Diehl Defence GmbH & Co. KG is a German arms manufacturer and a subsidiary of the Diehl Stiftung with headquarters in Überlingen. Diehl Defence produces missiles and ammunition. Diehl BGT Defence was founded in 2004 as result of the merger of Bodenseewerke Gerätetechnik GmbH and Diehl Munitionssysteme GmbH & Co. KG. Diehl BGT Defence and Diehl Defence Holding are merged into Diehl Defence in February 2017. In 1960, Bodenseewerke Gerätetechnik became the prime contractor for the European production of the American Sidewinder AIM-9B air-to-air missile. Based on the experience with the Sidewinder, Diehl developed a progressive new seeker for a new type of short-range air-to-air missile - the IRIS-T. IRIS-T is being adopted by the German Air Force and other European air forces. AIM-9 Sidewinder IRIS-T IRIS-T SL / IRIS-T SLS AGM ARMIGER LFK NG PARS 3 LR Fliegerfaust 2 - Licensed development and production of the STINGER POST missile from the late 1980s onwards. Diehl was project coordinator, with Dornier as general contractor and Bodenseewerk producing the guidance systems.
Diehl absorbed the respective interests and responsibilities of those companies in the program. GMLRS RIM-116 Rolling Airframe Missile RBS-15 IDAS Barracuda EUROSPIKE HOPE/HOSBO Dornier Viper SMART-Ammunition Panzerfaust 3 DM51 Grenade Other Hand grenades & related fuses Official website
Defence and Security Equipment International is an arms fair held every two years in London Docklands, attended by both arms company representatives and military delegations from around the world. Each time it takes place, it draws protests from campaigners and civil society - as many of the regimes invited to buy arms are accused of human-rights abuses and breaching international humanitarian law. Between 1976 and 1991, the British Army Equipment Exhibition and the Royal Navy Equipment Exhibition were held on alternate years in Aldershot and Portsmouth respectively. Overseas delegations attended by invitation only. Despite having been at war with Iran for six years, a five-strong delegation from Iraq attended in 1986. In 1993 the two exhibitions were combined and held every other year until the British government decided to privatise the exhibition. Exhibitions company Spearhead launched the first DSEI known as Defence and Systems Equipment International, in 1999 at Chertsey in Surrey. In 2001 it moved to its current location at the ExCeL Exhibition Centre in London Docklands.
DSEI's name was changed in 2009. In April 2008, DSEI was acquired by Clarion Events. At the same time Clarion acquired ITEC - a conference and exhibition dedicated to military simulation and education - and Latin American Aerospace and Defence. Clarion's organising of DSEI has made it a target of protests. In July 2017, anti-war campaigners wrote'war starts here' outside the company's office, it was suggested by CAAT that former owners Reed Exhibitions' decision to sell followed substantial criticism both from healthcare professionals and academics, as well as criticism from campaigners, over the alleged immoral nature of the arms fair. DSEI works with the Department of International Trade's arms-export promotion arm to invite foreign military delegations; some of these delegations are accused of abusing human-rights. In 2015, 61 countries were invited to DSEI. Of these, 14 were characterised by the Economist Intelligence Unit's Democracy Index of having authoritarian regimes. Four were on the UK government's list of countries with wide-ranging human rights concerns.
Six countries were characterised by the Heidelberg Institute for International Conflict Research as being "at war" at the time. Criticism of the DSEI arms fair has been led by Campaign Against Arms Trade but other NGOs such as Amnesty International have criticised the fair - focusing on the presence of human-rights abusing regimes and on the sale of illegal torture equipment. In 2015, Amnesty International criticised the organiser's decision to bar human-rights researcher Oliver Sprague from the arms fair. Amnesty said it suspected "organisers wished to prevent human rights experts from detecting the presence of any illegal activity at the event, which has a chequered history". Although the government has supported the event since its inception, opposition politicians have criticised it. In 2017, London Mayor Sadiq Khan called, he said: "The Security Equipment International arms fair is not an event that I support. ExCeL is a commercial space for hire. I am opposed to London being used as a market place for the trade of weapons to those countries that contribute to human rights abuses.”.
