Bank of England
The Bank of England is the central bank of the United Kingdom and the model on which most modern central banks have been based. Established in 1694 to act as the English Government's banker, still one of the bankers for the Government of the United Kingdom, it is the world's eighth-oldest bank, it was owned by stockholders from its foundation in 1694 until it was nationalised in 1946. The Bank became an independent public organisation in 1998, wholly owned by the Treasury Solicitor on behalf of the government, but with independence in setting monetary policy; the Bank is one of eight banks authorised to issue banknotes in the United Kingdom, has a monopoly on the issue of banknotes in England and Wales and regulates the issue of banknotes by commercial banks in Scotland and Northern Ireland. The Bank's Monetary Policy Committee has a devolved responsibility for managing monetary policy; the Treasury has reserve powers to give orders to the committee "if they are required in the public interest and by extreme economic circumstances", but such orders must be endorsed by Parliament within 28 days.
The Bank's Financial Policy Committee held its first meeting in June 2011 as a macroprudential regulator to oversee regulation of the UK's financial sector. The Bank's headquarters have been in London's main financial district, the City of London, on Threadneedle Street, since 1734, it is sometimes known as The Old Lady of Threadneedle Street, a name taken from a satirical cartoon by James Gillray in 1797. The road junction outside is known as Bank junction; as a regulator and central bank, the Bank of England has not offered consumer banking services for many years, but it still does manage some public-facing services such as exchanging superseded bank notes. Until 2016, the bank provided personal banking services as a privilege for employees. England's crushing defeat by France, the dominant naval power, in naval engagements culminating in the 1690 Battle of Beachy Head, became the catalyst for England rebuilding itself as a global power. England had no choice. No public funds were available, the credit of William III's government was so low in London that it was impossible for it to borrow the £1,200,000 that the government wanted.
To induce subscription to the loan, the subscribers were to be incorporated by the name of the Governor and Company of the Bank of England. The Bank was given exclusive possession of the government's balances, was the only limited-liability corporation allowed to issue bank notes; the lenders would give the government cash and issue notes against the government bonds, which can be lent again. The £1.2m was raised in 12 days. As a side effect, the huge industrial effort needed, including establishing ironworks to make more nails and advances in agriculture feeding the quadrupled strength of the navy, started to transform the economy; this helped the new Kingdom of Great Britain – England and Scotland were formally united in 1707 – to become powerful. The power of the navy made Britain the dominant world power in the late 18th and early 19th centuries; the establishment of the bank was devised by Charles Montagu, 1st Earl of Halifax, in 1694. The plan of 1691, proposed by William Paterson three years before, had not been acted upon.
58 years earlier, in 1636, Financier to the king, Philip Burlamachi, had proposed the same idea in a letter addressed to Sir Francis Windebank. He proposed a loan of £1.2m to the government. The royal charter was granted on 27 July through the passage of the Tonnage Act 1694. Public finances were in such dire condition at the time that the terms of the loan were that it was to be serviced at a rate of 8% per annum, there was a service charge of £4,000 per annum for the management of the loan; the first governor was Sir John Houblon, depicted in the £50 note issued in 1994. The charter was renewed in 1742, 1764, 1781; the Bank's original home was in Walbrook, a street in the City of London, where during reconstruction in 1954 archaeologists found the remains of a Roman temple of Mithras. The Bank moved to its current location in Threadneedle Street in 1734, thereafter acquired neighbouring land to create the site necessary for erecting the Bank's original home at this location, under the direction of its chief architect Sir John Soane, between 1790 and 1827.
