The Independent is a British online newspaper. Established in 1986 as a politically independent national morning newspaper published in London, it was controlled by Tony O'Reilly's Independent News & Media from 1997 until it was sold to Russian oligarch Alexander Lebedev in 2010; the last printed edition of The Independent was published on Saturday 26 March 2016, leaving only its digital editions. Nicknamed the Indy, it began as a broadsheet, but changed to tabloid format in 2003; until September 2011, the paper described itself on the banner at the top of every newspaper as "free from party political bias, free from proprietorial influence". It tends to take a pro-market stance on economic issues; the daily edition was named National Newspaper of the Year at the 2004 British Press Awards. In June 2015, it had an average daily circulation of just below 58,000, 85 per cent down from its 1990 peak, while the Sunday edition had a circulation of just over 97,000. Launched in 1986, the first issue of The Independent was published on 7 October in broadsheet format.
It was produced by Newspaper Publishing plc and created by Andreas Whittam Smith, Stephen Glover and Matthew Symonds. All three partners were former journalists at The Daily Telegraph who had left the paper towards the end of Lord Hartwell's ownership. Marcus Sieff was the first chairman of Newspaper Publishing, Whittam Smith took control of the paper; the paper was created at a time of a fundamental change in British newspaper publishing. Rupert Murdoch was challenging long-accepted practices of the print unions and defeated them in the Wapping dispute. Production costs could be reduced which, it was said at the time, created openings for more competition; as a result of controversy around Murdoch's move to Wapping, the plant was having to function under siege from sacked print workers picketing outside. The Independent attracted some of the staff from the two Murdoch broadsheets who had chosen not to move to his company's new headquarters. Launched with the advertising slogan "It is. Are you?", challenging both The Guardian for centre-left readers and The Times as the newspaper of record, The Independent reached a circulation of over 400,000 by 1989.
Competing in a moribund market, The Independent sparked a general freshening of newspaper design as well as, within a few years, a price war in the market sector. When The Independent launched The Independent on Sunday in 1990, sales were less than anticipated due to the launch of the Sunday Correspondent four months prior, although this direct rival closed at the end of November 1990; some aspects of production merged with the main paper, although the Sunday paper retained a distinct editorial staff. In the 1990s, The Independent was faced with price cutting by the Murdoch titles, started an advertising campaign accusing The Times and The Daily Telegraph of reflecting the views of their proprietors, Rupert Murdoch and Conrad Black, it featured spoofs of the other papers' mastheads with the words The Rupert Murdoch or The Conrad Black, with The Independent below the main title. Newspaper Publishing had financial problems. A number of other media companies were interested in the paper. Tony O'Reilly's media group and Mirror Group Newspapers had bought a stake of about a third each by mid-1994.
In March 1995, Newspaper Publishing was restructured with a rights issue, splitting the shareholding into O'Reilly's Independent News & Media, MGN, Prisa. In April 1996, there was another refinancing, in March 1998, O'Reilly bought the other shares of the company for £30 million, assumed the company's debt. Brendan Hopkins headed Independent News, Andrew Marr was appointed editor of The Independent, Rosie Boycott became editor of The Independent on Sunday. Marr introduced a dramatic if short-lived redesign which won critical favour but was a commercial failure as a result of a limited promotional budget. Marr admitted his changes had been a mistake in My Trade. Boycott left in April 1998 to join the Daily Express, Marr left in May 1998 becoming the BBC's political editor. Simon Kelner was appointed as the editor. By this time the circulation had fallen below 200,000. Independent News spent to increase circulation, the paper went through several redesigns. While circulation increased, it did not approach the level, achieved in 1989, or restore profitability.