On the other hand, when Boris Johnson was Mayor of London, he said. Polling of 2,000 UK adults, conducted by Opinium in 2015, showed that 43% believed that the government should not be involved in organising arms fairs like DSEI, with 19% believing that they should; when asked if the government should be involved in organising arms fairs which human rights abusers are invited to, 64% said'no' and 9% said'yes'. At several DSEI arms fairs, organisers have faced criticism after torture equipment was found for sale at the fair. In 2015, two arms companies exhibiting at the fair advertised electric batons. In 2007, another Chinese company called Famous Glory was found to be advertising banned leg irons in its brochure. In 2011, Amnesty International claimed; the event has attracted much attention from activist groups. In 2001, 2003, 2005 were all targets of sizeable protests. Former London Mayor Ken Livingstone has been critical of the event and the Metropolitan Police have spoken out about the cost of policing the event.
In 2013 the London Mayor Boris Johnson supported the exhibition, which caused controversy with activists. During protests against the DSEI arms fair in 2015, eight people were arrested for blocking a road which led to the Excel Centre in order to stop tanks and armoured vehicles getting to the fair; the Crown Prosecution Service charged them with blocking a highway but the judge ruled that, by attempting to disrupt the arms fair, the protesters had been trying to prevent greater crimes such as genocide and torture. Defence witnesses in the case argued that the arms fair facilitated the repressive government of Bahrain, Saudi Arabia’s bombing campaign in Yemen and Turkey’s internal repression of its Kurdish population. District judge Angus Hamilton said: "“ clear and unchallenged evidence from the expert witnesses of wrongdoing at DSEI and compelling evidence that it took place in 2015, it was not appropriately investigated by the authorities. This could be inferred from the responses of the police officers, that they did not take the defendants’ allegations seriously.”
Protestors targeted DSEI exhibitor Lockheed Martin by blocking the entrances to their Regent Street office. A networking dinner for DSEI
A rocket launcher is a device that launches an unguided, rocket-propelled projectile, although the term is used in reference to mechanisms that are portable and capable of being operated by an individual. The earliest rocket launchers documented in imperial China consisted of arrows modified by the attachment of a rocket motor to the shaft a few inches behind the arrowhead; the rocket is propelled by the burning of the black powder in the motor. The rocket launchers were constructed of wood and bamboo tubes; the launchers divided the rockets with frames meant to keep them separated, the launchers were capable of firing multiple rockets at once. Textual evidence and illustrations of various early rocket launchers are found in the 1510 edition of the Wujing Zongyao translated by Needham and others at Princeton University; the 1510 Wujing Zongyao describes the "long serpent" rocket launcher, a rocket launcher constructed of wood and carried with a wheelbarrow, the "hundred tiger" rocket launcher, a rocket launcher made of wood and capable of firing 320 rocket arrows.
The text describes a portable rocket carrier consisting of a sling and a bamboo tube. Rockets were introduced to the West during the Napoleonic Wars. Congreve rockets were launched from an iron trough about 18 inches in length, called a "chamber"; these chambers could be fixed to the ground for horizontal launching, secured to a folding copper tripod for high angle fire or mounted on frames on carts or the decks of warships. During the American Civil War, both the Union and the Confederate Military experimented upon and produced rocket launchers. Confederate forces used Congreve rockets in limited uses due to its inaccuracies, while the Union forces used Hale patent rocket launcher which fired seven to ten inch rockets with fin stabilizers at a range of 2000 yards. Pre-war research programmes into military rocket technology by many of the major powers, led to the introduction of a number of rocket artillery systems with fixed or mobile launchers capable of firing a number of rockets in a single salvo.
In the United Kingdom, solid fuel rockets were used in the anti-aircraft role. Developments of these weapons included the Land Mattress multiple launchers for surface-to-surface bombardment and the RP-3 air-to-ground rockets that were launched from rails fitted to fighter bomber aircraft. In Germany, the 15 cm Nebelwerfer 41 was an adaptation of a multiple barrelled smoke mortar for artillery rockets; the Soviet Katyusha was a self-propelled system, being mounted on trucks and trains. The United States Army deployed; the rocket launchers category includes shoulder-fired weapons, any weapon that fires a rocket-propelled projectile at a target yet is small enough to be carried by a single person and fired while held on one's shoulder. Depending on the country or region, people might use the terms "bazooka" or "RPG" as generalized terms to refer to such weapons, both of which are in fact specific types of rocket launchers; the Bazooka was an American anti-tank weapon, in service from 1942–1957, while the RPG is a Soviet anti-tank weapon.