When the idea and reality of the national debt came about during the 18th century, this was managed by the Bank. During the American war of independence, business for the Bank was so good that George Washington remained a shareholder throughout the period. By the charter renewal in 1781 it was the bankers' bank – keeping enough gold to pay its notes on demand until 26 February 1797 when war had so diminished gold reserves that – following an invasion scare caused by the Battle of Fishguard days earlier – the government prohibited the Bank from paying out in gold by the passing of the Bank Restriction Act 1797; this prohibition lasted until 1821. The 1844 Bank Charter Act tied the issue of notes to the gold reserves and gave the Bank sol
Edvard Beneš, sometimes anglicised to Edward Benesh, was a Czech politician and statesman, President of Czechoslovakia from 1935 to 1938 and again from 1945 to 1948. He led the Czechoslovak government-in-exile 1939 to 1945, during World War II; as President, Beneš faced two major crises. His first resignation came after the Munich Agreement and subsequent German occupation of Czechoslovakia in 1938, which brought his government into exile in the United Kingdom; the second came about with the 1948 communist coup, which created the Czechoslovak Socialist Republic. Before his time as President, Beneš was the 1st Minister of Foreign Affairs and the 4th Prime Minister of Czechoslovakia. A member of the Czechoslovak National Social Party, he was known as a skilled diplomat. Eduard Beneš was born into a peasant family in 1884 in the small town of Kožlany, Bohemia, in what was the Austro-Hungarian Empire, he was the youngest tenth child overall of Matěj Beneš and Anna Petronila. One of his siblings was the future Czechoslovak politician Vojta Beneš.
His nephew through his brother Václav was a diplomat and author. Bohuš was the father of Emilie Benes Brzezinski, an American sculptor, Václav E. Beneš, a Czech-American mathematician. Beneš spent much of his youth in the Vinohrady district of Prague, where he attended a grammar school from 1896 to 1904, his landlord's family being acquainted with his future wife Anna Vlčková, they would study French and literature together at the Sorbonne. Edvard and Anna got engaged in May 1906, married in November 1909; some time after their engagement, Anna changed her name to Hana, the name Edvard had called her by since he met her. Around the same time, Edvard Beneš changed his name, going from the original spelling "Eduard" to "Edvard", he played soccer as an amateur for Slavia Prague. After studying philosophy at Charles-Ferdinand University in Prague, Beneš left for Paris and continued his studies at the Sorbonne and at the Independent School of Political and Social Studies, he completed his first degree in Dijon, where he received his doctorate of law in 1908.
Beneš taught for three years at a business college, after his 1912 habilitation in philosophy, Beneš became a lecturer of sociology at Charles University. He was involved in scouting. During World War I, Beneš was one of the leading organizers of an independent Czechoslovakia from abroad, he organized Maffia. In September 1915, he went into exile, in Paris, he made intricate diplomatic efforts to gain recognition from France and the United Kingdom for Czechoslovak independence. From 1916 to 1918, he was a Secretary of the Czechoslovak National Council in Paris and Minister of the Interior and of Foreign Affairs in the Provisional Czechoslovak government. In May 1918, Beneš, Tomáš Garrigue Masaryk and Milan Rastislav Štefánik were reported to be organizing a Czecho-Slovak army to fight for the Western Allies in France, recruited from among Czechs and Slovaks who were able to get to the front and from the large emigrant populations in the United States, said to number more than 1,500,000; the force grew into one of tens of thousands and took part in several battles, including the Battles of Zborov and Bakhmach.
From 1918 to 1935, Beneš was the longest-serving Foreign Minister of Czechoslovakia. On 31 October 1918, Karel Kramář reported from Geneva to Prague: "If you saw our Dr. Beneš and his mastery of global questions...you would take off your hat and say it was marvelous!" His international stature was such that he held the post through 10 successive governments, one of which that he headed himself from 1921 to 1922. In 1919, his decision to pull demoralized Czechoslovak Legions out of the Russian Civil War was denounced by Kramář as a betrayal. Beneš served in parliament from 1920 to 1925 and from 1929 to 1935, he represented Czechoslovakia at the 1919 peace conference in Paris, which led to the Versailles Treaty. He returned to the academic world as a professor, in 1921. In the early 1920s, Beneš and his mentor President Masaryk viewed Kramář as the principal threat to Czechoslovak democracy, seeing him as a "reactionary" Czech chauvinist, opposed to their plans for Czechoslovakia as a multi-cultural, multi-ethnic state.
