Royal Opera House
The Royal Opera House is an opera house and major performing arts venue in Covent Garden, central London. The large building is referred to as "Covent Garden", after a previous use of the site of the opera house's original construction in 1732, it is the home of The Royal Opera, The Royal Ballet, the Orchestra of the Royal Opera House. Called the Theatre Royal, it served as a playhouse for the first hundred years of its history. In 1734, the first ballet was presented. A year Handel's first season of operas began. Many of his operas and oratorios were written for Covent Garden and had their premieres there; the current building is the third theatre on the site following disastrous fires in 1808 and 1856. The façade and auditorium date from 1858, but every other element of the present complex dates from an extensive reconstruction in the 1990s; the main auditorium seats 2,256 people, making it the third largest in London, consists of four tiers of boxes and balconies and the amphitheatre gallery.
The proscenium is 14.80 m high. The main auditorium is a Grade I listed building; the foundation of the Theatre Royal, Covent Garden lies in the letters patent awarded by Charles II to Sir William Davenant in 1662, allowing Davenant to operate one of only two patent theatre companies in London. The letters patent remained in the possession of the patentees' heirs until the 19th century. In 1728, John Rich, actor-manager of the Duke's Company at Lincoln's Inn Fields Theatre, commissioned The Beggar's Opera from John Gay; the success of this venture provided him with the capital to build the Theatre Royal at the site of an ancient convent garden, part of, developed by Inigo Jones in the 1630s with a piazza and church. In addition, a Royal Charter had created a fruit and vegetable market in the area, a market which survived in that location until 1974. At its opening on 7 December 1732, Rich was carried by his actors in processional triumph into the theatre for its opening production of William Congreve's The Way of the World.
During the first hundred years or so of its history, the theatre was a playhouse, with the Letters Patent granted by Charles II giving Covent Garden and Theatre Royal, Drury Lane exclusive rights to present spoken drama in London. Despite the frequent interchangeability between the Covent Garden and Drury Lane companies, competition was intense presenting the same plays at the same time. Rich introduced pantomime to the repertoire, himself performing and a tradition of seasonal pantomime continued at the modern theatre, until 1939. In 1734, Covent Garden presented Pygmalion. Marie Sallé danced in diaphanous robes. George Frideric Handel was named musical director of the company, at Lincoln's Inn Fields, in 1719, but his first season of opera, at Covent Garden, was not presented until 1734, his first opera was Il pastor fido followed by Ariodante, the première of Alcina, Atalanta the following year. There was a royal performance of Messiah in 1743, a success and began a tradition of Lenten oratorio performances.
From 1735 until his death in 1759 he gave regular seasons there, many of his operas and oratorios were written for Covent Garden or had their first London performances there. He bequeathed his organ to John Rich, it was placed in a prominent position on the stage, but was among many valuable items lost in a fire that destroyed the theatre on 20 September 1808. In 1792 the architect Henry Holland rebuilt the auditorium, within the existing shell of the building but deeper and wider than the old auditorium, thus increasing capacity. Rebuilding began in December 1808, the second Theatre Royal, Covent Garden opened on 18 September 1809 with a performance of Macbeth followed by a musical entertainment called The Quaker; the actor-manager John Philip Kemble, raised seat prices to help recoup the cost of rebuilding and the cost of an increased ground rent introduced by the landowner, the Duke of Bedford, but the move was so unpopular that audiences disrupted performances by beating sticks, hissing and dancing.
The Old Price Riots lasted over two months, the management was forced to accede to the audience's demands. During this time, entertainments were varied. Kemble engaged a variety of acts, including the child performer Master Betty. Many famous actors of the day appeared at the theatre, including the tragediennes Sarah Siddons and Eliza O'Neill, the Shakespearean actors William Charles Macready, Edmund Kean and his son Charles. On 25 March 1833 Edmund Kean collapsed on stage while playing Othello, died two months later. In 1806, the pantomime clown Joseph Grimaldi had performed his greatest success in Harlequin and Mother Goose. Grimaldi was an innovator: his performance as Joey introduced the clown to the world, building on the existing role of Harlequin derived from the Commedia dell'arte, his father had been ballet-master at Drury Lane, his physical comedy, his ability to invent visual tricks and buffoonery, his ability to poke fun at the audience were extraordinary. Early pantomimes were performed as mimes accompanied by music, but as Music hall became popular, Grimaldi introduced the pantomime dame to the theatre and was responsible for the tradition of audience singing.