Job cuts and financial controls reduced the quality of the product. Ivan Fallon, on the board since 1995 and a key figure at The Sunday Times, replaced Hopkins as head of Independent News & Media in July 2002. By mid-2004, the newspaper was losing £5 million per year. A gradual improvement meant. In November 2008, following further staff cuts, production was moved to Northcliffe House, in Kensington High Street, the headquarters of Associated Newspapers; the two newspaper groups' editorial and commercial operations remained separate, but they shared services including security, information technology and payroll. On 25 March 2010, Independent News & Media sold the newspaper to Russian oligarch Alexander Lebedev for a nominal £1 fee and £9.25m over the next 10 months, choosing this option over closing The Independent and The Independent on Sunday, which would have cost £28m and £40m due to long-term contracts. In 2009, Lebedev had bought a controlling stake in the London Evening Standard. Two weeks editor Roger Alton resigned.
In July 2011, The Independent's columnist Johann Hari was stripped of the Orwell Prize he had won in 2008 after claims, to which Hari admitted, of plagiarism and inaccuracy. In January 2012, Chris Blackhurst
University of Florida
The University of Florida is an American public land-grant, sea-grant, space-grant research university in Gainesville, United States. It is a senior member of the State University System of Florida; the university traces its origins to 1853 and has operated continuously on its Gainesville campus since September 1906. The University of Florida is one of sixty-two elected member institutions of the Association of American Universities, the association of preeminent North American research universities, the only AAU member university in Florida; the university is classified as a Research University with Very High Research by the Carnegie Foundation for the Advancement of Teaching. After the Florida state legislature's creation of performance standards in 2013, the Florida Board of Governors designated the University of Florida as one of the three "preeminent universities" among the twelve universities of the State University System of Florida. For 2019, U. S. News & World Report ranked Florida as the eighth best public university in the United States.
The university is accredited by the Southern Association of Schools. It is the third largest Florida university by student population, is the eighth largest single-campus university in the United States with 54,906 students enrolled for the fall 2018 semester; the University of Florida is home to sixteen academic colleges and more than 150 research centers and institutes. It offers multiple graduate professional programs—including business administration, law, medicine and veterinary medicine—on one contiguous campus, administers 123 master's degree programs and seventy-six doctoral degree programs in eighty-seven schools and departments; the university's seal is the seal of the state of Florida, on the state flag. The University of Florida's intercollegiate sports teams known by their "Florida Gators" nickname, compete in National Collegiate Athletic Association Division I and the Southeastern Conference. In their 111-year history, the university's varsity sports teams have won 41 national team championships, 36 of which are NCAA titles, Florida athletes have won 275 individual national championships.
In addition, University of Florida students and alumni have won 126 Olympic medals including 60 gold medals. The University of Florida traces its origins to 1853, when the East Florida Seminary, the oldest of the University of Florida's four predecessor institutions, was founded in Ocala, Florida. On January 6, 1853, Governor Thomas Brown signed a bill that provided public support for higher education in Florida. Gilbert Kingsbury was the first person to take advantage of the legislation, established the East Florida Seminary, which operated until the outbreak of the Civil War in 1861; the East Florida Seminary was Florida's first state-supported institution of higher learning. James Henry Roper, an educator from North Carolina and a state senator from Alachua County, had opened a school in Gainesville, the Gainesville Academy, in 1858. In 1866, Roper offered his land and school to the State of Florida in exchange for the East Florida Seminary's relocation to Gainesville; the second major precursor to the University of Florida was the Florida Agricultural College, established at Lake City by Jordan Probst in 1884.
Florida Agricultural College became the state's first land-grant college under the Morrill Act. In 1903, the Florida Legislature, desiring to expand the school's outlook and curriculum beyond its agricultural and engineering origins, changed the name of Florida Agricultural College to the "University of Florida," a name the school would hold for only two years. In 1905, the Florida Legislature passed the Buckman Act, which consolidated the state's publicly supported higher education institutions; the member of the legislature who wrote the act, Henry Holland Buckman became the namesake of Buckman Hall, one of the first buildings constructed on the new university's campus. The Buckman Act organized the State University System of Florida and created the Florida Board of Control to govern the system, it abolished the six pre-existing state-supported institutions of higher education, consolidated the assets and academic programs of four of them to form the new "University of the State of Florida."