Masaryk and Beneš were doubtful of Kramář's commitment to "Western values" that they were committed to such as democracy, enlightenment and tolerance, seeing him as a romantic Pan-Slavist who looked towards the east rather than the west for ideas. Kramář much resented the way in which Masaryk groomed Beneš as his successor, noting that Masaryk put articles into the Constitution that set 45 as the age limit for senators, but 35 as the age limit for the presidency, which conveniently made Beneš eligible for the presidency; the charge of Czech chauvinism against Kramář had some substance as he proclaimed his belief that the Czechs should be the dominant people in Czechoslovakia, denounced Masaryk and Beneš for their belief that the Sudeten Germans should be equal to the Czechs, made clear his opposition to having German as one of the official languages of Czechoslovakia, views that made him abhorrent to Beneš. Between 1923 and 1927, Beneš was a member of the League of Nations Council, serving as president of its committee from 1927 to 1928.
He was a renowned and influential figure at international conferences, such as those at Genoa in 1922, Locarno in 1925, The Hague
Maxim Maximovich Litvinov, Russian pronunciation:. A strong advocate of diplomatic agreements leading towards disarmament, Litvinov was influential in making the Soviet Union a party to the Kellogg–Briand Pact of 1928 and was chiefly responsible in 1929 for adoption of the so-called Litvinov Protocol, a multilateral agreement bringing Kellogg-Briand into force between the USSR and a number of neighboring states. In 1930 Litvinov was named as People's Commissar of Foreign Affairs, the top-ranking diplomatic position in the Soviet state. During the subsequent decade, Litvinov emerged as a leading voice for the official Soviet policy of collective security. Litvinov survived the Second World War and died in 1951. Meir Henoch Wallach-Finkelstein was born into a wealthy Polish Jewish banking family in Białystok, Grodno Governorate of the Russian Empire part of the Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth, he was the second son of Moses and Anna Wallach, he joined the Russian Social Democratic Labour Party in 1898 at which time the party was considered an illegal organization, it was customary for its members to use pseudonyms.
He changed his name to Maxim Litvinov, but was known as Papasha and Maximovich. Litvinov wrote articles under the names M. G. Harrison and David Mordecai Finkelstein, his early responsibilities included carrying out propaganda work in the Chernigov Governorate. In 1900, Litvinov became a member of Kiev party committee, but the entire committee was arrested in 1901. After 18 months of captivity, he led an escape of 11 inmates from Lukyanovskaya prison and lived in exile in Switzerland, where he was an editor for the revolutionary newspaper Iskra. In 1903, he returned to Russia. However, the most important event in 1903 for the advancement of Litvinov's political career was meeting Lenin in the British Library. Lenin and Litvinov went to Hyde Park to hear some of the speeches, continued to remain in touch during this pre-revolutionary period. After the 1905 Revolution he became editor of the SDLP's first legal newspaper, Novaya Zhizn, in St. Petersburg; when the Russian government began arresting Bolsheviks in 1906, Litvinov left the country and spent the next ten years as an émigré and arms dealer for the party.
Based in Paris, he travelled throughout Europe, sometimes posing as a procurement officer from Ecuador, buying rifles in Belgium and the Austro-Hungarian empire. Despite some notable disasters, such as the wrecking of a gun running yacht on the Romanian coast, he had some success in smuggling these arms into Russia via Finland and the Black Sea. In 1907, he attended the 5th Party Congress of the Russian Social Democratic Labour Party in London, he had to rely on the charity of the Rowton Houses for accommodation in London. However, the party arranged a rented house for him that he shared with Joseph Stalin, anxious to find more comfortable housing than the Rowton poor hostels. In 1908, he was arrested under the name Meer Wallach by French police while carrying twelve 500-ruble banknotes, stolen from a bank in Tiflis during the 1907 Tiflis bank robbery that took place on 26 June 1907. Litvinov was deported from France and he went to Belfast in Ireland. There, he taught foreign languages in the Jewish Jaffe Public Elementary School until 1910.