A smaller variation is the gyrojet, a small arms rocket launcher with ammunition larger than that of a.45-caliber pistol. Recoilless rifles are sometimes confused with rocket launchers. A recoilless rifle launches its projectile using an explosive powder charge, not a rocket engine, though some such systems have sustainer rocker motors. A rocket pod is a launcher that contains several unguided rockets held in individual tubes, designed to be used by attack aircraft or attack helicopters for close air support. In many cases, rocket pods are streamlined to reduce aerodynamic drag; the first pods were developed after World War II, as an improvement over the previous arrangement of firing rockets from rails, racks or tubes fixed under the wings of aircraft. Early examples of pod-launched rockets were the US Folding-Fin Aerial Rocket and the French SNEB. Larger-scale devices which serve to launch rockets include the multiple rocket launcher, a type of unguided rocket artillery system. Launch pad List of rocket launchers
A naval ship is a military ship used by a navy. Naval ships are differentiated from civilian ships by purpose. Naval ships are damage resilient and armed with weapon systems, though armament on troop transports is light or non-existent. Naval ships designed for naval warfare are termed warships, as opposed to support or shipyard operations. Naval ship classification is a field that has changed over time, is not an area of wide international agreement, so this article uses the system as used by the United States Navy. Aircraft carrier – ships that serve as mobile seaborne airfields, designed for the purpose of conducting combat operations by Carrier-based aircraft which engage in attacks against airborne, sub-surface and shore targets. Surface combatant – large armed surface ships which are designed to engage enemy forces on the high seas, including various types of battleship, cruiser, destroyer and corvette. Submarine – self-propelled submersible types regardless of whether they are employed as combatant, auxiliary, or research and development vehicles which have at least a residual combat capability.
Patrol combatant – combatants whose mission may extend beyond coastal duties and whose characteristics include adequate endurance and sea keeping providing a capability for operations exceeding 48 hours on the high seas without support. Amphibious warfare – ships having organic capability for amphibious assault and which have characteristics enabling long duration operations on the high seas. Combat logistics – ships that have the capability to provide underway replenishment to fleet units. Mine warfare – ships whose primary function is mine warfare on the high seas. Coastal defense – ships whose primary function is coastal patrol and interdiction. Sealift – ships that have the capability to provide direct material support to other deployed units operating far from home base. Support – ships, such as oilers, designed to operate in the open ocean in a variety of sea states to provide general support to either combatant forces or shore based establishments.. Service type craft – navy-subordinated craft designed to provide general support to either combatant forces or shore-based establishments.
In rough order of tonnage, modern surface naval ships are divided into the following different classes. The larger ships in the list can be classed as capital ships: Aircraft carrier Helicopter carrier Battleship Battlecruiser Heavy cruiser Light cruiser Destroyer Frigate Corvette Patrol boat Fast attack craftSome classes above may now be considered obsolete as no ships matching the class are in current service. There is much blurring / gray areas between the classes, depending on their intended use and interpretation of the class by different navies. List of naval ship classes in service List of auxiliary ship classes in service List of submarine classes in service List of ship classes of the Second World War Media related to Naval ships at Wikimedia Commons "US Navy Ships". Official Website of the United States Navy. Retrieved 26 March 2017. Jordan, Valinsky. "Here's the Entire U. S. Navy Fleet in One Chart". Official Website of the United States Navy. Retrieved 26 March 2017.*"United States Naval Recognition Training Slides-Grand Valley State University Archives and Special Collections".
Archived from the original on 2017-04-18. Retrieved 2019-01-01
Tatra is a Czech vehicle manufacturer in Kopřivnice. It is owned by the Tatra Trucks company, based in Ostrava, is the second oldest company in the world producing cars with an unbroken history, surpassed only by French automaker Peugeot; the company was founded in 1850 as Ignatz Schustala & Comp. in 1890 renamed Nesselsdorfer Wagenbau-Fabriksgesellschaft when it became a wagon and carriage manufacturer. In 1897, Tatra produced the first motor car in the Präsident automobile. In 1918, it changed its name to Kopřivnická vozovka a.s. and in 1919 changed from the Nesselsdorfer marque to the Tatra badge, named after the nearby Tatra Mountains on the Czechoslovak-Polish border. During World War II Tatra was instrumental in the production of trucks and tank engines for the German war effort. Production of passenger cars ceased in 1999, but the company still produces a range of all-wheel-drive trucks, from 4×4 to 18x18; the brand is known as a result of Czech truck racer Karel Loprais: in 1988–2001 he won the off-road race Dakar Rally six times with a Tatra 815.