The four predecessor institutions consolidated to form the new university included the University of Florida at Lake City in Lake City, the East Florida Seminary in Gainesville, the St. Petersburg Normal and Industrial School in St. Petersburg, the South Florida Military College in Bartow; the Buckman Act consolidated the colleges and schools into three institutions segregated by race and gender—the University of the State of Florida for white men, the Florida Female College for white women, the State Normal School for Colored Students for African-American men and women. The City of Gainesville, led by its Mayor William Reuben Thomas, campaigned to be home to the new university. On July 6, 1905, the Board of Control selected Gainesville for the new university campus. Andrew Sledd, president of the pre-existing University of Florida at Lake City, was selected to be the first president of the new University of the State of Florida; the 1905-1906 academic year was a year of transition. Architect William A. Edwards designed the first official campus buildings in the Collegiate Gothic style.
Classes began on the new Gainesville campus with 102 students enrolled. In 1909, the school's name
A. J. Ayer
Sir Alfred Jules "Freddie" Ayer cited as A. J. Ayer, was an English philosopher known for his promotion of logical positivism in his books Language and Logic and The Problem of Knowledge, he was educated at Eton College and Oxford University, after which he studied the philosophy of logical positivism at the University of Vienna. From 1933 to 1940 he lectured on philosophy at Oxford. During the Second World War Ayer was a Special Operations Executive and MI6 agent, he was Grote Professor of the Philosophy of Mind and Logic at University College London from 1946 until 1959, after which he returned to Oxford to become Wykeham Professor of Logic at New College. He was president of the Aristotelian Society from 1951 to 1952 and knighted in 1970, he was known for his advocacy of humanism, was the second President of the British Humanist Association. Ayer was born in St John's Wood, in north west London, to a wealthy family from continental Europe, his mother, Reine Citroën, was from the Dutch-Jewish family who founded the Citroën car company in France.
His father, Jules Ayer, was a Swiss Calvinist financier. Ayer was educated at Ascham St Vincent's School, a former boarding preparatory school for boys in the seaside town of Eastbourne in Sussex, in which he started boarding at the comparatively early age of seven for reasons to do with the First World War, Eton College, a boarding school in Eton in Berkshire, it was at Eton that Ayer first became known for his characteristic precocity. Although interested in furthering his intellectual pursuits, he was keen on sports rugby, reputedly played the Eton Wall Game well. In the final examinations at Eton, Ayer came second in his year, first in classics. In his final year, as a member of Eton's senior council, he unsuccessfully campaigned for the abolition of corporal punishment at the school, he won a classics scholarship to Oxford. After graduation from Oxford University Ayer spent a year in Vienna, returned to England and published his first book, Language and Logic in 1936; the first exposition in English of Logical Positivism as newly developed by the Vienna Circle, this made Ayer at age 26 the'enfant terrible' of British philosophy.
In the Second World War he served as an officer in the Welsh Guards, chiefly in intelligence. Ayer was commissioned second lieutenant into the Welsh Guards from Officer Cadet Training Unit on 21 September 1940. After the war he returned to Oxford University where he became a fellow and Dean of Wadham College, he thereafter taught philosophy at London University from 1946 until 1959, when he started to appear on radio and television. He was an extrovert and social mixer who liked dancing and attending the clubs in London and New York, he was obsessed with sport: he had played rugby for Eton, was a noted cricketer and a keen supporter of Tottenham Hotspur football team, where he was for many years a season ticket holder. For an academic, Ayer was an unusually well-connected figure in his time, with close links to'high society' and the establishment. Presiding over Oxford high-tables, he is described as charming, but at times he could be intimidating. Ayer was married four times to three women, his first marriage was from 1932–1941 to Renée, who subsequently married philosopher Stuart Hampshire, Ayer's friend and colleague.