He moved to England and lived in London, where he was active in the International Socialist Bureau. When war broke out in 1914, the Tsar requested that all Russian émigrés who were in England and liable for Russian military service be returned to fight in the Russian army; however Litvinov did not return as he was able to convince the English officer who interviewed him that if he returned to Russia he would be tried rather than fight in the army. Litvinov spoke in public opposing the war but failed to face up to the fact that if Britain had not declared war they would have broken a treaty to defend Belgium. Litvinov in the 30s at the pinnacle of his power, had stressed the importance of abiding by the terms of treaties, he addressed the conference of the Entente Labour Parties but they were not persuaded to change course. "While holding the olive branch in one hand, we have to hold the sword in the other. We have been forced to take up the sword as the only means of defence. We must not forget we are able to assemble here because the Royal Navy hold the high seas and millions of Allied troops hold the line.
If Germany was to succeed, the resolutions we pass would be a mere scrap of paper and of no more value than the Russian bank notes of the Russian state bank."Later, a mutiny took place on a Russian ship in the Mersey. The police having been warned of possible trouble had the ship under surveillance, when shouts were heard that the crew were threatening to kill their officers the ship was boarded and the crew were arrested. Shortly before the mutiny a police report confirmed that Litvinov had received the sailors well; therefore at best Litvinov had failed to try and dissuade the sailors from carrying out the mutiny or condemn the mutiny and at worse had encouraged the mutiny. Litvinov was seeking interview with British, American and Canadian soldiers and inculcating them with Bolshevik ideas, as well as inducing British and American soldiers of Jewish descent to carry on propaganda in their regiments. There was an occasion when thirty Royal Engineers and Canadian soldiers were received in Litvinov’s office.
It was assumed that Litvinov was encouraging them to state their grievances. In England, Litvinov met and mar
Czechoslovakia, or Czecho-Slovakia, was a sovereign state in Central Europe that existed from October 1918, when it declared its independence from the Austro-Hungarian Empire, until its peaceful dissolution into the Czech Republic and Slovakia on 1 January 1993. From 1939 to 1945, following its forced division and partial incorporation into Nazi Germany, the state did not de facto exist but its government-in-exile continued to operate. From 1948 to 1990, Czechoslovakia was part of the Eastern Bloc with a command economy, its economic status was formalized in membership of Comecon from 1949 and its defense status in the Warsaw Pact of May 1955. A period of political liberalization in 1968, known as the Prague Spring, was forcibly ended when the Soviet Union, assisted by several other Warsaw Pact countries, invaded. In 1989, as Marxist–Leninist governments and communism were ending all over Europe, Czechoslovaks peacefully deposed their government in the Velvet Revolution. In 1993, Czechoslovakia split into the two sovereign states of Slovakia.
Form of state1918 – 1938: A democratic republic championed by Tomáš Masaryk. 1938 – 1939: After annexation of Sudetenland by Nazi Germany in 1938, the region turned into a state with loosened connections among the Czech and Ruthenian parts. A large strip of southern Slovakia and Carpatho-Ukraine was annexed by Hungary, the Zaolzie region was annexed by Poland. 1939 – 1945: The region was split into the Protectorate of Bohemia and Moravia and the Slovak Republic. A government-in-exile continued to exist in London, supported by the United Kingdom, United States and their Allies. Czechoslovakia adhered to the Declaration by United Nations and was a founding member of the United Nations. 1946 – 1948: The country was governed by a coalition government with communist ministers, including the prime minister and the minister of interior. Carpathian Ruthenia was ceded to the Soviet Union. 1948 – 1989: The country became a socialist state under Soviet domination with a centrally planned economy. In 1960, the country became a socialist republic, the Czechoslovak Socialist Republic.