By 1821 dance and clowning had taken such a physical toll on
Eglinton Tournament of 1839
The Eglinton Tournament of 1839 was a re-enactment of a medieval joust and revel held in Scotland on Friday 30 August. It was funded and organized by Archibald, Earl of Eglinton, took place at Eglinton Castle in Ayrshire; the Queen of Beauty was Duchess of Somerset. Many distinguished visitors took part, including Prince Louis Napoleon, the future Emperor of the French; the Tournament was a deliberate act of Romanticism, drew 100,000 spectators. It is known now for the ridicule poured on it by the Whigs. Problems were caused by rainstorms. At the time views were mixed: "Whatever opinion may be formed of the success of the Tournament, as an imitation of ancient manners and customs, we heard only one feeling of admiration expressed at the gorgeousness of the whole scene, considered only as a pageant. On Wednesday, when the procession was seen to the greatest possible disadvantage, the dullest eye glistened with delight as the lengthy and stately train swept into the marshalled lists". Participants had undergone regular training.
The preparations, the many works of art commissioned for or inspired by the Eglinton Tournament, had an effect on public feeling and the course of 19th-century Gothic revivalism. Its ambition carried over to events such as the lavish Tournament of Brussels in 1905, presaged the historical reenactments of the present. Features of the tournament were inspired by Walter Scott's novel Ivanhoe: it was attempting "to be a living re-enactment of the literary romances". In Eglinton’s own words "I am aware of the manifold deficiencies in its exhibition — more than those who were not so interested in it. While others made a profit, Lord Eglinton had to absorb losses; the Earl's granddaughter, Viva Montgomerie recalled in her memoirs that "he had spent most of the wealth of the estate". The Gothic Revival and the rise of Romanticism of the late 18th and early 19th centuries were an international phenomenon. Medieval-style jousts, for example, were held in Sweden between 1777 and 1800. Gothic novels, such as The Castle of Otranto, by Horace Walpole and the many works of Sir Walter Scott popularised the idea of passionate romanticism and praise of chivalric ideals.
Walpole himself was one of the first in England to renovate his mansion into a mock-Gothic castle, Strawberry Hill. Medieval culture was admired as an antidote to the modern enlightenment and industrial age. Plays and theatrical works perpetuated the romanticism of knights, castles and tournaments. Caspar David Friedrich of Germany painted spiritual allegories. Jane Austen wrote her novel Northanger Abbey as a satire on romantic affectation; the Montgomerie family had a romantic tale of chivalry which bound them to the idea of a revival of such ideals, this being the acquisition of the pennon and spear of Harry Hotspur, aka Sir Henry Percy, at the Battle of Otterburn by a Montgomerie. The price for Hotspur's release was the building of the castle of Polnoon in Eaglesham, Renfrewshire for the Montgomeries, it is said that the Duke of Northumberland, head of the Percy family, made overtures for the return of the pennon in 1839 and was given the answer, "There's as good lea land at Eglinton as there was at Chevy Chase.
In 1838 Whig Prime Minister Lord Melbourne announced that the coronation of Queen Victoria would not include the traditional medieval-style banquet in Westminster Hall. Seeking to disempower the monarchy in particular and romantic ideology and politics in general was a normal activity for the Whig party, so, in the face of recession, the more anachronistic parts of the coronation celebrations would be considered an extravagance. Furthermore, memories of embarrassing mishap at George IV's Westminster Hall banquet were still fresh. King William IV had cancelled his banquet to prevent a repeat. Although there was some popular support for government refusal to hold the traditional event, there were "many complaints and various public struggles, as well as on the part of the antiquaries, as on that of the tradesmen of the metropolis". Critics referred to Victoria's slimmed-down coronation scornfully as "The Penny Crowning". Despite attempts to achieve economies, contemporary accounts point out that Victoria's coronation in fact cost £20,000 more than that of George IV.
