click links in text for more info
SUMMARY / RELATED TOPICS

RC5

In cryptography, RC5 is a symmetric-key block cipher notable for its simplicity. Designed by Ronald Rivest in 1994, RC stands for "Rivest Cipher", or alternatively, "Ron's Code"; the Advanced Encryption Standard candidate RC6 was based on RC5. Unlike many schemes, RC5 has key size and number of rounds; the original suggested choice of parameters were a block size of 64 bits, a 128-bit key and 12 rounds. A key feature of RC5 is the use of data-dependent rotations. RC5 consists of a number of modular additions and eXclusive OR s; the general structure of the algorithm is a Feistel-like network. The encryption and decryption routines can be specified in a few lines of code; the key schedule, however, is more complex, expanding the key using an one-way function with the binary expansions of both e and the golden ratio as sources of "nothing up my sleeve numbers". The tantalising simplicity of the algorithm together with the novelty of the data-dependent rotations has made RC5 an attractive object of study for cryptanalysts.

The RC5 is denoted as RC5-w/r/b where w=word size in bits, r=number of rounds, b=number of 8-bit bytes in the key. RC5 encryption and decryption both expand the random key into 2 words that will be used sequentially during the encryption and decryption processes. All of the below comes from Rivest's revised paper on RC5; the key expansion algorithm is illustrated below, first in pseudocode example C code copied directly from the reference paper's appendix. Following the naming scheme of the paper, the following variable names are used: w - The length of a word in bits 16, 32 or 64. Encryption is done in 2-word blocks. U = w/8 - The length of a word in bytes. B - The length of the key in bytes. K - The key, considered as an array of bytes. C - The length of the key in words. L - A temporary working array used during key scheduling. Initialized to the key in words. R - The number of rounds to use when encrypting data. T = 2 - the number of round subkeys required. S - The round subkey words. Pw - The first magic constant, defined as O d d, where Odd is the nearest odd integer to the given input, e is the base of the natural logarithm, w is defined above.

For common values of w, the associated values of Pw are given here in hexadecimal: For w = 16: 0xB7E1 For w = 32: 0xB7E15163 For w = 64: 0xB7E151628AED2A6B Qw - The second magic constant, defined as O d d, where Odd is the nearest odd integer to the given input, where ϕ is the golden ratio, w is defined above. For common values of w, the associated values of Qw are given here in hexadecimal: For w = 16: 0x9E37 For w = 32: 0x9E3779B9 For w = 64: 0x9E3779B97F4A7C15 The example source code is provided from the appendix of Rivest's paper on RC5; the implementation is designed to work with w = 32, r = 12, b = 16. Encryption involved several rounds of a simple function. 12 or 20 rounds seem to be recommended, depending on security needs and time considerations. Beyond the variables used above, the following variables are used in this algorithm: A, B - The two words composing the block of plaintext to be encrypted; the example C code given by Rivest is this. Decryption is a straightforward reversal of the encryption process.

The below pseudocode shows the process. The example C code given by Rivest is this. 12-round RC5 is susceptible to a differential attack using 244 chosen plaintexts. 18–20 rounds are suggested as sufficient protection. A number of these challenge problems have been tackled using distributed computing, organised by Distributed.net. Distributed.net has brute-forced RC5 messages encrypted with 56-bit and 64-bit keys and has been working on cracking a 72-bit key since November 3, 2002. As of December 13, 2019, 6.222% of the keyspace has been searched and based on the rate recorded that day, it would take 102 years to complete 100% of the keyspace. The task has inspired many novel developments in the field of cluster computing. RSA Security, which had a patent on the algorithm, offered a series of US$10,000 prizes for breaking ciphertexts encrypted with RC5, but these contests have been discontinued as of May 2007; as a result, distributed.net decided to fund the monetary prize. The individual who discovers the winning key will receive US$1,000, their team will receive US$1,000 and the Free Software Foundation will receive US$2,000.

