Brandon Municipal Airport
Brandon Municipal Airport is an airport located 1.6 kilometres north of Brandon, Canada. It serves the City of Brandon and the surrounding regions of Western Manitoba and Eastern Saskatchewan, an area with a population of over 180,000 people; the airport is classified as an airport of entry by Nav Canada and is staffed by the Canada Border Services Agency. CBSA officers at this airport can handle general aviation aircraft only, with no more than 15 passengers. Brandon Aerodrome was built by the Department of National Defense in 1941, for use as a Royal Canadian Air Force flight training school under the British Commonwealth Air Training Plan. Pilots were trained at the airport on Cessna Crane and Avro Anson, among other aircraft, for Second World War flying service. In 1945, the school was closed in conjunction with the end of the Second World War. Portions of the former RCAF Station Brandon are now classified as a National Historic Site of Canada; the Commonwealth Air Training Plan Museum is a popular tourist attraction located at the airport that commemorates the BCATP and the former Station.
According to the Official Airline Guide, Perimeter Aviation was serving Brandon in the early 1980s with one flight every weekday to Winnipeg operated with a Beechcraft commuter aircraft. Jet service arrived at the airport during the mid 1980s when Pacific Western Airlines introduced Boeing 737-200 flights operated on a round trip routing of Vancouver - Kelowna - Calgary - Brandon - Thunder Bay - Toronto six days a week in each direction for a total of twelve jet departures a week. Two airlines were operating service to Winnipeg during the mid 1990s: Bearskin Airlines flying Beechcraft 99 commuter turboprop aircraft with four flights on weekdays and Perimeter Aviation flying Swearingen Metro commuter propjets with two flights on weekdays. By 1999, Perimeter Aviation was operating one flight on the weekdays to Winnipeg with a Metro propjet while Athabaska Airlines was operating one flight on the weekdays to Winnipeg with this service being flown with a Beechcraft 1900C commuter propjet. On September 3, 2013, WestJet Encore launched daily non-stop service from Brandon to Calgary International Airport flown with Bombardier Q400 regional propjets.
From June 29, 2016 to September 5, 2016, WestJet operated a trial run of non-stop service from Brandon to Toronto Pearson International Airport utilizing Boeing 737 aircraft stating that the service may return dependent on demand. The passenger terminal building is a 5,800 m2 facility, constructed in 1963. On August 19, 2014, a 10.7 millionCAD redevelopment and expansion of the passenger terminal building was announced. Construction began in spring 2015, the newly expanded and upgraded terminal facility was opened to the public on May 10, 2017. Brandon Municipal Airport occupies a land area of about 736 acres; the airport has two runways 08/26 and 14/32, although the infield grass can be used as a "strip" on request for smaller aircraft, such as ultralight aircraft. The area surrounding the airport, a total of 562 acres, is leased out to farming operations for cereal grain and hay production. Permanent tenants at Brandon Sirport include the Brandon Flying Club, the Commonwealth Air Training Plan Museum, Maple Leaf Aviation.
Fire and other emergency services at the airport are provided by the City of Brandon and the Royal Canadian Mounted Police. Brandon Municipal Airport is used for air ambulance services, pilot training, air cadet gliding, general aviation, its location on the flight path for aircraft flying between major cities in Eastern Canada and major cities in Western Canada makes it a preferred midway point for fuel and emergency stops. Brandon Municipal Airport is accessible by car from Manitoba Highway 10 2 km north of the Trans-Canada Highway. Car rental services provided by Enterprise Rent-A-Car are available inside the terminal building at Brandon Municipal Airport. Taxis are available on demand at Brandon Municipal Airport 24 hours a day. Airport taxi services are provided by numerous Brandon taxicab companies. Brandon Air Shuttle provides shuttle service from Brandon Municipal Airport to Dauphin and other communities in Western Manitoba. Daily shuttle service must be pre-booked. Although it is the second largest city in the Province of Manitoba, the City of Brandon's smaller population in comparison to Winnipeg and the close geographical distance between the two cities has meant that the Winnipeg James Armstrong Richardson International Airport is used as the province's primary airport.