Her coronation did feature an innovation: the procession from the palace to Westminster Abbey, popular. However, it was not just the ancient Great Feast itself, cancelled but other rituals which traditionally were not paid for by the state anyway such as the throwing down of the gauntlet by the Queen's Champion, his symbolic presentation to her of two falcons. "Obeisance to the past was in 1839 was not just a fad. Lord Eglinton’s own stepfather, Sir Charles Lamb, as Knight Marshal of the Royal Household, would have led his horse into the Great Hall of Westminster as part of one of these colourful and loved rituals. On 4 August 1838, the "Court Journal" printed a rumour that the Earl of Eglinton, was going to host a great jousting tournament at his castle in Scotland, it has been speculated that it was Sir Charles or his son who suggested to Lord Eglinton that he should provide the nation with its missing rites of passage by holding
Theatre Royal, Drury Lane
The Theatre Royal, Drury Lane known as Drury Lane, is a West End theatre and Grade I listed building in Covent Garden, England. The building backs onto Drury Lane; the building is the most recent in a line of four theatres which were built at the same location, the earliest of which dated back to 1663, making it the oldest theatre site in London still in use. According to the author Peter Thomson, for its first two centuries, Drury Lane could "reasonably have claimed to be London's leading theatre". For most of that time, it was one of a handful of patent theatres, granted monopoly rights to the production of "legitimate" drama in London; the first theatre on the site was built at the behest of Thomas Killigrew in the early 1660s, when theatres were allowed to reopen during the English Restoration. Known as "Theatre Royal in Bridges Street", the theatre's proprietors hired prominent actors who performed at the theatre on a regular basis, including Nell Gwyn and Charles Hart. In 1672 the theatre caught fire and Killigrew built a larger theatre on the same plot, renamed the "Theatre Royal in Drury Lane".
This building lasted nearly 120 years, under the leaderships of Colley Cibber, David Garrick and Richard Brinsley Sheridan, the last of whom employed Joseph Grimaldi as the theatre's resident Clown. In 1791, under Sheridan's management, the building was demolished to make way for a larger theatre which opened in 1794; this new Drury Lane survived for 15 years before burning down in 1809. The building that stands today opened in 1812, it has been the residency of well known actors including. From the Second World War, the theatre has hosted long runs of musicals, including Oklahoma!, My Fair Lady, 42nd Street and Miss Saigon, the theatre's longest-running show. The theatre is owned by the composer Andrew Lloyd Webber. After the eleven-year-long Puritan Interregnum, which had seen the banning of pastimes regarded as frivolous, such as theatre, the English monarchy was restored to the throne with the return of Charles II in 1660. Soon after, Charles issued Letters Patent to two parties licensing the formation of new acting companies.
One of these went to Thomas Killigrew, whose company became known as the King's Company, who built a new theatre in Drury Lane. The Letters Patent granted the two companies a shared monopoly on the public performance of legitimate drama in London; the new playhouse, architect unknown, opened on 7 May 1663 and was known from the placement of the entrance as the "Theatre Royal in Bridges Street." It went by other names as well, including the "King's Playhouse." The building was a three-tiered wooden structure, 59 feet wide. Set well back from the broader streets, the theatre was accessed by narrow passages between surrounding buildings; the King himself attended the theatre's productions, as did Samuel Pepys, whose private diaries provide much of what we know of London theatre-going in the 1660s. The day after the Theatre Royal opened, Pepys attended a performance of Francis Beaumont and John Fletcher's The Humorous Lieutenant, he has this to say in his diary: The house is made with extraordinary good contrivance, yet hath some faults, as the narrowness of the passages in and out of the Pitt, the distance from the stage to the boxes, which I am confident cannot hear.
Performances began at 3 pm to take advantage of the daylight: the main floor for the audience, the pit, had no roof in order to let in the light. A glazed dome was built over the opening, but according to one of Pepys' diary entries, the dome was not effective at keeping out the elements: he and his wife were forced to leave the theatre to take refuge from a hail storm. Green baize cloth covered the benches in the pit and served to decorate the boxes, additionally ornamented with gold-tooled leather, the stage itself; the backless green benches in the pit were in a semicircular arrangement facing the stage, according to a May 1663 letter from one Monsieur de Maonconys: "All benches of the pit, where people of rank sit, are shaped in a semi-circle, each row higher than the next." The three galleries formed a semicircle around the floor seats. The King's Company was forced to commission the technically advanced and expensive Theatre Royal playhouse by the success of the rival Duke's Company, drawing fascinated crowds with their "moveable" or "changeable" scenery and visually gorgeous productions at the former Lisle's Tennis Court at Lincoln's Inn Fields.