In 1960 he married Alberta Constance Wells. Ayer's marriage to Wells was dissolved in 1983 and that same year he married Vanessa Salmon, former wife of politician Nigel Lawson, she died in 1985 and in 1989 he remarried Dee Wells, who survived him. Ayer had a daughter with Hollywood columnist Sheilah Graham Westbrook. From 1959 to his retirement in 1978, Sir Alfred held the Wykeham Chair, Professor of Logic at Oxford, he was knighted in 1970. After his retirement, Ayer taught or lectured several times in the United States, including serving as a visiting professor at Bard College in the fall of 1987. At a party that same year held by fashion designer Fernando Sanchez, Ayer 77, confronted Mike Tyson, forcing himself upon the little-known model Naomi Campbell; when Ayer demanded that Tyson stop, the boxer asked, "Do you know who the fuck I am? I'm the heavyweight champion of the world," to which Ayer replied, "And I am the former Wykeham Professor of Logic. We are both pre-eminent in our field. I suggest that we talk about this like rational men".
Ayer and Tyson began to talk, allowing Campbell to slip out. In 1988, one year before his death, Ayer wrote an article entitled, "What I saw when I was dead", describing an unusual near-death experience. Of the experience, Ayer first said that it "slightly weakened my conviction that my genuine death... will be the end of me, though I continue to hope that it will be." However, a few days he revised this, saying "what I should have said is that my experiences have weakened, not my belief that there is no life after death, but my inflexible attitude towards that belief". Ayer died on 27 June 1989. From 1980 to 1989, Ayer lived at 51 York Street, where a memorial plaque was unveiled on 19 November 1995. In Language and Logic, Ayer presents the verification principle as the only valid basis for philosophy. Unless logical or empirical verification is possible, statements like "God exists" or "charity is good" are not true or untrue but meaningless, may thus be excluded or ignored. Religious language in particular was unverifiable and as such nonsense.
He criticises C. A. Mace's opini
Animal rights movement
The animal rights movement, sometimes called the animal liberation movement, animal personhood, or animal advocacy movement, is a social movement which seeks an end to the rigid moral and legal distinction drawn between human and non-human animals, an end to the status of animals as property, an end to their use in the research, food and entertainment industries. It is one of the few examples of a social movement, created, is to a large extent sustained academically, by philosophers. All animal liberationists believe that the individual interests of non-human animals deserve recognition and protection, but the movement can be split into two broad camps. Animal rights advocates, or rights liberationists, believe that these basic interests confer moral rights of some kind on the animals, and/or ought to confer legal rights on them. Utilitarian liberationists, on the other hand, do not believe that animals possess moral rights, but argue, on utilitarian grounds — utilitarianism in its simplest form advocating that we base moral decisions on the greatest happiness of the greatest number — that, because animals have the ability to suffer, their suffering must be taken into account in any moral philosophy.
To exclude animals from that consideration, they argue, is a form of discrimination that they call speciesism. Despite these differences, the terms "animal liberation" and "animal rights" are used interchangeably. Factional division has been characterized as that between the reformist or mainstream faction and the radical abolitionist and direct action factions; the mainstream faction is professionalized and focuses on soliciting donations and gaining media representation. This focus on resource mobilization, sought by means of frame alignment with dominant cultural frames, leads to compromise with targets. Actors in the reformist movement diagnose the problem as one of nonhuman animal mistreatment, offer a prognosis including welfare reform, employ action frames that include moral shocks, it has been noted that the power of the animal rights movement in the United States is centralized in professionalized nonprofit organizations that prefer moderated goals of welfare reform and tend to be isomorphic.