However, with the strong, stable economy and increasing population in Western Manitoba coupled with expanding oil production in the area, Brandon Airport is positioning itself to be a leading regional airport as the primary entry point to the City of Brandon, Western Manitoba, Eastern Saskatchewan regions for both passenger and cargo air traffic. Bruce Forsyth's Canadian Military History Page Retrieved: 2011-11-03 British Commonwealth Air Training Plan Schools - Canada Retrieved: 2011-11-03 Brandon Airport Brandon Municipal Airport Virtual Tour Brandon Airport Information Brandon Municipal Airport on COPA's Places to Fly airport directory Accident history for YBR: Brandon Airport at Aviation Safety Network Past three hours METARs, SPECI and current TAFs for Brandon Airport from Nav Canada as available
Department of National Defence (Canada)
The Department of National Defence abbreviated as DND, is a Canadian government department responsible for defending Canada's interests and values at home and abroad. National Defence is the largest department of the Government of Canada in terms of budget as well as staff, it is the department with the largest number of buildings. The department is headed by the Deputy Minister of National Defence, the department’s senior civil servant, reports directly to the Minister of National Defence; the Department of National Defence exists to aid the minister in carrying out his responsibilities within the Defence Portfolio, provides a civilian support system for the Canadian Armed Forces. Under the National Defence Act, the Canadian Armed Forces is a separate and distinct organization from, is not part of, the Department of National Defence; the Department of National Defence was established by the National Defence Act, which merged the Department of Militia and Defence, the Department of Naval Services, the Air Board.
The National Defence Act was passed by the Parliament of Canada on June 28, 1922. Both the Canadian Armed Forces and the Department of National Defence are, although two separate organizations, known collectively as The Defence Team as both institutions work together in the defence of Canada; the Minister of National Defence, as the member of cabinet responsible to Parliament for National Defence, heads the Defence Team. The Department of National Defence is headed by the Deputy Minister of National Defence. Under the Deputy Minister are a variety of associate deputy and assistant deputy ministers who are responsible for various aspects of the department; the Deputy Minister is appointed by the Governor General on behalf of the Queen of Canada on the advice of the Prime Minister. The Canadian Armed Forces, as a separate and distinct organization, is headed by the Chief of the Defence Staff, reporting to him are the Royal Canadian Navy, Canadian Army, Royal Canadian Air Force, a variety of other commands.
There are a variety of offices and support organizations which report to both the Chief of Defence Staff and the Deputy Minister. The Canadian Sovereign, represented by the Governor General, is responsible for appointing the Minister, Deputy Minister, Chief of Defence Staff on the recommendation of the Queen's Privy Council of Canada. Although not part of the Defence Team organizational structure, the legal military chain of command within the Canadian Forces originates from the Queen of Canada as Commander-in-Chief, through the Chief of the Defence Staff to all military officers by virtue of their holding of the Queen’s Commission, thus through them to all members of the Canadian Armed Forces; the Minister of National Defence is responsible for the entire Defence Portfolio comprising several organizations, including the Canadian Armed Forces, the Communications Security Establishment, Defence Research and Development Canada, the Department of National Defence, amongst others. The department is not responsible for all of these organizations itself, but rather exists to support the minister in carrying out all of his duties within the Defence Portfolio.
The Canadian Forces are a separate entity from the Department of National Defence. Minister of National Defence Canadian Forces Royal Canadian Navy Canadian Army Royal Canadian Air Force Military history of Canada History of the Canadian Army History of the Royal Canadian Navy History of the Royal Canadian Air Force Armed Forces Council Union of National Defence Employees Department of National Defence and Canadian Forces Archival papers held at University of Toronto Archives and Records Management Services
Royal Canadian Air Force
The Royal Canadian Air Force is the air force of Canada. Its role is to "provide the Canadian Forces with relevant and effective airpower"; the RCAF is one of three environmental commands within the unified Canadian Armed Forces. As of 2013, the Royal Canadian Air Force consists of 14,500 Regular Force and 2,600 Primary Reserve personnel, supported by 2,500 civilians, operates 258 manned aircraft and 9 unmanned aerial vehicles. Lieutenant-General Al Meinzinger is the current Commander of the Royal Canadian Air Force and Chief of the Air Force Staff; the Royal Canadian Air Force is responsible for all aircraft operations of the Canadian Forces, enforcing the security of Canada's airspace and providing aircraft to support the missions of the Royal Canadian Navy and the Canadian Army. The RCAF is a partner with the United States Air Force in protecting continental airspace under the North American Aerospace Defense Command; the RCAF provides all primary air resources to and is responsible for the National Search and Rescue Program.