Imitating the innovations at Lincoln's Inn Fields, the Theatre Royal featured moveable scenery with wings or shutters that could be smoothly changed between or within acts. When not in use, the shutters rested out of sight behind the sides of the proscenium arch, which served as a visual frame for the on-stage happenings; the picture-frame-like separation between audience and performance was a new phenomenon in English theatre, though it had been found on the Continent earlier. Theatre design in London remain
Dictionary of National Biography
The Dictionary of National Biography is a standard work of reference on notable figures from British history, published since 1885. The updated Oxford Dictionary of National Biography was published on 23 September 2004 in 60 volumes and online, with 50,113 biographical articles covering 54,922 lives. Hoping to emulate national biographical collections published elsewhere in Europe, such as the Allgemeine Deutsche Biographie, in 1882 the publisher George Smith, of Smith, Elder & Co. planned a universal dictionary that would include biographical entries on individuals from world history. He approached Leslie Stephen editor of the Cornhill Magazine, owned by Smith, to become the editor. Stephen persuaded Smith that the work should focus only on subjects from the United Kingdom and its present and former colonies. An early working title was the Biographia Britannica, the name of an earlier eighteenth-century reference work; the first volume of the Dictionary of National Biography appeared on 1 January 1885.
In May 1891 Leslie Stephen resigned and Sidney Lee, Stephen's assistant editor from the beginning of the project, succeeded him as editor. A dedicated team of sub-editors and researchers worked under Stephen and Lee, combining a variety of talents from veteran journalists to young scholars who cut their academic teeth on dictionary articles at a time when postgraduate historical research in British universities was still in its infancy. While much of the dictionary was written in-house, the DNB relied on external contributors, who included several respected writers and scholars of the late nineteenth century. By 1900, more than 700 individuals had contributed to the work. Successive volumes appeared quarterly with complete punctuality until midsummer 1900, when the series closed with volume 63; the year of publication, the editor and the range of names in each volume is given below. Since the scope included only deceased figures, the DNB was soon extended by the issue of three supplementary volumes, covering subjects who had died between 1885 and 1900 or, overlooked in the original alphabetical sequence.
The supplements brought the whole work up to the death of Queen Victoria on 22 January 1901. Corrections were added. After issuing a volume of errata in 1904, the dictionary was reissued with minor revisions in 22 volumes in 1908 and 1909. In the words of the Encyclopædia Britannica Eleventh Edition, the dictionary had "proved of inestimable service in elucidating the private annals of the British", providing not only concise lives of the notable deceased, but additionally lists of sources which were invaluable to researchers in a period when few libraries or collections of manuscripts had published catalogues or indices, the production of indices to periodical literatures was just beginning. Throughout the twentieth century, further volumes were published for those who had died on a decade-by-decade basis, beginning in 1912 with a supplement edited by Lee covering those who died between 1901 and 1911; the dictionary was transferred from its original publishers, Elder & Co. to Oxford University Press in 1917.
Until 1996, Oxford University Press continued to add further supplements featuring articles on subjects who had died during the twentieth century. The supplements published between 1912 and 1996 added about 6,000 lives of people who died in the twentieth century to the 29,120 in the 63 volumes of the original DNB. In 1993 a volume containing missing biographies was published; this had an additional 1,000 lives, selected from over 100,000 suggestions. This did not seek to replace any articles on existing DNB subjects though the original work had been written from a Victorian perspective and had become out of date due to changes in historical assessments and discoveries of new information during the twentieth century; the dictionary was becoming less and less useful as a reference work. In 1966, the University of London published a volume of corrections, cumulated from the Bulletin of the Institute of Historical Research. There were various versions of the Concise Dictionary of National Biography, which covered everyone in the main work but with much shorter articles.
The last edition, in three volumes, covered everyone who died before 1986. In the early 1990s Oxford University Press committed itself to overhauling the DNB. Work on what was known until 2001 as the New Dictionary of National Biography, or New DNB, began in 1992 under the editorship of Colin Matthew, professor of Modern History at the University of Oxford. Matthew decided that no subjects from the old dictionary would be excluded, however insignificant the subjects appeared to a late twentieth-century eye. Suggestions for new subjects were solicited through questionnaires placed in libraries and universities and, as the 1990s advanced and assessed by the editor, the 12 external consultant editors and several hundred associate editors and in-house staff. Digitization of the DNB was performed by the Alliance Photosetting Company in India; the new dictionary would cover British history, "broadly defined", up to 31 December 2000. The research project was conceived as a collaborative one, with in-house staff co-ordinating the work of
Letters of Charles Dickens
The letters of Charles Dickens, of which more than 14,000 are known, range in date from about 1821, when Dickens was 9 years old, to 8 June 1870, the day before he died. They have been described as "invariably idiosyncratic, exuberant and amusing…widely recognized as a significant body of work in themselves, part of the Dickens canon", they were written to family and the contributors to his literary periodicals, who included many of the leading writers of the day. Their letters to him were all burned by Dickens because of his horror at the thought of his private correspondence being laid open to public scrutiny; the reference edition of Dickens's letters is the 12-volume Pilgrim Edition, edited by Graham Storey et al. and published by Oxford University Press. Dickens received, by his own count, 60 to 80 letters every day, when pressure of work permitted he replied to them without delay. For most of his life he did not employ a secretary but conducted his correspondence himself. Exceptions were made for begging letters, which his sister-in-law Georgina Hogarth answered, for routine business connected with his two magazines, Household Words and All the Year Round, handled by his assistant editor W. H. Wills, although Dickens preferred to correspond with the contributors himself.