It was a satellite state of the Soviet Union. 1969 – 1990: The federal republic consisted of the Czech Socialist Republic and the Slovak Socialist Republic. 1990 – 1992: Following the Velvet Revolution, the state was renamed the Czech and Slovak Federal Republic, consisting of the Czech Republic and the Slovak Republic, reverted to a democratic republic. NeighboursAustria 1918 – 1938, 1945 – 1992 Germany Hungary Poland Romania 1918 – 1938 Soviet Union 1945 – 1991 Ukraine 1991 – 1992 TopographyThe country was of irregular terrain; the western area was part of the north-central European uplands. The eastern region was composed of the northern reaches of the Carpathian Mountains and lands of the Danube River basin. ClimateThe weather is mild summers. Influenced by the Atlantic Ocean from the west, Baltic Sea from the north, Mediterranean Sea from the south. There is no continental weather. 1918–1920: Republic of Czechoslovakia /Czecho-Slovak State, or Czecho-Slovakia/Czechoslovakia 1920–1938: Czechoslovak Republic, or Czechoslovakia 1938–1939: Czecho-Slovak Republic, or Czecho-Slovakia 1945–1960: Czechoslovak Republic, or Czechoslovakia 1960–1990: Czechoslovak Socialist Republic, or Czechoslovakia April 1990: Czechoslovak Federative Republic and Czecho-Slovak Federative Republic The country subsequently became the Czech and Slovak Federative Republic, or Československo and Česko-Slovensko.
The area was long a part of the Austro-Hungarian Empire until the empire collapsed at the end of World War I. The new state was founded by Tomáš Garrigue Masaryk, who served as its first president from 14 November 1918 to 14 December 1935, he was succeeded by his close ally, Edvard Beneš. The roots of Czech nationalism go back to the 19th century, when philologists and educators, influenced by Romanticism, promoted the Czech language and pride in the Czech people. Nationalism became a mass movement in the second half of the 19th century. Taking advantage of the limited opportunities for participation in political life under Austrian rule, Czech leaders such as historian František Palacký founded many patriotic, self-help organizations which provided a chance for many of their compatriots to participate in communal life prior to independence. Palacký supported Austro-Slavism and worked for a reorganized and federal Austrian Empire, which would protect the Slavic speaking peoples of Central Europe against Russian and German threats.
An advocate of democratic reform and Czech autonomy within Austria-Hungary, Masaryk was elected twice to the Reichsrat, first from 1891 to 1893 for the Young Czech Party, again from 1907 to 1914 for the Czech Realist Party, which he had founded in 1889 with Karel Kramář and Josef Kaizl. During World War I small numbers of Czechs, the Czechoslovak Legions, fought with the Allies in France and Italy, while large numbers deserted to Russia in exchange for its support for the independence of Czechoslovakia from the Austrian Empire. With the outbreak of World War I, Masaryk began working for Czech independence in a union with Slovakia. With Edvard Beneš and Milan Rastislav Štefánik, Masaryk visited several Western countries and won support from influential publicists. Bohemia and Moravi
Spier's school, at Beith, in North Ayrshire, Scotland was opened in 1888 and closed in 1972. The school, now demolished, was built using Ballochmyle red sandstone and was reminiscent of the ancient Glasgow University; the school motto was'Quod verum tutum'. The gardens and woodlands are open to the public at all times. Sustrans National Route 7 at Kilbirnie Lochside is the nearest cycle-route access; the Barrmill Road entrance is on the bus route from Beith to Barrmill. Roy's map of 1747 refers to the site as Marchland, indicating that the farm lay on the boundary or march of the Barony of Broadstone within the Lordship of Giffen, the Barony of Beith, the physical boundary being formed by the Powgree Burn at this point, recorded as the Powgreen or Marshyland burn. Marshalland lay within the Barony of Broadstone. Maps refer to the site as Marshyland and Marshalland; the land upon which the school was built in 1858 only shows the presence of two wells and the fields of the old Marshalland farm with its tree lined hedgerows.
Tom Paterson and his sister farmed Marshalland in the 1950s, however the last people to live at Marshalland were David and Mary Kerr, the fine house and associated farm buildings being demolished in the early 1960s. In 1686, John Shedden, ancestor of the Sheddens of Morrishill in Beith, obtained the 14s Lands of Marsheland from Hugh and John Lyle, he obtained the 32 Penny Land of Erestoun's Mailling or Burnside of Marsheland. Robert Service passed it on to his son Robert. In 1816-17 Robert sold it on to father of John Spier. Matthew Montgomerie of Bogston's daughter Margaret married John Shedden circa 1700. John Shedden of Marsheland, born 25 April 1756 was locally known as'Jack the Marsheland', he was a notorious poacher of hares at a time when the hunting laws were strict and archaic. Jack had various brushes with the law and as a result he had to leave the area for a while and became a game-keeper, his local nickname adapting itself to become'Jack the Gem-Keeper.' When he died he had a friend fire a shotgun over his grave, much to the surprise and consternation of the minister.