The abolitionist faction diagnoses the problem as one of nonhuman animal use, offers a prognosis including vegan outreach, employ action frames including a rational and theoretic focus. Gary Francione, a leader in abolitionism, formed his approach in response to the traditional movement's focus on policy reform. Members of the abolitionist faction view policy reform as counterproductive and rely on nonviolent education and moral suasion in their repertoire of contention, they see the promotion of veganism as a low-opportunity cost means of creating an antispeciesist culture and posing an economic threat to the animal agriculture industrial complex. The direct action or militant faction includes in its repertoire of contention property damage, open releases and direct violence. With these, they offer a prognosis to the problem of animal use that focuses on changing society through force and fear. Animal rights actors reject this faction, pointing to violence as a counterproductive tactic that invites repression and does not economically or politically challenge extant systems.
Smaller factions include groups focused around faith-based animal rights theory and veganarchists, whose approach is characterized by a critique of capitalism on the grounds that it has led to mass nonhuman and environmental exploitation. Such factionalizing, researchers have pointed out, is common to social movements and plays a role in sustaining their health; the Animal Rights Movement traces back to the animal protection movement in Victorian England, initiated by aristocratic moral crusaders in response to the poor treatment of urban workhorses and stray dogs. Other early influences include: Upton Sinclair's 1906 novel The Jungle, which drew attention to obscured slaughterhouse operations; the contemporary movement is regarded as having been founded in the UK in the early 1970s by a group of Oxford university post-graduate philosophy students, now known as the "Oxford Group". The group was led by Rosalind and Stanley Godlovitch, graduate students of philosophy who had become vegetarians.
The Godlovitches met John Harris and David Wood philosophy graduates, who were soon persuaded of the arguments in favour of animal rights and themselves became vegetarian. The group began to raise the issue with pre-eminent Oxford moral philosophers, including Professor Richard Hare, both and in lectures, their approach was based not on the moral rights of animals. They soon developed a range of powerful arguments in support of their views, so that Oxford clinical psychologist Richard Ryder, shortly to become part of the group, writes that "rarely has a cause been so rationally argued and so intellectually well armed."It was a 1965 article by novelist Brigid Brophy in The Sunday Times, pivotal in helping to spark the movement. Brophy wrote: The philosophers found this article and were inspired by its vigorous unsentimental polemic. At about the same time, Ryder wrote three letters to the Daily Telegraph in response to Brophy's arguments. Brophy read Ryder's letters and put him in touch with the Godlovi
Sir Bernard Arthur Owen Williams, FBA was an English moral philosopher. His publications include Problems of the Self and the Limits of Philosophy and Necessity, Truth and Truthfulness, he was knighted in 1999. As Knightbridge Professor of Philosophy at the University of Cambridge and Deutsch Professor of Philosophy at the University of California, Williams became known for his efforts to reorient the study of moral philosophy to psychology, in particular to the Greeks. Described by Colin McGinn as an "analytical philosopher with the soul of a general humanist," he was sceptical about attempts to create a foundation for moral philosophy. Martha Nussbaum wrote that he demanded of philosophy that it "come to terms with, contain, the difficulty and complexity of human life."Williams was a strong supporter of women in academia. He was famously sharp in conversation. Gilbert Ryle, one of Williams's mentors at Oxford, said that he "understands what you're going to say better than you understand it yourself, sees all the possible objections to it, all the possible answers to all the possible objections, before you've got to the end of your own sentence."
Williams was born in Westcliff-on-Sea, a suburb of Southend, Essex, to Hilda Amy Williams, née Day, a personal assistant, Owen Pasley Denny Williams, chief maintenance surveyor for the Ministry of Works. He was educated at an independent school, where he first discovered philosophy. Reading D. H. Lawrence led him to the problems of the self. In his first book, Morality: An Introduction to Ethics, he quoted with approval Lawrence's advice to "ind your deepest impulse, follow that."Awarded a scholarship to Oxford, Williams read Greats at Balliol. Among his influences at Oxford were W. S. Watt, Russell Meiggs, R. M. Hare, Elizabeth Anscombe, Eric Dodds, Eduard Fraenkel, David Pears and Gilbert Ryle, he shone in the first part of the course, the pure classics and graduated in 1951 with a congratulatory first in the second part of the course and a prize fellowship at All Souls. After Oxford, Williams spent his two-year national service flying Spitfires in Canada for the Royal Air Force. While on leave in New York, he became close to Shirley Brittain Catlin, daughter of the novelist Vera Brittain and the political scientist George Catlin.