He wrote with a goose quill rather than a steel pen, at first used black ink, switching in the late 1840s to blue ink on blue paper. His biographer Fitzgerald described his handwriting as "so'prompt', so alert and full of purpose and decision, he ended his signature with an exuberant flourish, which became a kind of trademark. Dickens's correspondents spanned the whole social scale of 19th century England from reformed street prostitutes to Queen Victoria herself, they included family members, of course, Dickens's publishers. Letters to several of his friends have little or no representation in the surviving correspondence because they were destroyed by the recipients, their heirs, or by random accidents of history; these correspondents include his daughter Katey, Augustus Egg, Chauncy Hare Townshend, Hablot K. Browne, Richard Barham, James Muspratt, his lover Ellen Ternan; the letters are the only extended autobiographical writing by Dickens. Attempts at writing a diary lasted long and for the most part the manuscripts are lost, while a memoir of his childhood was discontinued and converted into some of the early chapters of David Copperfield.
The letters therefore give the most immediate and vivid expression of Dickens's life as seen by himself though they examine his interior life. They give a unique insight into the way Dickens's processes of composition worked as he wrestled with the novels he published and considered others which were never written, such as the "book whereof the whole story shall be on the top of the Great St. Bernard". Dickens's constant travelling is reflected. George Gissing wrote that "If he makes a tour in any part of the British Isles, he writes a full description of all he sees, of everything that happens, writes it with such gusto, such mirth, such strokes of fine picturing, as appear in no other private letters given to the public." The range of subject-matter of the letters is described by his editor, Jenny Hartley: Scotland and Venice…child exploitation, Ragged Schools, soup kitchens…the Great Exhibition, women smoking, dresses for reformed prostitutes…ravens and recipes for punch…mesmerism and dreams…terrible acting and wonderful children's birthday parties".
Dickens's early sensational success as the author of The Pickwick Papers induced many people to keep any letters he might send them. This, along with his huge output of letters, ensured. In 1965 the editors of his letters reckoned them to number nearly 12,000. Though some letters are in private hands, most are now in public institutions; the largest collection is held by the Charles Dickens Museum in London, the second largest by the Victoria and Albert Museum, the third largest by the Morgan Library & Museum in New York. In contrast, few letters to Dickens are known. Dickens expressed his opposition to the publication of private letters, was determined to suffer from it himself as little as possible, he burned those letters, sent to him in a mass bonfire in 1860, commenting, "Would to God that every letter I had written was on that pile". He burned more in 1869; as a result, hardly more than 250 letters to Dickens have survived to the present day. The reading public's first chance to study large numbers of Dickens letters came shortly after his death with the publication of The Life of Charles Dickens by his lifelong friend John Forster.
Many of Dickens's letters to Forster were included, but they were and rather dishonestly edited to make Forster seem a more central figure in Dickens's life than he had always been. In 1878 it was announced that a collection of Dickens's letters would be edited by his sister-in-law, Georgina Hogarth. In collaboration with Dickens's eldest daughter Mary she duly produced The Letters of Charles Dickens in three volumes, which were published by Chapman & Hall between 188
Jacobite rising of 1745
The Jacobite rising of 1745 known as the Forty-five Rebellion or the'45, was an attempt by Charles Edward Stuart to regain the British throne for his father, James Francis Edward Stuart. It took place during the War of the Austrian Succession, when the bulk of the British Army was fighting in mainland Europe, proved to be the last in a series of revolts that began in 1689, with major outbreaks in 1708, 1715 and 1719. Charles launched the rebellion on 19 August 1745 at Glenfinnan in the Scottish Highlands, capturing Edinburgh and winning the Battle of Prestonpans in September. At a council in October, the Scots agreed to invade England after Charles assured them of substantial support from English Jacobites and a simultaneous French landing in Southern England. On that basis, the Jacobite army entered England in early November, reaching Derby on 4 December, where they decided to turn back. Similar discussions had taken place at Carlisle and Manchester and many felt they had gone too far already.