The RCAF traces its history to the Canadian Air Force, formed in 1920. The Canadian Air Force was granted royal sanction in 1924 by King George V to form the Royal Canadian Air Force. In 1968, the RCAF was amalgamated with the Royal Canadian Navy and the Canadian Army, as part of the unification of the Canadian Forces. Air units were split between several different commands: Air Defence Command, Air Transport Command, Mobile Command, Maritime Command, as well as Training Command. In 1975, some commands were dissolved, all air units were placed under a new environmental command called Air Command. Air Command reverted to its historic name of "Royal Canadian Air Force" in August 2011; the Royal Canadian Air Force has served in the Second World War, the Korean War, the Persian Gulf War, as well as several United Nations peacekeeping missions and NATO operations. As a NATO member, the force maintained a presence in Europe during the second half of the 20th century; the Canadian Air Force was established in 1920 as the successor to a short-lived two-squadron Canadian Air Force, formed during the First World War in Europe.
John Scott Williams, MC, AFC, was tasked in 1921 with organizing the CAF, handing command over the same year to Air Marshal Lindsay Gordon. The new Canadian Air Force was a branch of the Air Board and was chiefly a training militia that provided refresher training to veteran pilots. Many CAF members worked with the Air Board's Civil Operations Branch on operations that included forestry and anti-smuggling patrols. In 1923, the CAF became responsible including civil aviation. In 1924, the Canadian Air Force, was granted the royal title. Most of its work was civil in nature. After budget cuts in the early 1930s, the air force began to rebuild. During the Second World War, the RCAF was a major contributor to the British Commonwealth Air Training Plan and was involved in operations in Great Britain, the north Atlantic, North Africa, southern Asia, with home defence. By the end of the war, the RCAF had become the fourth largest allied air force. During WWII the Royal Canadian Air Force were headquartered in London.
A commemorative plaque can be found on the outside of the building. After the war, the RCAF reduced its strength; because of the rising Soviet threat to the security of Europe, Canada joined NATO in 1949, the RCAF established No. 1 Air Division RCAF consisting of four wings with three fighter squadrons each, based in France and West Germany. In 1950, the RCAF became involved with the transport of supplies to the Korean War. Members of the RCAF served in USAF units as several flew in combat. Both auxiliary and regular air defence squadrons were run by Air Defence Command. At the same time, the Pinetree Line, the Mid-Canada Line and the DEW Line radar stations operated by the RCAF, were built across Canada because of the growing Soviet nuclear threat. In 1957, Canada and the United States created the joint North American Air Defense Command. Coastal defence and peacekeeping became priorities during the 1950s and 1960s. In 1968, the Royal Canadian Navy, Royal Canadian Air Force and Canadian Army were amalgamated to form the unified Canadian Forces.
This initiative was overseen by Liberal Defence Minister, Paul Hellyer. The controversial merger maintained several existing organizations and created some new ones: In Europe, No. 1 Air Division, operated Canadair CF-104 Starfighter nuclear strike/attack and reconnaissance under NATO's 4 ATAF. Aviation assets of the Royal Canadian Navy were combined with the RCAF Canadair CP-107 Argus long-range patrol aircraft under Maritime Command. In 1975, the different commands, the scattered aviation assets, were consolidated under Air Command. In the early 1990s, Canada provided a detachment of CF-18 Hornets for the air defence mission in Operation Desert Shield; the force performed combat air patrols over operations in Kuwait and Iraq, undertook a number of air-to-ground bombing missions, and, on one occasion, attacked an Iraqi patrol boat in the Persian Gulf. In the late 1
Cessna AT-17 Bobcat
The Cessna AT-17 Bobcat was a twin-engined advanced trainer aircraft designed and made in the United States, used during World War II to bridge the gap between single-engined trainers and twin-engined combat aircraft. The AT-17 was powered by two Jacobs R-755-9 radial engines; the commercial version was the Model T-50. The AT-17 was a military version of the commercial Cessna T-50 light transport; the Cessna Airplane Company first produced the wood and tubular steel, fabric-covered T-50 in 1939 for the civilian market, as a lightweight and low-cost twin for personal use where larger aircraft such as the Beech 18 would be too expensive. A low-wing cantilever monoplane, it featured retractable main landing gear and wing trailing edge flaps, both electrically actuated; the wing structure was built up of laminated spruce spar beams with plywood ribs. The fixed tailwheel is not full-swivelling; the prototype T-50 made its maiden flight on 26 March 1939. In 1940, the United States Army Air Corps ordered them under the designation AT-8 as twin-engined advanced trainers.