Madryga Red Pike Rivests's revised paper describing the cipher Rivest's original paper SCAN's entry for the cipher RSA Laboratories FAQ — What are RC5 and RC6? Helger Lipmaa's links on RC5

Reel Talk

Reel Talk is a syndicated weekend movie review series hosted by film critics Jeffrey Lyons and Alison Bailes. It was produced by, ran on, WNBC, a New York City NBC affiliate; the show aired as part of NBC All Night on Fridays and Saturdays. The show aired at 4:00 a.m. on late Friday nights and/or late Saturday nights at 2:00 a.m. It launched into syndication in September 2007 via NBC Universal Domestic Television Distribution; the program In Wine Country took the place of Reel Talk on the NBC All Night schedule. The show was produced by WNBC. Michael Avila was Executive Producer of Reel Talk. In conjunction with the show's syndicated debut, an interactive website www. ReelTalkTV.com was launched, offering viewers video reviews, extended interviews with celebrities, special web only features and trailers. Past celebrities on the show have been: Sean Penn Judi Dench Kirk Douglas Donald Sutherland Kiefer Sutherland Antonio Banderas Pierce Brosnan Samuel L. Jackson Morgan Freeman George Clooney Forest Whitaker On May 28, 2009, NBC Universal announced the cancellation of Reel Talk due to Jeffrey Lyons and Alison Bailes losing their jobs with WNBC.

The last edition of Reel Talk aired in late June 2009. Official website Reel Talk on IMDb

United Nations Security Council Resolution 82

United Nations Security Council Resolution 82 was a measure adopted by the United Nations Security Council on June 25, 1950. The resolution demanded North Korea end its invasion of South Korea, the catalyst for the beginning of the Korean War; the measure was adopted by a vote of 9 support, none opposed, one abstention. The Korean Peninsula had been divided between occupation forces of the United States and the Soviet Union since the end of World War II along the 38th Parallel; each government sought to prop up a government on its side of the occupation border, as the Cold War began, tensions rose between the two Koreas. These culminated in open warfare with the North's invasion of the South on June 25. During this time, the United Nations backed South Korea and considered it the only lawful government; the resolution called on the North to halt its invasion and to move its troops back to the 38th parallel. Seen as a diplomatic victory for the United States, the resolution was ignored by North Korea.

This brought the UN and the US to take further action, setting the state for massive international involvement and the expansion of the Korean War. At the end of World War II, the Korean Peninsula, which up to that point had been occupied by the Empire of Japan, was divided along the 38th Parallel. To the north, the Soviet Union occupied the country, which established itself as a communist state, the Democratic People's Republic of Korea under Kim Il Sung. To the south, the United States occupied the country, establishing the Republic of Korea under an autocratic anti-communist leader, Syngman Rhee; as tensions rose between the US and the USSR, each government in Korea claimed it had sovereignty over the whole country. On November 14, 1947, United Nations General Assembly Resolution 112 established a temporary commission to monitor free elections in Korea; the UN had intended to reunify Korea under one government, but the UN commission was unable to enter North Korea. After observing elections in South Korea, the UN stated in General Assembly Resolution 195 on December 12, 1948, that the nation was to be established under one government as soon as possible, the US and Soviet occupation forces there were to withdraw.

As time went on, the North Korean government became more aggressive, skirmishes between troops of the North and South became common. UN military observers were assigned to prevent it from escalating. United Nations General Assembly Resolution 293, passed October 21, 1949, recognized only South Korea's government as legal. For its part, North Korea issued inflammatory responses to the UN denying the legality of UN activities in Korea and saying it would drive the UN out of the country. On the night of June 25, 1950, ten divisions of the North Korean People's Army launched a full-scale invasion of the Republic of Korea; the force of 89,000 men moved in six columns, catching the Republic of Korea Army by surprise, resulting in a rout. The smaller South Korean army suffered from widespread lack of equipment, was unprepared for war; the numerically superior North Korean forces overcame isolated resistance from the 38,000 South Korean soldiers on the frontier before it began moving south. Most of South Korea's forces retreated in the face of the invasion.