In around 1820 the part of the Marshal-land held by Robert Spier had a rent value of £58 18s 2d, whilst that part held by Mrs. Gibson was valued at £20 0s 0d. Aitken's 1829 map shows an R. Spier Esquire as resident at Marsheyland. Andrew Spier, John's brother, is designated'of Marshalland' and may have lived there until his untimely death. A Marshall family were blacksmiths in Gateside for many generations however no direct connection has been shown to exist. John Spier was the son of Robert Spier and bank agent in Beith, owner of the Marshalland and Cuff estates, which included Bogstone, Eastend of Shutterflat and Lugton Ridge farms. Robert was descended from the Spier's of Kersland Mill, which he purchased from his elder brother and through good business acumen accumulated a considerable fortune of £40,000 in land and money. Mary Spier Gunn was murdered in Northbank Cottage at Portencross in 1913; this lady was a grand-daughter of Margaret Gibson Spier and the murder remains unsolved to this day.
John Spier of Cuff predeceased his mother. Andrew Spier of Marshalland, John's brother, had pre-deceased his mother and brother. After many discussions and a Royal Commission investigation, the final plan for a school emerged as a co-educational day school equipped to take a few boarders; these boarders were always a minor element, never more than 14. They wore kilts on weekdays and Eton suits and hats on Sundays. Fees were 50 guineas for full-time boarders; the 1914-18 War and the shortage of domestic staff resulted in the cessation of boarding at the school. Fees were charged at Spier's, however free education was available to local pupils who passed the qualifying examinations and were recommended by their teachers; the school's foundation stone was laid in September 1887 in front of more than 1000 visitors and opened on 22 September 1888 with 140 pupils from North Ayrshire. The boys were taught apart from the girls until 1893 when the extra costs forced a more liberal approach to emerge. Robert Bruce Lockhart head of Waid Academy, was the first Head Master, followed by Dr Third in 1895.
The school administration was in the hands of the Lord Lieutenant of the County, seven representatives of the school boards and the existing trustees as life governors, to be replaced by two heritors of the parish of Beith in due course. The peak school roll was 310 over 350 after new classrooms were added. By 1932 however the school was in financial difficulties and after a prolonged campaign the County Authorities took over the school in 1937. In 1968 the staff consisted of 19 full-time and four itinerant teachers in the Secondary department and two in the preparatory; the school had three'houses' to which pupils belonged, Spier's and Marshalland. The school closed on 30 June 1972 when a modern Garnock Academy was erected at Kilbirnie, taking in the secondary pupils from Spier's, Kilbirnie Central, Dalry High; the headmasters were Robert Bruce Lockhart, Dr J. A. Third, Alexander Emslie, Gilbert R. Mair, Robert R. Fairley, David K. Conn; some of the ornamental stonework was recovered after demolition and lay near the staff car park at Garnock Academy, Kilbirnie.
The Spier's sc
Anstruther is a small coastal resort town in Fife, situated on the north-shore of the Firth of Forth and 9 mi south-southeast of St Andrews. The town comprises two settlements, Anstruther Easter and Anstruther Wester, which are divided by a stream, the Dreel Burn. With a population of 3,500, it is the largest community on the Firth of Forth's north-shore coastline known as the East Neuk. To the east, it merges with the village of Cellardyke. Founded as a fishing village, Anstruther is home to the Scottish Fisheries Museum, its main industry is now tourism, although other small-scale manufacturing and service industries continue. Recreational vessels are now moored in the harbour, a golf course is situated near the town. Anstruther Pleasure Cruises operate sightseeing/wildlife cruises from the harbour to the Isle of May, the UK's primary puffin location, on board the vessel the May Princess from April to October. An abundance of other wildlife, including seal colonies inhabit the island; the Waid Academy, the local state comprehensive school, is a focus of the community and through its secondary role as a community centre.