Thirty-three AT-8s were built for the U. S. Army Air Corps, production continued under the designation AT-17 reflecting a change in equipment and engine types. In 1942, the U. S. Army Air Force adopted the Bobcat as a light personnel transport and those delivered after January 1, 1943 were designated UC-78s. By the end of World War II, Cessna had produced more than 4,600 Bobcats for the U. S. military, 67 of which were transferred to the United States Navy as JRC-1s. In addition, 822 Bobcats had been produced for the Royal Canadian Air Force as Crane Is, many of which were used in the British Commonwealth Air Training Plan; the aircraft did not last long in North American postwar military service. Few Bobcats were in service with the United States Air Force when it was formed in September, 1947. Surviving military aircraft were declared obsolete in 1949. Dubbed the "Bamboo Bomber" by the pilots who flew them, it was one of the aircraft featured in the popular television series "Sky King" of the early-to-mid 1950s.
The aircraft was replaced in episodes by the T-50's successor, the all-metal Cessna 310. After the war, surplus AT-17s and UC-78s could be converted by CAA-approved kits to civilian-standard aircraft allowing their certification under the T-50s original Type Certificate, they were used by charter and "bush" operators and private pilots. Some were operated on floats. By the 1970s, the number of airworthy aircraft had dwindled as they were made obsolete by more modern types and by the maintenance required by their aging wood wing structures and fabric covering. Since several have been restored by antique airplane enthusiasts; as of December 2017, FAA records show 52 T-50s, two AT-17s, five UC-78s listed on its registration database. In the postwar years, Bobcats continued in military service with the Nationalist Chinese. T-50 Company design number. Five-seat twin-engined commercial transport aircraft, fitted with Jacobs L-4MB radial piston engines. AT-8 Military trainer version of the T-50 with two 295 hp Lycoming R-680-9 radial piston engines, 33 built.
AT-17 As the AT-8 but powered by 245 hp Jacobs R-755-9 engines, 450 built some converted to AT-17E. AT-17A As the AT-17 but with metal propellers and reduced weight, 223 built. 182 to Canada as Crane IAs and conversion to AT-17Fs. AT-17B As the AT-17A but with equipment changes, 466 built. Subsequent aircraft were built as UC-78Bs. AT-17C As the AT-17A but different radio equipment, 60 built. AT-17D As the AT-C with equipment changes, 131 built. AT-17E AT-17 with gross weight limited to 5,300 lb. AT-17F AT-17A with gross weight limited to 5,300 lb. AT-17G AT-17B with gross weight limited to 5,300 lb. C-78 Military transport version for the United States Army Air Forces, redesignated UC-78 in 1943, 1354 built. UC-78 C-78 redesignated in 1943. UC-78A 17 impressed civilian T-50s UC-78B Originally the AT-17B, wooden propellers and reduced weight, 1806 built. UC-78C Originally the AT-17D, same as UC-78B with equipment changes, 196 built and 131 AT-17Ds redesignated. JRC-1 Navy light transport version of the UC-78 with two Jacobs -9 engines, 67 delivered.
Crane I Royal Canadian Air Force designation for T-50s with minor equipment changes, 640 delivered as light transports. Crane 1A 182 AT-17As delivered to Canada under lend-lease. P-7 An experimental variant of the T-50 with more powerful 300 hp Jacobs L-6MB engines, plywood covered tailplane and wings, one aircraft only first flown June 2, 1941. P-10 1941 advanced bomber trainer with modified fuselage, sliding canopy and 330 hp Jacobs engines, 1 built. BrazilBrazilian Air Force CanadaRoyal Canadian Air Force Queen Charlotte Airlines Costa RicaAir Force of Costa Rica EthiopiaEthiopian Air Force FranceFrench Air Force and French Navy GuatemalaGuatemalan Air Force HaitiHaitian Air Force NicaraguaNicaraguan Air Force North YemenYemeni Air Force Republic of ChinaRepublic of China Air Force PeruPeruvian Air Force PolandLOT Polish Airlines United StatesCivil Aeronautics Authority United States Army Air Corps/United States Army Air Forces United States Navy Northern Consolidated Airlines Wiggins Airways Wisconsin Central Airlines General characte
National Historic Sites of Canada
National Historic Sites of Canada are places that have been designated by the federal Minister of the Environment on the advice of the Historic Sites and Monuments Board of Canada, as being of national historic significance. Parks Canada, a federal agency, manages the National Historic Sites program; as of October 2018, there are 987 National Historic Sites, 171 of which are administered by Parks Canada. The sites are located across all ten provinces and three territories, with two sites located in France. There are related federal designations for National Historic Persons. Sites and Persons are each marked by a federal plaque of the same style, but the markers do not indicate which designation a subject has been given; the Rideau Canal is a National Historic Site. Emerging Canadian nationalist sentiment in the late 19th century and early 20th century led to an increased interest in preserving Canada's historic sites. There were galvanizing precedents in other countries. With the support of notables such as Victor Hugo and Eugène Viollet-le-Duc, the Commission des monuments historique was created in France in 1837.