They had been friends at Oxford. Catlin had moved to New York to study economics at Columbia University on a Fulbright scholarship. Williams returned to England to take up his fellowship at All Souls and in 1954 became a fellow at New College, Oxford, a position he held until 1959, he and Catlin continued seeing each other. She began working for the Daily Mirror and sought election as a Labour MP. Williams a member of the Labour Party, helped her with the 1954 by-election in Harwich in which she was an unsuccessful candidate. Williams and Catlin were married in London in July 1955 at St James's, Spanish Place, near Marylebone High Street, followed by a honeymoon in Lesbos, Greece; the couple moved into a basic ground-floor apartment in London, on Clarendon Road, Notting Hill. Given how hard it was to find decent housing, they decided instead to share with Helge Rubinstein and her husband, the literary agent Hilary Rubinstein, who at the time was working for his uncle, Victor Gollancz. In 1955 the four of them bought a four-storey, seven-bedroom house in Phillimore Place, for ₤6,800, a home they lived in together for 14 years.
Williams described it as one of the happiest periods of his life. In 1958 Williams spent a term teaching at the University of Ghana in Legon; when he returned to England in 1959, he was appointed lecturer in philosophy at University College London. In 1961, after four miscarriages in four years, Shirley Williams gave birth to their daughter, Rebecca. Williams was a visiting professor at Princeton University in 1963, was appointed Professor of Philosophy at Bedford College, London, in 1964, his wife was elected to parliament that year as the Labour member for Hitchin in Hertfordshire. The Sunday Times described the couple two years as "the New Left at its most able, most generous, sometimes most eccentric." Andy Beckett wrote that they "entertained refugees from eastern Europe and politicians from Africa, drank sherry in noteworthy quantities." Shirley Williams became a junior minister and, in 1971, Shadow Home Secretary. Several newspapers saw her as a future prime minister, she went on to co-found a new centrist party in the Social Democratic Party.
In 1967, at the age of 38, Williams became the Knightbridge Professor of Philosophy at the University of Cambridge and a fellow of King's College. According to Jane O'Grady, Williams was central to the decision by King's in 1972 to admit women, one of the first three all-male Oxbridge undergraduate colleges to do so. In both his first and second marriages, he supported his wives in their careers and helped with the children more than was common for men at the time. In the 1970s, when Nussbaum's thesis supervisor, G. E. L. Owen, was harassing female students, she decided to support him, Williams told her, during a walk along the backs at Cambridge: "ou know, there is a price you are paying for this support and encouragement. Your dignity is being held hostage. You don't have to put up with this."Shirley Williams's political career me
Pacifism is opposition to war, militarism, or violence. The word pacifism was coined by the French peace campaigner Émile Arnaud and adopted by other peace activists at the tenth Universal Peace Congress in Glasgow in 1901. A related term is ahimsa, a core philosophy in Hinduism and Jainism. While modern connotations are recent, having been explicated since the 19th century, ancient references abound. In modern times, interest was revived by Leo Tolstoy in his late works in The Kingdom of God Is Within You. Mohandas Gandhi propounded the practice of steadfast nonviolent opposition which he called "satyagraha", instrumental in its role in the Indian Independence Movement, its effectiveness served as inspiration to Martin Luther King Jr. James Lawson, James Bevel, Thich Nhat Hanh and many others in the civil rights movement. Pacifism covers a spectrum of views, including the belief that international disputes can and should be peacefully resolved, calls for the abolition of the institutions of the military and war, opposition to any organization of society through governmental force, rejection of the use of physical violence to obtain political, economic or social goals, the obliteration of force, opposition to violence under any circumstance defence of self and others.