Anstruther has a parish church at its centre, on a small hill. This structure incorporates a tower/spire feature common to the area. Anstruther War Memorial is located in the cemetery, somewhat further inland, it is of an unusual war memorial form, being flat to the ground, in the centre of a landscaped roundel, broadly adopting the shape of a celtic cross. The town has several chip shops; the Anstruther Fish Bar, which won Fish and Chip shop of the year in 2001–2002, was awarded the same prize once again by the Sea Fish Organisation in 2009. Anstruther is home to Scotland's only true-scale model Solar System; the model, which shows the Sun and planets and the distances between them all at the same scale of 1 to ten thousand million, is located in the town centre. It stretches 600 m from the Sun to Pluto. Anstruther is close to the Caves of Caiplie situated on the coastal path to Crail. Following the end of the Cold War, one of Anstruther's best-kept secrets has become a major tourist attraction.
A secret nuclear bunker, built in 1951 and operational until 1993, is located on the B940 near the village. During its operational life, it looked like an ordinary domestic dwelling, but has been renovated and is now open to the public as a museum; the bunker was a subsidiary Regional Seat of Government in time of possible nuclear emergency and would have been occupied by the UK Armed Forces, UKWMO, Royal Observer Corps, other Civil Service personnel. Somewhat out from the town centre, in Anstruther Wester, stands the Dreel Tavern, taking its name from the adjacent burn; this building dates from the 17th century. Nearby is Buckie House, built in the late 17th century and restored in 1968 by W Murray Jack; the east gable was decorated with scallop shells and whelks or'buckies' by the slater Andrew Batchelor in the mid 19th century. Its exterior was restored in 2010; the name of Anstruther derives from Scottish Gaelic. The second element is sruthair, but the first element less certain: it is Gaelic án or aon, thus meaning either'driving current or burn' or' one burn'.
The name of Anstruther Easter derives from Scots easter, since the village lies to the east of Anstruther, Anstruther Wester correspondingly from Scots wester. Anstruther-Easter and -Wester are separated by a small stream called Dreel Burn, their parishes and that of nearby Kilrenny are immensely historic. Local tradition states that early in the 12th century, Alexander I of Scotland granted the lands of Anstruther to a William de Candela. However, no records survive of this original grant, the earliest recorded lord of Anstruther was mentioned in a charter of 1225. There have been several theories as to the origin of the mythical, but recent research has suggested he may have been a Norman from Italy. There is evidence that William the Conqueror sought assistance from Count of Candela, he sent his son. It may be this. William de Candela's son, another William, was said to be a benefactor to the monks of Balmerino Abbey. Balmerino was founded in 1229, long after the lifetime of this William. Land in Anstruther Easter, on which a chapel was built and now occupied by the Scottish Fisheries Museum, was gifted to Balmerino by another William, sometime in the 1280s.
Both this suggestion, the Italian origin theory are inaccurate. The de Candela family came from Dorset, coming to England from Normandy in or around 1066; the de Candela name was dropped by a generation, in a charter confirming a grant of land to Dryburgh Abbey in 1225, Henry is described as'Henricus de Aynstrother dominus ejusdem'. His son called Henry, was a companion of Louis IX in his crusades to the Holy Land and swore fealty to Edward I in 1292 and again in 1296. In 1225, it took the intervention of Pope Honorius III to settle a teinds dispute between the monks of Dryburgh Abbey and the fishermen of Anstruther, suggesting that then, the fishing was sufficiently good to warrant arguing over. In December 1583, James VI of Scotland gave the town the status of a Royal Burgh and trading rights, recognizing the importance of the port, called the draucht of Anstruther; the bounds of the new Burgh were the "Silver Dyke" on the east, the low water line on the south, the Anstruther burn to the west, the Kylrynnie march road.