The invasion route had been selected to cross areas considered Jacobite but the promised English support failed to materialise. The decision was supported by the vast majority but caused an irretrievable split between Charles and his Scots supporters. Despite victory at Falkirk Muir in January 1746, the Battle of Culloden in April ended the Rebellion and significant backing for the Stuart cause. Charles escaped to France, but was unable to win support for another attempt, died in Rome in 1788; the 1688 Glorious Revolution replaced James II and VII with his Protestant daughter Mary and her Dutch husband William, who ruled as joint monarchs of England and Scotland. Neither Mary, who died in 1694, nor her sister Anne, had surviving children, which left their Catholic half-brother James Francis Edward as the closest natural heir. To ensure a Protestant monarch, the 1701 Act of Settlement excluded Catholics from the succession and when Anne became queen in 1702, her heir was the distantly related but Protestant Sophia of Hanover.
Sophia died in June 1714 and when Anne followed two months in August, her son succeeded as George I. Louis XIV of France, the Stuarts' main backer, died in 1715 and his successors needed peace with Britain in order to rebuild their economy; the 1716 Anglo-French alliance forced James to leave France. Rebellions in 1715 and 1719 failed, the latter so badly its planners concluded that it might "ruin the King's Interest and faithful subjects in these parts." Senior exiles like Bolingbroke now accepted pardons and returned home or took employment elsewhere and while many remained sympathetic, the Stuart cause seemed at an end. The birth of his sons Charles and Henry helped maintain public interest but by 1737, James was "living tranquilly in Rome, having abandoned all hope of a restoration."In the 1730s, French statesmen began to see the post-1713 expansion of British commercial strength as a threat to the European balance of power and looked for ways to reduce it. A Stuart restoration would be expensive, risky and of little value, since they were unlikely to be any more pro-French than the Hanoverians.
A low level, ongoing insurgency was far more cost-effective and the Scottish Highlands an ideal location, due to the feudal nature of clan society, their remoteness and terrain. An opportunity was provided due to unhappiness with the London government, resulting in the 1725 malt tax riots and 1737 Porteous riots. In March 1743, the Highland-recruited 42nd Regiment or Black Watch was posted to Flanders, contrary to an understanding their service was restricted to Scotland and led to a short-lived mutiny. However, mutinies over pay and conditions were not unusual and the worst riots in 1725 took place in Glasgow, a town Charles noted in 1746 as one'where I have no friends and who are not at pains to hide it.' Trade disputes between Spain and Britain led to the 1739 War of Jenkins' Ear, followed in 1740–41 by the War of the Austrian Succession. The long-serving British prime minister Robert Walpole was forced to resign in February 1742 by an alliance of Tories and anti-Walpole Patriot Whigs, who did a deal that excluded the majority of their Tory partners from government.
Furious Tories such as the Duke of Beaufort now asked for French help in restoring James to the British throne. While war with Britain was only a matter of time, Cardinal Fleury, chief minister since 1723, viewed the Jacobites as unreliable fantasists, an opinion shared by most French ministers. One exception was the Marquis D'Argenson. In 1745, supporters of the exiled Stuarts, or Jacobites, remained a significant element in British and Irish politics but with different and competing goals; these divisions between the Scots and Irish, became apparent during the 1745 Rising, which demonstrated estimates of English support confused indifference to the Hanoverians with enthusiasm for the Stuarts. Charles' senior advisors included Irish exiles such as John O'Sullivan, who wanted an autonomous, Catholic Ireland and the return of lands confiscated after the Irish Confederate Wars. James II promised these concessions in return for Irish support in the 1689–91 Williamite War, only a Stuart on the throne of Great Britain could ensure their fulfilment.