Ignác Šustala, founder of the company "Ignatz Schustala & Comp" in Kopřivnice, started the production of horse-drawn vehicles in 1850. In 1891 it branched out into railroad car manufacture, naming the company "Nesselsdorfer Wagenbau-Fabriksgesellschaft", employed Hugo Fischer von Roeslerstamm as technical director in 1890. After the death of Šustala, von Roeslerstamm took over running the company and in 1897 he bought a Benz automobile. Using this for inspiration, the company made its first car, the Präsident, under the direction of engineers Hans Ledwinka and Edmund Rumpler, exhibited in 1897 in Vienna. Orders were obtained for more cars, until 1900, nine improved cars based on Präsident were made; the first car to be designed by Ledwinka came in 1900 with the Type A with rear-mounted 2714 cc engine and top speed of 40 kilometres per hour, 22 units were built. This was followed by the Type B with central engine in 1902 but Ledwinka left the company to concentrate on steam engine development.
He returned in 1905 and designed a new car, the Type S with 3308 cc 4-cylinder engine. Production was badly hit in 1912 with a 23-week strike and Hugo Fischer von Roeslerstam left the company. In 1921 the company was renamed to "Kopřivnická vozovka", in 1919 the name Tatra was given to the car range. Leopold Pasching took over control and in 1921 Hans Ledwinka returned again to develop the revolutionary Tatra 11; the new car, launched in 1923 featured a rigid backbone tube with swinging semi-axles at the rear giving independent suspension. The engine, front-mounted, was an air-cooled two-cylinder unit of 1056 cc. In 1924 the company was renamed to "Závody Tatra"; the Tatra 11 was replaced in 1926 by the similar Tatra 12. A further development was the 1926 Tatra 17 with a 1,930 cc water-cooled six-cylinder engine and independent suspension. In 1927 the company was renamed "Ringhoffer-Tatra". Tatra's specialty was luxury cars of a technically advanced nature, going from air-cooled flat-twins to fours and sixes, culminating with the OHC 6-litre V12 in 1931.
In the 1930s, under the supervision of Austrian engineer Hans Ledwinka, his son Erich and German engineer Erich Übelacker, protected by high tariffs and absence of foreign assemblers, Tatra began building advanced, streamlined cars after obtaining licences from Paul Jaray, which started in 1934 with the large Tatra 77, the world's first production aerodynamic car. The average drag coefficient of a 1:5 model of the fastback Tatra 77 was recorded as 0.2455. It featured a rear-mounted, air-cooled V8 engine, in technical terms sophisticated for the time. Both Adolf Hitler and Ferdinand Porsche were influenced by the Tatras. Hitler was a keen automotive enthusiast, had ridden in Tatras during political tours of Czechoslovakia, he had dined numerous times with Ledwinka. After one of these dinners Hitler remarked to Porsche, "This is the car for my roads". From 1933 onwards and Porsche met to discuss their designs, Porsche admitted "Well, sometimes I looked over his shoulder and sometimes he looked over mine" while designing the Volkswagen.
There is no doubt that the Beetle bore a striking resemblance to the Tatras the Tatra V570. The Tatra 97 of 1936 had a rear-located, rear-wheel drive, air-cooled four-cylinder boxer engine accommodating four passengers and providing luggage storage under the front bonnet and behind the rear seat. Another similarity between this Tatra and the Beetle is the central structural tunnel. Tatra launched a lawsuit against VW. At the same time, Tatra was forced to stop producing the T97; the matter was re-opened after World War II and in 1965 Volkswagen paid Tatra 1,000,000 DM in an out of court settlement. After the 1938 invasion of Czechoslovakia by Nazi Germany, Tatras were kept in production because Germans liked the cars. Many German officers died in car accidents caused by driving the heavy, rear-engined Tatras faster around corners than they could handle. At the time, as an anecdote, Tatra became known as the'Czech Secret Weapon' for the scores of officers who died behind the wheel; the factory was nationalised in 1945 three years before the Communist Party came to power and in January 1946 was renamed to "Tatra Národní Podnik".