James Melville's diary provides a graphic account of the arrival of a ship from the Spanish Armada to Ans
Vladimir Ilyich Ulyanov, better known by the alias Lenin, was a Russian communist revolutionary and political theorist. He served as head of government of Soviet Russia from 1917 to 1922 and of the Soviet Union from 1922 to 1924. Under his administration and the wider Soviet Union became a one-party communist state governed by the Russian Communist Party. Ideologically a communist, he developed a variant of Marxism known as Leninism. Born to a moderately prosperous middle-class family in Simbirsk, Lenin embraced revolutionary socialist politics following his brother's 1887 execution. Expelled from Kazan Imperial University for participating in protests against the Russian Empire's Tsarist government, he devoted the following years to a law degree, he became a senior Marxist activist. In 1897, he was arrested for sedition and exiled to Shushenskoye for three years, where he married Nadezhda Krupskaya. After his exile, he moved to Western Europe, where he became a prominent theorist in the Marxist Russian Social Democratic Labour Party.
In 1903, he took a key role in a RSDLP ideological split, leading the Bolshevik faction against Julius Martov's Mensheviks. Encouraging insurrection during Russia's failed Revolution of 1905, he campaigned for the First World War to be transformed into a Europe-wide proletarian revolution, which as a Marxist he believed would cause the overthrow of capitalism and its replacement with socialism. After the 1917 February Revolution ousted the Tsar and established a Provisional Government, he returned to Russia to play a leading role in the October Revolution, in which the Bolsheviks overthrew the new regime. Lenin's Bolshevik government shared power with the Left Socialist Revolutionaries, elected soviets, a multi-party Constituent Assembly, although by 1918 it had centralised power in the new Communist Party. Lenin's administration redistributed land among the peasantry and nationalised banks and large-scale industry, it withdrew from the First World War by signing a treaty with the Central Powers and promoted world revolution through the Communist International.
Opponents were suppressed in the Red Terror, a violent campaign administered by the state security services. His administration defeated right and left-wing anti-Bolshevik armies in the Russian Civil War from 1917 to 1922 and oversaw the Polish–Soviet War of 1919–1921. Responding to wartime devastation and popular uprisings, in 1921 Lenin encouraged economic growth through the market-oriented New Economic Policy. Several non-Russian nations secured independence after 1917, but three re-united with Russia through the formation of the Soviet Union in 1922. In poor health, Lenin died at his dacha in Gorki, with Joseph Stalin succeeding him as the pre-eminent figure in the Soviet government. Considered one of the most significant and influential figures of the 20th century, Lenin was the posthumous subject of a pervasive personality cult within the Soviet Union until its dissolution in 1991, he became an ideological figurehead behind Marxism–Leninism and thus a prominent influence over the international communist movement.
A controversial and divisive individual, Lenin is viewed by supporters as a champion of socialism and the working class, while critics on both the left and right emphasize his role as founder and leader of an authoritarian regime responsible for political repression and mass killings. Lenin's father, Ilya Nikolayevich Ulyanov, was from a family of serfs. Despite this lower-class background he had risen to middle-class status, studying physics and mathematics at Kazan Imperial University before teaching at the Penza Institute for the Nobility. Ilya married Maria Alexandrovna Blank in mid-1863. Well educated and from a prosperous background, she was the daughter of a wealthy German–Swedish Lutheran mother, a Russian Jewish father who had converted to Christianity and worked as a physician, it is that Lenin was unaware of his mother's half-Jewish ancestry, only discovered by his sister Anna after his death. Soon after their wedding, Ilya obtained a job in Nizhny Novgorod, rising to become Director of Primary Schools in the Simbirsk district six years later.
Five years after that, he was promoted to Director of Public Schools for the province, overseeing the foundation of over 450 schools as a part of the government's plans for modernisation. His dedication to education earned him the Order of St. Vladimir, which bestowed on him the status of hereditary nobleman. Lenin was baptised six days later, he was one of eight children, having two older siblings and Alexander. They were followed by three more children, Olga and Maria. Two siblings died in infancy. Ilya was a devout member of the Russian Orthodox Church and baptised his children into it, although Maria—a Lutheran by upbringing—was indifferent to Christianity, a view that influenced her children. Both parents were monarchists and liberal conservatives, being committed to the emancipation reform of 1861 introduced by the reformist Tsar Alexander II; every summer they holidayed at a rural manor in Kokushkino. Among his siblings, Lenin was closest to his sister Olga, whom he bossed around.