Guyandotte Watershed Association Rural Appalachian Improvement League Don Mills, "Guyandotte Disaster", Feb 2005, based on "Guyandotte Disaster", January 1, 1913", Cabell Record Archives, reprinted in Chesapeake & Ohio Historical Society Magazine, May 1994, Sections 3 and 4 have contemporary photos from Cabell Record
In hydrology, the inflow of a body of water is the source of the water in the body of water. It can refer to the average volume of incoming water in unit time, it is contrasted with outflow. All bodies of water have multiple inflows, but one inflow may predominate and be the largest source of water. However, in many cases, no single inflow will predominate and there will be multiple primary inflows. For a lake, the inflow may be a river or stream that flows into the lake. Inflow may be speaking, not flows, but rather precipitation, like rain. Inflow can be used to refer to groundwater recharge; the dictionary definition of inflow at Wiktionary
A reservoir is, most an enlarged natural or artificial lake, pond or impoundment created using a dam or lock to store water. Reservoirs can be created in a number of ways, including controlling a watercourse that drains an existing body of water, interrupting a watercourse to form an embayment within it, through excavation, or building any number of retaining walls or levees. Defined as a storage space for fluids, reservoirs may hold gasses, including hydrocarbons. Tank reservoirs elevated, or buried tanks. Tank reservoirs for water are called cisterns. Most underground reservoirs are used to store liquids, principally either water or petroleum, below ground. Reservoir is most an enlarged natural or artificial lake. A dam constructed in a valley relies on the natural topography to provide most of the basin of the reservoir. Dams are located at a narrow part of a valley downstream of a natural basin; the valley sides act as natural walls, with the dam located at the narrowest practical point to provide strength and the lowest cost of construction.
In many reservoir construction projects, people have to be moved and re-housed, historical artifacts moved or rare environments relocated. Examples include the temples of Abu Simbel, the relocation of the village of Capel Celyn during the construction of Llyn Celyn, the relocation of Borgo San Pietro of Petrella Salto during the construction of Lake Salto. Construction of a reservoir in a valley will need the river to be diverted during part of the build through a temporary tunnel or by-pass channel. In hilly regions, reservoirs are constructed by enlarging existing lakes. Sometimes in such reservoirs, the new top water level exceeds the watershed height on one or more of the feeder streams such as at Llyn Clywedog in Mid Wales. In such cases additional side dams are required to contain the reservoir. Where the topography is poorly suited to a single large reservoir, a number of smaller reservoirs may be constructed in a chain, as in the River Taff valley where the Llwyn-on, Cantref and Beacons Reservoirs form a chain up the valley.
Coastal reservoirs are fresh water storage reservoirs located on the sea coast near the river mouth to store the flood water of a river. As the land based reservoir construction is fraught with substantial land submergence, coastal reservoir is preferred economically and technically since it does not use scarce land area. Many coastal reservoirs were constructed in Europe. Saemanguem in South Korea, Marina Barrage in Singapore and Plover Cove in China, etc are few existing coastal reservoirs. Where water is pumped or siphoned from a river of variable quality or size, bank-side reservoirs may be built to store the water; such reservoirs are formed by excavation and by building a complete encircling bund or embankment, which may exceed 6 km in circumference. Both the floor of the reservoir and the bund must have an impermeable lining or core: these were made of puddled clay, but this has been superseded by the modern use of rolled clay; the water stored in such reservoirs may stay there for several months, during which time normal biological processes may reduce many contaminants and eliminate any turbidity.
The use of bank-side reservoirs allows water abstraction to be stopped for some time, when the river is unacceptably polluted or when flow conditions are low due to drought. The London water supply system is one example of the use of bank-side storage: the water is taken from the River Thames and River Lee. Service reservoirs store treated potable water close to the point of distribution. Many service reservoirs are constructed as water towers as elevated structures on concrete pillars where the landscape is flat. Other service reservoirs can be entirely underground in more hilly or mountainous country. In the United Kingdom, Thames Water has many underground reservoirs, sometimes called cisterns, built in the 1800s, most of which are lined with brick. A good example is the Honor Oak Reservoir in London, constructed between 1901 and 1909; when it was completed it was said to be the largest brick built underground reservoir in the world and it is still one of the largest in Europe. This reservoir now forms part of the southern extension of the Thames Water Ring Main.
The top of the reservoir is now used by the Aquarius Golf Club. Service reservoirs perform several functions, including ensuring sufficient head of water in the water distribution system and providing water capacity to out peak demand from consumers, enabling the treatment plant to run at optimum efficiency. Large service reservoirs can be managed to reduce the cost of pumping, by refilling the reservoir at times of day when energy costs are low. Circa 3 000 BC, the craters of extinct volcanoes in Arabia were used as reservoirs by farmers for their irrigation water. Dry climate and water scarcity in India led to early development of stepwells and water resource management techniques, including the building of a reservoir at Girnar in 3000 BC. Artificial lakes dating to the 5th century BC have been found in ancient Greece; the artificial Bhojsagar lake in present-day Madhya Pradesh state of India, constructed in the 11th century, covered 650 square kilometres. In Sri Lanka large reservoirs were created by ancient Sinhalese kings in order to save the water for irrigation.