Historians of pacifism Peter Brock and Thomas Paul Socknat define pacifism "in the sense accepted in English-speaking areas" as "an unconditional rejection of all forms of warfare". Philosopher Jenny Teichman defines the main form of pacifism as "anti-warism", the rejection of all forms of warfare. Teichman's beliefs have been summarized by Brian Orend as "... A pacifist believes there are no moral grounds which can justify resorting to war. War, for the pacifist, is always wrong." In a sense the philosophy is based on the idea. Pacifism may be based on moral principles or pragmatism. Principled pacifism holds that at some point along the spectrum from war to interpersonal physical violence, such violence becomes morally wrong. Pragmatic pacifism holds that the costs of war and interpersonal violence are so substantial that better ways of resolving disputes must be found. Pacifists reject theories of Just War; some pacifists follow principles of nonviolence, believing that nonviolent action is morally superior and/or most effective.
Some however, support physical violence for emergency defence of self or others. Others support destruction of property in such emergencies or for conducting symbolic acts of resistance like pouring red paint to represent blood on the outside of military recruiting offices or entering air force bases and hammering on military aircraft. Not all nonviolent resistance is based on a fundamental rejection of all violence in all circumstances. Many leaders and participants in such movements, while recognizing the importance of using non-violent methods in particular circumstances, have not been absolute pacifists. Sometimes, as with the civil rights movement's march from Selma to Montgomery in 1965, they have called for armed protection; the interconnections between civil resistance and factors of force are complex. An absolute pacifist is described by the British Broadcasting Corporation as one who believes that human life is so valuable, that a human should never be killed and war should never be conducted in self-defense.
The principle is described as difficult to abide by due to violence not being available as a tool to aid a person, being harmed or killed. It is further claimed that such a pacifist could logically argue that violence leads to more undesirable results than non-violence. Although all pacifists are opposed to war between nation states, there have been occasions where pacifists have supported military conflict in the case of civil war or revolution. For instance, during the American Civil War, both the American Peace Society and some former members of the Non-Resistance Society supported the Union's military campaign, arguing they were carrying out a "police action" against the Confederacy, whose act of Secession they regarded as criminal. Following the outbreak of the Spanish Civil War, French pacifist René Gérin urged support for the Spanish Republic. Gérin argued that the Spanish Nationalists were "comparable to an individual enemy" and the Republic's war effort was equivalent to the action of a domestic police force suppressing crime.
In the 1960s, some pacifists associated with the New Left supported wars of national liberation and supported groups such as the Viet Cong and the Algerian FLN, arguing peaceful attempts to liberate such nations were no longer viable, war was thus the only option. Advocacy of pacifism can be found far back in literature. During the Warring States period, the pacifist Mohist School opposed aggressive war between the feudal states, they took this belief into action by using their famed defensive strategies to defend smaller states from invasion from larger states, hoping to dissuade feudal lords from costly warfare. The Seven Military Classics of ancient China view warfare negatively, as a last resort. For example, the Three Strategies of Huang Shigong says: "As for the military, it is not an auspicious instrument; the Taoist scripture "Classic of Great Peace" foretells "the coming Age of Great Peace". The Taiping Jing advocates "a world full of peace"; the Lemba religion of southern Frenc
Balliol College, Oxford
Balliol College is one of the constituent colleges of the University of Oxford in England. One of Oxford's oldest colleges, it was founded around 1263 by John I de Balliol, a rich landowner from Barnard Castle in County Durham, who provided the foundation and endowment for the college; when de Balliol died in 1269 his widow, Dervorguilla, a woman whose wealth far exceeded that of her husband, continued his work in setting up the college, providing a further endowment, writing the statutes. She is considered a co‑founder of the college. Among the college's alumni are three former prime ministers, Harald V of Norway, five Nobel laureates, numerous literary and philosophical figures, including Adam Smith, Gerard Manley Hopkins, Aldous Huxley. John Wycliffe, who translated the Bible into English, was Master of the college in the 1360s. In 2018 Balliol had an endowment of £139.3m. Balliol College was founded in about 1263 by John I de Balliol under the guidance of Walter of Kirkham, the Bishop of Durham.