The North Koreans were well on their way to South Korea's capital of Seoul within hours, forcing the government and its shattered army to retreat further south. News of the invasion spread around the world via ambassadors and correspondents in Korea. Journalists in the United States were reporting on the invasion within five hours of the initial attack, United States Ambassador to Korea John J. Muccio sent a telegram to the US State Department at 21:26 EST June 24; as the combat grew more intense, US Secretary of State Dean Acheson informed US President Harry S. Truman, Secretary-General of the United Nations Trygve Lie of the situation; the attack was troubling to Truman, who likened it to the Japanese attack on Pearl Harbor, to Lie, reminded of the Invasion of Norway during World War II. Fearing the attack would spur a World War III, Truman resolved to act as as possible to prevent an escalation of the conflict. Muccio met with Rhee, who informed him the South Korean Army would run out of ammunition within ten days, would not be able to hold back the invasion on its own.

He requested the United States assist South Korea in the conflict. Lie convened the United Nations Security Council for its 473rd meeting at 14:00 June 25 in New York City, New York, he began the meeting with a detailed report from the UN Commission on Korea, explained the situation to the delegates, insisted that the UN take action to restore peace in Korea. According to the UN Commission on Korea, the situation was assuming the character of full-scale warfare. US diplomat Ernest A. Gross gave Muccio's report on the situation; the United States introduced a resolution stating that North Korea's invasion was a breach of peace in violation of Chapter VII of the United Nations Charter. Gross requested that South Korea's ambassador to the United Nations, Chang Myon, be present for the meeting, granted; the Yugoslavian delegate requested that a North Korean diplomat be present as well, but this request was not granted. North Korea had no representation in the organization. Myon read a prepared statement calling the invasion a crime against humanity, said that as the UN had played a major role in the founding of South Korea, it was their responsibility to help defend it from aggression.

The UNSC debated the resolution and made amendments and

HMS Biter (P270)

HMS Biter is an Archer-class P2000-type patrol and training vessel of the British Royal Navy. She is assigned to Manchester & Salford Universities Royal Naval Unit, a Royal Naval Reserve unit based in Manchester; the ship is based at the Royal Naval Headquarters in Liverpool. As part of her sea training programme, she makes visits to local ports for ceremonial visits or occasions, she was built by Watercraft Ltd. at Shoreham-by-Sea in 1986 as one of ten vessels ordered as the P2000 class. The class was based on a design of an Omani coastguard cutter built by Watercraft Marine, they are twin-shaft vessels with moulded glass-reinforced plastic hulls. She has no dedicated armament though she can be fitted with pintle-mounted L7 7.62 mm GPMG machine guns. Biter is part of the First Patrol Boat Squadron based at HMNB Portsmouth. During overhaul, two Cat C18 ACERT propulsion engines were installed by Finning Power Systems; the two diesel engines, each rated at 873 bhp at 2200 rpm, form part of the propulsion package along with ZF 2000 RV marine reverse reduction gearboxes and ZF 9000 Series ClearCommand controls.

Biter was commissioned in 1986 into the Royal Navy and she was attached to Mersey Division, a Royal Naval Reserve Unit. In 1990, she was transferred to Salford University Royal Naval Unit. Biter's time at sea includes weekends visiting local ports such as Holyhead and Barrow-in-Furness and deployments during the Easter and summer holidays when she visits ports around the UK and northern Europe, she is attached to the Manchester and Salford University Royal Naval Unit and her main role is to provide Naval training to URNU students on weekends and in Easter and summer deployments. As part of her sea training programme, she makes visits to local ports for ceremonial visits or occasions. In May 1993, she attended the Battle of the Atlantic 50th Anniversary Fleet Review. In December 2005, she helped to start the Round the World Clipper Race in Liverpool. Biter visited Barrow-in-Furness in July 2007 for the launching of HMS Astute, the first of class of the Astute-class submarine, she regularly visits her affiliated town of Silloth in Cumbria for Remembrance Sunday commemorations.