In the United Kingdom, the National Trust for Places of Historic Interest or Natural Beauty was created in 1894 to protect that country's historic and natural heritage. While there was no National Park Service in the United States until 1916, battlefields of the Civil War were designated and managed by the War Department: Chickamauga and Chattanooga, Shiloh, Gettysburg and Chalmette. Domestically, Lord Dufferin, the Governor General from 1872 to 1878, initiated some of the earliest, high-profile efforts to preserve Canada's historic sites, he was instrumental in stopping the demolition of the fortifications of Quebec City, he was the first public official to call for the creation of a park on the lands next to Niagara Falls. The 1908 tricentennial of the founding of Quebec City, the establishment that same year of the National Battlefields Commission to preserve the Plains of Abraham, acted as a catalyst for federal efforts to designate and preserve historic sites across Canada. At the same time, the federal government was looking for ways to extend the National Park system to Eastern Canada.
The more populated east did not have the same large expanses of undeveloped Crown land that had become parks in the west, so the Dominion Parks Branch looked to historic features to act as focal points for new national parks. In 1914, the Parks Branch undertook a survey of historic sites in Canada, with the objective of creating new recreational areas rather than preserving historic places. Fort Howe in Saint John, New Brunswick was designated a national historic park in 1914, named the "Fort Howe National Park"; the fort was not a site of significant national historic importance, but its designation provided a rationale for the acquisition of land for a park. Fort Anne in Annapolis Royal, Nova Scotia was designated in 1917. In 1919, William James Roche, the Minister of the Interior, was concerned over the fate of old fur trade posts in Western Canada, he was being lobbied by historical associations across Canada for federal funds to assist with the preservation and commemoration of local landmarks.
At the same time, the Department of Militia and Defence was anxious to transfer old forts, the associated expenses, to the Parks Branch. Roche asked James B. Harkin, the first Commissioner of Dominion Parks, to develop a departmental heritage policy. Harkin believed that the Parks Branch did not have the necessary expertise to manage historic resources. On Harkin's recommendation, the government created the Advisory Board for Historic Site Preservation in 1919 in order to advise the Minister on a new program of National Historic Sites. Brigadier General Ernest Alexander Cruikshank, a noted authority on the War of 1812 and the history of Ontario, was chosen as the Board's first chairman, a post he held for twenty years; the first place designated and plaqued under the new program was the "Cliff Site" in Port Dover, where two priests claimed sovereignty over the Lake Erie region for Louis XIV of France in 1670. Due to a lack of resources, the HSMBC limited itself to recommending sites for designation, the focus of the program was on commemoration rather than on preservation.
Benjamin Sulte, a member of the HSMBC, wrote to Harkin in 1919 about the significant ruins at the Forges du Saint-Maurice, demonstrating his preference for the installation of a plaque over restoration: "All that can be done in our days is to clear away the heap of stones, in order to reach the foundation walls and plant a sign in the centre of the square thus uncovered."In the early years of the program, National Historic Sites were chosen to commemorate battles, important men, the fur trade and political events. Of the 285 National Historic Sites designated by 1943, 105 represented military history, 52 represented the fur trade and exploration, 43 represented famous individuals (almo
British Commonwealth Air Training Plan
The British Commonwealth Air Training Plan, or Empire Air Training Scheme referred to as "The Plan", was a massive, joint military aircrew training program created by the United Kingdom, Canada and New Zealand, during the Second World War. BCATP remains as one of the single largest aviation training programs in history and was responsible for training nearly half the pilots, bomb aimers, air gunners, wireless operators and flight engineers who served with the Royal Air Force, Royal Navy Fleet Air Arm, Royal Australian Air Force, Royal Canadian Air Force and Royal New Zealand Air Force during the war. Under a parallel agreement, the Joint Air Training Scheme, South Africa trained 33,347 aircrew for the South African Air Force and other Allied air forces; this number was exceeded only by Canada. Students from many other countries attended schools under these plans, including Argentina, Ceylon, Denmark, Fiji, Greece, the Netherlands, Norway and the United States, where the similar Civilian Pilot Training Program was underway by the end of 1938.