According to legend, the founder had abducted the bishop as part of a land dispute and as a penance he was publicly beaten by the bishop and had to support a group of scholars at Oxford. After de Balliol's death in 1268, his widow, Dervorguilla of Galloway, made arrangements to ensure the permanence of the college in that she provided capital and in 1282 formulated the college statutes, documents that survive to this day. Along with University and Merton, Balliol can claim to be the oldest Oxford college. Balliol’s claim is that a house of scholars was established by the founder in Oxford in around 1263, before Merton in 1274 and University in around 1280. Under a statute of 1881, New Inn Hall, one of the remaining medieval halls, was merged into Balliol College in 1887. Balliol acquired New Inn Hall's admissions and other records for 1831–1887 as well as the library of New Inn Hall, which contained 18th-century law books; the New Inn Hall site was sold and is now part of St Peter's College, Oxford.
In 1880, seven mischievous Balliol undergraduates published The Masque of B-ll--l, a broadsheet of forty quatrains making light of their superiors – the Master and selected Fellows and Commoners – and themselves. The outraged authorities suppressed the collection, only a few copies survived, three of which found their way into the College Library over the years, one into the Bodleian Library. Verses of this form are now known as Balliol rhymes; the best known of these rhymes is the one on Benjamin Jowett. This has been quoted and reprinted in every book about Jowett and about Balliol since. First come I. My name is J-W-TT. There's no knowledge but I know it. I am Master of this College; this and 18 others are attributed to Henry Charles Beeching. The other quatrains are much less well known. William Tuckwell included 18 of these quatrains in his Reminiscences in 1900, but they all came out only in 1939, thanks to Walter George Hiscock, an Oxford librarian, who issued them then and in a second edition in 1955.
For many years, there has been a traditional and fierce rivalry shown between the students of Balliol and those of its immediate neighbour to the east, Trinity College. It has manifested itself on the river; the rivalry reflects that which exists between Trinity College and Balliol's sister college, St John's College, Cambridge. In college folklore, the rivalry goes back to the late 17th century, when Ralph Bathurst, President of Trinity, was observed throwing stones at Balliol's windows. In fact, in its modern form, the rivalry appears to date from the late 1890s, when the chant or song known as a "Gordouli" began to be sung from the Balliol side; the traditional words run: Gordouli Face like a ham,Bobby Johnson says so And he should know. The shouting of chants over the wall is still known as "a Gordouli", the tradition continues as the students gather to sing following boat club dinners and other events; the traditional Gordouli is said to have been sung by Balliol and Trinity men in the trenches of Mesopotamia in the First World War.
Balliol became known for its radicalism and political activism in the 20th century, saw an abortive coup in the 1960s in which students took over the college and declared it "the People's Republic of Balliol". The contrast between the radical tendencies of many Balliol students and the traditional conservatism and social exclusivity of Trinity gave the rivalry an extra edge; the fact that Balliol had admitted a number of Indian and Asiatic students gave many of the taunts from the Trinity side a distinctly racist tone: Balliol students, for example, were sometime referred to as "Basutos". In Five Red Herrings, a Lord Peter Wimsey novel by Somerville alumna Dorothy L. Sayers, Lord Peter is asked whether he remembers a certain contemporary from Trinity. "'I never knew any Trinity men,' said Wimsey.'The Jews have no dealings with the Samaritans.'" Sayers alludes to the rivalry in Murder Must Advertise: Mr Ingleby, a Trinity man, comments, "If there is one thing more repulsive than another it is Balliolity."One of the wittier raids from Balliol, in 1962 or 1963, involved the turfing of the whole of Trinity JCR.
The last incident suspected to relate to the feud was the vandalisation of Trinity's SCR pond, which led to the death of all but one of the fish. For