A prominent factor in Tory opposition to th
Samuel Carter Hall
Samuel Carter Hall was an Irish-born Victorian journalist, best known for his editorship of The Art Journal and for his much-satirised personality. Hall was born at the Geneva Barracks in Ireland, his London-born father was Robert Hall, an army officer and, while in Ireland, engaged in working copper mines which ruined him. His mother supported the family of 12 children with her own business in Cork, he married Ann Kent at Topsham, 6 April 1790. Ann Hall supported the family, including 12 children, by running a business in Ireland. Hall was the fourth son. In 1821, he went to London, he entered law studies at the Inner Temple in 1824, but never practised, though he was called to the bar in 1841. Instead, he became a reporter and editor, including: Reporter, Parliamentary Editor,'Literary Observer' Art reviews/criticism, the British Press Reporter, Representative Reporter, New Times Founder/editor, The Amulet, a Christian and Literary Remembrancer, Editor and Manners of the Age Editor, Morning Journal Sub-editor/Editor New Monthly Magazine's Juvenile Library Author, "History of France", Colburn Writer, Wesleyan Methodist newspaper, Start-up, The Town, conservative whig journal, Sub-editor, John Bull General manager, Britannia In 1839, Hodgson & Graves, print publishers, employed Hall to edit their new publication, Art Union Monthly Journal.
Not long after, Hall purchased a chief share of the periodical. By 1843, he started giving sculpture engravings. In 1848, with Hall still unable to turn a profit, the London publisher George Virtue purchased into the Art Union Monthly Journal, retaining Hall as editor. Virtue renamed the periodical The Art Journal in 1849. In 1851, Hall engraved 150 pictures from the private collection of the Queen and Prince Albert, the engravings were featured in the journal's Great Exhibition edition. Though this edition was quite popular, the journal remained unprofitable, forcing Hall to sell his share of The Art Journal to Virtue, but staying on as editor; as editor, Hall exposed the profits that custom-houses were earning by importing Old Masters, showed how paintings are manufactured in England. While The Art Journal became notable for its honest portrayal of fine arts, the consequence of Hall's actions was the unsaleability of old masters such as a Raphael or a Titian, his intention was to support modern British art by promoting young artists and attacking the market for unreliable old masters.
The early issues of the Journal supported the artists of The Clique and attacked the Pre-Raphaelites. Hall remained unsympathetic to Pre-Raphaeliism, publishing several attacks upon the movement. Hall resigned the editorship in 1880, was granted a Civil List pension for his long and valuable services to literature and art, his wife, Anna Maria Fielding, became well known, for her numerous articles, sketches of Irish life, plays. Two of the last, The Groves of Blarney and The French Refugee, were produced in London with success, she wrote a number of children's books, was interested in various London charities, several of which she helped to found. Hall's notoriously sanctimonious personality was satirised, he is cited as the model for the character of Pecksniff in Charles Dickens's novel Martin Chuzzlewit; as Julian Hawthorne wrote, Hall was a genuine comedy figure. Such oily and voluble sanctimoniousness needed no modification to be fitted to appear before the footlights in satirical drama, he might be called an ingenuous hypocrite, an artless humbug, a veracious liar, so were the traits indicated innate and organic in him rather than acquired.
Dickens, after all, missed some of the finer shades of the character. His perversity was of the spirit, not of the letter, thus escaped his own recognition, his indecency and falsehood were in his soul, but not in his consciousness. Hall was a convinced spiritualist, he was the chairman for the British National Association of Spiritualists, in 1874. The Amulet: A Christian and Literary Remembrancer Gems of the Modern Poets: With Biographical Notices The Book of British Ballads The Gallery of Modern Sculpture The royal gallery of art and modern: engravings from the private collections of Her Majesty the Queen and His Royal Highness Prince Albert, the art heir-looms of the crown, at Windsor Castle, Buckingham Palace, Osborne; the Vernon Gallery of British Art, London, 1854 Memoirs of Great Men and Women of the Age, From Personal Acquaintance The Trial of Sir Jasper: A Temperance Tale in Verse An Old Story: A Temperance Tale in Verse A Memoir of Thomas Moore Rhymes in Council: Aphorisms Versified Retrospect of a Long Life, from 1815 to 1883 The Use of Spiritualism?
This article incorporates text from a publication now in the public domain: Chisholm, Hugh, ed.. "Hall, Samuel Carter". Encyclopædia Britannica. Cambridge University Press; this article incorporates text from a publication now in the public domain: Gilman, D. C.. "Hall, Samuel Carter". New International Encyclopedia. New York: Dodd, Mead. Works by S. C. Hall at Project Gutenberg (nam