Biter is permanently crewed by four other Royal Navy personnel. Chief petty officers fill the roles of executive officer and marine engineering officer, the yeoman and weapons engineering officer are junior rates of the appropriate service branches. With students embarked, a training officer is present, an RNR lieutenant or sub-lieutenant. HMS Duncan Royal Naval Reserve Manchester and Salford Universities Air Squadron Manchester & Salford Universities Officer Training Corps Merchant Taylor's School CCF The North West of England & Isle of Man Reserve Forces and Cadets Association Silloth, Cumbria Manchester District Sea Cadets "HMS Biter". Royal Navy

Christian Troubadours

The Christian Troubadours known as Christian Troubadours, were an American Southern gospel quartet, performing from the mid-1950s through the mid-1970s. The Christian Troubadours were organized in Lakewood, California, by guitar player and bass singer Wayne Walters, a native of Belleville, Arkansas. After the Troubadours formed, Walters became manager and songwriter for the group. In 1962, upright bass player and tenor singer Bill Carter traveled to California from Eagleton, Arkansas, to join the Troubadours. At this time, the group had relocated in California. A year Phil Price joined the band to play banjo as well as sing baritone and as a musical arranger. In time, Leroy Blankenship became lead singer in addition to preaching at the revival meetings and services held in conjunction with concerts given by the group. Following the addition of Blankenship to the Troubadours, the group relocated to Nashville, Tennessee. Frank Petty of Weed, played the violin and one of the earliest members played mandolin.

Larry King played bass and sang with the group for a short time. Country Gospel Singing Labor of Love Time For Prayer Country Gospel Singing Volume 2 Love Thy Neighbor The Inner Glow Gospel In Bluegrass I've Got A Song This Is Gospel Country Down Home Gospel Far East Tour Authentic Country Gospel Filled With Praise The Nashville Sound Extra, Tell The News Something For Everybody Down To Earth Versatility On The Right Track Now... Hear This

Franklin, Minnesota

Franklin is a city in Renville County, United States. The population was 510 at the 2010 census. Franklin was platted in 1882; the city was named for Benjamin Franklin. According to the United States Census Bureau, the city has a total area of 1.08 square miles, all of it land. Franklin is located on Minnesota State Highway 19, east of U. S. Route 71; as of the census of 2010, there were 510 people, 207 households, 120 families living in the city. The population density was 472.2 inhabitants per square mile. There were 230 housing units at an average density of 213.0 per square mile. The racial makeup of the city was 93.1% White, 0.2% African American, 1.4% Native American, 1.6% Asian, 3.7% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 1.8% of the population. There were 207 households of which 28.5% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 41.5% were married couples living together, 12.1% had a female householder with no husband present, 4.3% had a male householder with no wife present, 42.0% were non-families.

38.2% of all households were made up of individuals and 20.3% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.24 and the average family size was 2.98. The median age in the city was 47.1 years. 24.5% of residents were under the age of 18. The gender makeup of the city was 50.6 % female. As of the census of 2000, there were 498 people, 195 households, 124 families living in the city; the population density was 458.6 people per square mile. There were 217 housing units at an average density of 199.8 per square mile. The racial makeup of the city was 96.39% White, 1.00% Native American, 1.20% from other races, 1.41% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 1.41% of the population. There were 195 households out of which 30.3% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 54.4% were married couples living together, 7.7% had a female householder with no husband present, 36.4% were non-families. 33.8% of all households were made up of individuals and 17.4% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older.

The average household size was 2.37 and the average family size was 3.07. In the city, the population was spread out with 26.1% under the age of 18, 4.6% from 18 to 24, 23.5% from 25 to 44, 18.5% from 45 to 64, 27.3% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 43 years. For every 100 females, there were 93.8 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 86.8 males. The median income for a household in the city was $37,583, the median income for a family was $40,417. Males had a median income of $32,500 versus $19,659 for females; the per capita income for the city was $16,212. About 5.2% of families and 9.0% of the population were below the poverty line, including 10.8% of those under age 18 and 7.0% of those age 65 or over. Catfish Derby Days is an annual three-day city celebration held on the fourth weekend in July. Events include a contest to catch the biggest catfish, a street dance, a square dance, Sunday parades, a coed volleyball tournament, a men's 12-team softball tournament, a beanbag tournament, a queen contest/variety show, a chess tournament, a "Kiss the Catfish Contest," music at the park, a raffle, church services, a fire department water ball, a St. Luke's Lutheran Church-sponsored breakfast