The United Kingdom was considered an unsuitable location for air training, due to the possibility of enemy attack, the strain caused by wartime traffic at airfields and the unpredictable weather, so the plan called for the facilities in the Dominions to train British and each other's aircrews. Negotiations regarding joint training, between the four governments concerned, took place in Ottawa during the first few months of the war. On 17 December 1939, they signed the Air Training Agreement – referred to as the "Riverdale Agreement", after the UK representative at the negotiations, Lord Riverdale; the British Commonwealth Air Training Plan was viewed as an ambitious programme. The 1939 agreement stated that the training was to be similar to that of the RAF: three initial training schools, thirteen elementary flying training schools, sixteen service flying training schools, ten air observer schools, ten bombing and gunnery schools, two air navigation schools and four wireless schools were to be created.
The agreement called for the training of nearly 50,000 aircrew each year, for as long as necessary: 22,000 aircrew from Great Britain, 13,000 from Canada, 11,000 from Australia and 3,300 from New Zealand. Under the agreement, air crews received elementary training in various Commonwealth countries before travelling to Canada for advanced courses. Training costs were to be divided between the four governments. Article XV of the agreement stipulated that graduates belonging to Dominion air forces, where they were assigned to service with the RAF, should be placed in new squadrons identified with the RAAF, RCAF and RNZAF; these units became known as "Article XV squadrons". Articles XVI and XVII stipulated that the UK government would be wholly responsible for the pay and entitlements of graduates, once they were placed with RAF or Article XV units; some pre-war/regular RAAF and RCAF squadrons served under RAF operational control, while New Zealand and Rhodesian personnel were assigned to RAF squadrons with the honorifics of "" and "" in their names.
However, in practice – and technically in contravention of Article XV – most personnel from other Commonwealth countries, while they were under RAF operational control, were assigned to British units. On 29 April 1940, the first Canadian training course commenced, with 221 recruits, at No. 1 Initial Training School RCAF, located at the Eglinton Hunt Club, Toronto. From this intake, 39 received their wings as aircrew on 30 September 1940. All of these graduates, were retained by the BCATP in Canada, as instructors, staff pilots or in similar flying assignments; the first BCATP personnel sent to the UK were 37 Canadian observers, who received their wings at RCAF Trenton, near Trenton, Ontario, on 27 October 1940. The first BCATP-trained pilots posted to Europe as a group were 37 RAAF personnel who graduated in November 1941, from No. 2 Service Flying Training School, RCAF Uplands, Ottawa. Prior to the inception of the Empire Air Training Scheme, the RAAF trained only about 50 pilots per year. Under the Air Training Agreement, Australia undertook to provide 28,000 aircrew over three years, representing 36% of the total number trained by the BCATP.
By 1945, more than 37,500 Australian aircrew had been trained in Australia. During 1940, Royal Australian Air Force schools were established across Australia to support EATS in Initial Training, Elementary Flying Training, Service Flying Training, Air Navigation, Air Observer and Gunnery and Wireless Air Gunnery; the first flying course started on 29 April 1940. Keith Chisholm was the first Australian to be trained under EATS. For a period, most RAAF aircrews received advanced training in Canada. During mid-1940, some RAAF trainees began to receive advanced training at RAF facilities in Southern Rhodesia. On 14 November 1940, the first contingent to graduate from advanced training in Canada embarked for Britain, Following the outbreak of the Pacific War in December 1941, the majority of RAAF aircrews completed their training in Australia and served with RAAF units in the South West Pacific Theatre. In addition, an increasing number of Australian personnel were transferred from Europe and the Mediterranean to RAF squadrons in the South East Asian Theatre.
Some Article XV squadrons were transferred to RAAF or RAF formations involved in the Pacific War. A significa