Although production of prewar models continued, a new model, the Tatra 600 Tatraplan was designed—the name celebrating the new Communist planned economy and the aeroplane inspiration (Colloq
Fast attack craft
A fast attack craft is a small, fast and offensive warship armed with anti-ship missiles, gun or torpedoes. FACs are operated in close proximity to land as they lack both the seakeeping and all-round defensive capabilities to survive in blue water; the size of the vessel limits the fuel and water supplies. In size they are between 50–800 tonnes and can reach speeds of 25–50 knots. A fast attack craft's main advantage over other warship types is its affordability. Many FACs can be deployed at a low cost, allowing a navy, at a disadvantage to defend itself against a larger adversary. A small boat, when equipped with the same weapons as its larger counterpart, can pose a serious threat to the largest of capital ships, their major disadvantages are poor seagoing qualities, cramped quarters and poor ability to defend themselves against aerial threat. As early as the mid-19th century, the Jeune École's poussiere navale theory called for a great number of small, agile vessels to break up invading fleets of larger vessels.
The idea was first put into action in the 1870s with the steam-powered torpedo boat, produced in large numbers by both the Royal Navy and the French Navy. These new vessels proved susceptible to rough seas and to have limited utility in scouting due to their short endurance and low bridges; the potential threat was extinguished with the introduction of the Torpedo Boat Destroyer in 1893, a larger vessel which evolved into the modern destroyer. It could mount guns capable of destroying the torpedo boat before it was within range to use its own weapons; the idea was revived shortly before World War I with the craft using new gasoline engines. Italy and Great Britain were at the forefront of this design, with the Coastal Motor Boat and the Motobarca Armata Silurante; the outstanding achievement of the class was the sinking of the Austro-Hungarian battleship SMS Szent István by MAS. 15 on June 10, 1918. The equivalent achievement for the CMBs was a lesser success; the design matured in the mid-1930s as the Motor Torpedo Boats and Motor Gun Boats of the Royal Navy, the PT boats of the US Navy, the E-boats of the Kriegsmarine.
All types saw extensive use during World War II but were limited in effectiveness due to the increasing threat of aircraft. After World War II, the use of this kind of craft declined in the United States and Britain, despite the introduction of safer diesel engines to replace the flammable gasoline ones, although the Soviet Union still had large numbers of MGBs and MTBs in service. With the development of the anti-ship missile FACs were reborn in the Soviet Union as "missile boats" or "missile cutters"; the first few missile boats were torpedo boats, with the torpedo tubes replaced by missile launchers. Again, small fast craft could destroy a major warship; the idea was first tested by the Soviet Union which, in August 1957, produced the Komar class which mounted two P-15 Termit missiles on a 25-metre and a top speed of around 40 knots. Endurance was limited to 1,000 nautical miles at 12 knots and the vessels had supplies for only five days at sea. 110 Komar-class vessels were produced, while over 400 examples were built of the following Osa class with a significant portion of the total being sold to pro-Soviet nations.
The first combat use of missile boats was by the Egyptian Soviet-built Komar-class craft fire of four Styx missiles on the Israeli destroyer Eilat on 20 October 1967, shortly after the Six-Day War, causing the latter's sinking with 47 dead. The Soviet FACs prompted a NATO response; the Germans and French worked together to produce a new FAC, resulting in 1968 in the La Combattante class fast attack craft. Built on a 47-or-49-metre hull with four MM-38 Exocet missiles, a 76 mm gun forward and 40 mm twin guns aft, these vessels have a top speed of 36 knots. Built until 1974, a total of 68 Combattante IIs were launched; the design was followed by the Combattante III, a great many other shipyards produced their own versions of the Combattante, notably the Israeli Sa'ar/Reshef variants. Size has increased, some designs reaching up to corvette size, 800 tonnes including a helicopter, giving them extended modes of operation. While the Israeli Sa'ar 4-class missile boats, for example, had a 58 metre hull and 415 ton displacement, the Sa'ar 5 is 85 metres in length and displaces 1,065 tons, is rated as a corvette.