The famous Sri Lankan king Pa
The United States of America known as the United States or America, is a country composed of 50 states, a federal district, five major self-governing territories, various possessions. At 3.8 million square miles, the United States is the world's third or fourth largest country by total area and is smaller than the entire continent of Europe's 3.9 million square miles. With a population of over 327 million people, the U. S. is the third most populous country. The capital is Washington, D. C. and the largest city by population is New York City. Forty-eight states and the capital's federal district are contiguous in North America between Canada and Mexico; the State of Alaska is in the northwest corner of North America, bordered by Canada to the east and across the Bering Strait from Russia to the west. The State of Hawaii is an archipelago in the mid-Pacific Ocean; the U. S. territories are scattered about the Pacific Ocean and the Caribbean Sea, stretching across nine official time zones. The diverse geography and wildlife of the United States make it one of the world's 17 megadiverse countries.
Paleo-Indians migrated from Siberia to the North American mainland at least 12,000 years ago. European colonization began in the 16th century; the United States emerged from the thirteen British colonies established along the East Coast. Numerous disputes between Great Britain and the colonies following the French and Indian War led to the American Revolution, which began in 1775, the subsequent Declaration of Independence in 1776; the war ended in 1783 with the United States becoming the first country to gain independence from a European power. The current constitution was adopted in 1788, with the first ten amendments, collectively named the Bill of Rights, being ratified in 1791 to guarantee many fundamental civil liberties; the United States embarked on a vigorous expansion across North America throughout the 19th century, acquiring new territories, displacing Native American tribes, admitting new states until it spanned the continent by 1848. During the second half of the 19th century, the Civil War led to the abolition of slavery.
By the end of the century, the United States had extended into the Pacific Ocean, its economy, driven in large part by the Industrial Revolution, began to soar. The Spanish–American War and World War I confirmed the country's status as a global military power; the United States emerged from World War II as a global superpower, the first country to develop nuclear weapons, the only country to use them in warfare, a permanent member of the United Nations Security Council. Sweeping civil rights legislation, notably the Civil Rights Act of 1964, the Voting Rights Act of 1965 and the Fair Housing Act of 1968, outlawed discrimination based on race or color. During the Cold War, the United States and the Soviet Union competed in the Space Race, culminating with the 1969 U. S. Moon landing; the end of the Cold War and the collapse of the Soviet Union in 1991 left the United States as the world's sole superpower. The United States is the world's oldest surviving federation, it is a representative democracy.
The United States is a founding member of the United Nations, World Bank, International Monetary Fund, Organization of American States, other international organizations. The United States is a developed country, with the world's largest economy by nominal GDP and second-largest economy by PPP, accounting for a quarter of global GDP; the U. S. economy is post-industrial, characterized by the dominance of services and knowledge-based activities, although the manufacturing sector remains the second-largest in the world. The United States is the world's largest importer and the second largest exporter of goods, by value. Although its population is only 4.3% of the world total, the U. S. holds 31% of the total wealth in the world, the largest share of global wealth concentrated in a single country. Despite wide income and wealth disparities, the United States continues to rank high in measures of socioeconomic performance, including average wage, human development, per capita GDP, worker productivity.
The United States is the foremost military power in the world, making up a third of global military spending, is a leading political and scientific force internationally. In 1507, the German cartographer Martin Waldseemüller produced a world map on which he named the lands of the Western Hemisphere America in honor of the Italian explorer and cartographer Amerigo Vespucci; the first documentary evidence of the phrase "United States of America" is from a letter dated January 2, 1776, written by Stephen Moylan, Esq. to George Washington's aide-de-camp and Muster-Master General of the Continental Army, Lt. Col. Joseph Reed. Moylan expressed his wish to go "with full and ample powers from the United States of America to Spain" to seek assistance in the revolutionary war effort; the first known publication of the phrase "United States of America" was in an anonymous essay in The Virginia Gazette newspaper in Williamsburg, Virginia, on April 6, 1776. The second draft of the Articles of Confederation, prepared by John Dickinson and completed by June 17, 1776, at the latest, declared "The name of this Confederation shall be the'United States of America'".
The final version of the Articles sent to the states for ratification in late 1777 contains the sentence "The Stile of this Confederacy shall be'The United States of America'". In June 1776, Thomas Jefferson wrote the phrase "UNITED STATES OF AMERICA" in all capitalized letters in the headline of his "original Rough draught" of the Declaration of Independence; this draft of the document did not surface unti