Iran and North Korea have some of the largest numbers of FACs in operation today. North Korea alone operates more than 300, while Iran has been seen developing "swarm boats" to be used as harassing vessels in the contested littoral waters of the Persian Gulf. To counter the threat, the US Navy has been developing an ASUW Littoral Defensive Anti Surface Warfare doctrine, along with vessels such as the littoral combat ship. Gunboat Motor Gun Boat Torpedo boat Motor Torpedo Boat Missile boat Patrol boat
Inertial navigation system
An inertial navigation system is a navigation device that uses a computer, motion sensors and rotation sensors to continuously calculate by dead reckoning the position, the orientation, the velocity of a moving object without the need for external references. The inertial sensors are supplemented by a barometric altimeter and by magnetic sensors and/or speed measuring devices. INSs are used on vehicles such as ships, submarines, guided missiles, spacecraft. Other terms used to refer to inertial navigation systems or related devices include inertial guidance system, inertial instrument, inertial measurement unit and many other variations. Older INS systems used an inertial platform as their mounting point to the vehicle and the terms are sometimes considered synonymous. Inertial navigation is a self-contained navigation technique in which measurements provided by accelerometers and gyroscopes are used to track the position and orientation of an object relative to a known starting point and velocity.
Inertial measurement units contain three orthogonal rate-gyroscopes and three orthogonal accelerometers, measuring angular velocity and linear acceleration respectively. By processing signals from these devices it is possible to track the position and orientation of a device. Inertial navigation is used in a wide range of applications including the navigation of aircraft and strategic missiles, spacecraft and ships. Recent advances in the construction of microelectromechanical systems have made it possible to manufacture small and light inertial navigation systems; these advances have widened the range of possible applications to include areas such as human and animal motion capture. An inertial navigation system includes at least a computer and a platform or module containing accelerometers, gyroscopes, or other motion-sensing devices; the INS is provided with its position and velocity from another source accompanied with the initial orientation and thereafter computes its own updated position and velocity by integrating information received from the motion sensors.
The advantage of an INS is that it requires no external references in order to determine its position, orientation, or velocity once it has been initialized. An INS can detect a change in its geographic position, a change in its velocity and a change in its orientation, it does this by measuring the linear angular velocity applied to the system. Since it requires no external reference, it is immune to deception. Inertial navigation systems are used in many different moving objects. However, their cost and complexity place constraints on the environments in which they are practical for use. Gyroscopes measure the angular velocity of the sensor frame with respect to the inertial reference frame. By using the original orientation of the system in the inertial reference frame as the initial condition and integrating the angular velocity, the system's current orientation is known at all times; this can be thought of as the ability of a blindfolded passenger in a car to feel the car turn left and right or tilt up and down as the car ascends or descends hills.
Based on this information alone, the passenger knows what direction the car is facing but not how fast or slow it is moving, or whether it is sliding sideways. Accelerometers measure the linear acceleration of the moving vehicle in the sensor or body frame, but in directions that can only be measured relative to the moving system; this can be thought of as the ability of a blindfolded passenger in a car to feel himself pressed back into his seat as the vehicle accelerates forward or pulled forward as it slows down. Based on this information alone, he knows how the vehicle is accelerating relative to itself, that is, whether it is accelerating forward, left, right, up, or down measured relative to the car, but not the direction relative to the Earth, since he did not know what direction the car was facing relative to the Earth when they felt the accelerations. However, by tracking both the current angular velocity of the system and the current linear acceleration of the system measured relative to the moving system, it is possible to determine the linear acceleration of the system in the inertial reference frame.
Performing integration on the inertial accelerations using the correct kinematic equations yields the inertial velocities of the system and integration again yields the inertial position. In our example, if the blindfolded passenger knew how the car was pointed and what its velocity was before he was blindfolded and if he is able to keep track of both how the car has turned and how it has accelerated and decelerated since he can know the current orientation and velocity of the car at any time. All inertial navigation systems suffer from integration drift: small errors in the measurement of acceleration and angular velocity are integrated into progressively larger errors in velocity, which are compounded into still greater errors in position. Since the new position is calculated