Design can have different connotations in different fields of application, but there are two basic meanings of design: as a verb and as a noun. Design is the intentional creation of a plan or specification for the construction of an object or system or for the implementation of an activity or process. Design can refer to such a plan or specification or to the created object, etc. and features of it such as aesthetic, economic or socio-political. The process of creating a design can be brief or lengthy and complicated, involving considerable research, reflection, interactive adjustment and re-design. In some cases, the direct construction of an object without an explicit prior plan is considered to be a design activity. "Everyone designs who devises courses of action aimed at changing existing situations into preferred ones."More formally design has been defined as follows: a specification of an object, manifested by an agent, intended to accomplish goals, in a particular environment, using a set of primitive components, satisfying a set of requirements, subject to constraints.
It defines the specifications, parameters, activities and how and what to do within legal, social, environmental and economic constraints in achieving that objective."Here, a "specification" can be manifested as either a plan or a finished product, "primitives" are the elements from which the design object is composed. The person designing is called a designer, a term used for people who work professionally in one of the various design areas specifying which area is being dealt with. A designer's sequence of activities is called a design process while the scientific study of design is called design science. Another definition of design is planning to manufacture an object, component or structure, thus the word "design" can be used as a verb. In a broader sense, design is an applied engineering that integrates with technology. While the definition of design is broad, design has a myriad of specifications that professionals utilize in their fields. Major examples of design are architectural blueprints, engineering drawings, business processes, circuit diagrams, sewing patterns Substantial disagreement exists concerning how designers in many fields, whether amateur or professional, alone or in teams, produce designs.
Kees Dorst and Judith Dijkhuis, both designers themselves, argued that "there are many ways of describing design processes" and discussed "two basic and fundamentally different ways", both of which have several names. The prevailing view has been called "the rational model", "technical problem solving" and "the reason-centric perspective"; the alternative view has been called "reflection-in-action", "evolutionary design", "co-evolution", "the action-centric perspective". The rational model was independently developed by Herbert A. Simon, an American scientist, Gerhard Pahl and Wolfgang Beitz, two German engineering design theorists, it posits that: designers attempt to optimize a design candidate for known constraints and objectives, the design process is plan-driven, the design process is understood in terms of a discrete sequence of stages. The rational model is based on a rationalist philosophy and underlies the waterfall model, systems development life cycle, much of the engineering design literature.
According to the rationalist philosophy, design is informed by research and knowledge in a predictable and controlled manner. Typical stages consistent with the rational model include the following: Pre-production design Design brief or Parti pris – an early statement of design goals Analysis – analysis of current design goals Research – investigating similar design solutions in the field or related topics Specification – specifying requirements of a design solution for a product or service. Problem solving – conceptualizing and documenting design solutions Presentation – presenting design solutions Design during production Development – continuation and improvement of a designed solution Testing – in situ testing of a designed solution Post-production design feedback for future designs Implementation – introducing the designed solution into the environment Evaluation and conclusion – summary of process and results, including constructive criticism and suggestions for future improvements Redesign – any or all stages in the design process repeated at any time before, during, or after production.
Each stage has many associated best practices. The rational model has been criticized on two primary grounds: Designers do not work this way – extensive empirical evidence has demonstrated that designers do not act as the rational model suggests. Unrealistic assumptions – goals are unknown when a design project begins, the requirements and constraints continue to change; the action-centric perspective is a label given to a collection of interrelated concepts, which are antithetical to the rational model. It posits that: designers use creativity and emotion to generate design candidates, the design process is improvised, no universal sequence of stages is apparent – analysis and implementation are contemporary and inextricably linkedThe action-
Tours is a city in the centre-west of France. It is the administrative centre of the Indre-et-Loire department and the largest city in the Centre-Val de Loire region of France. In 2012, the city of Tours had 134,978 inhabitants, the population of the whole metropolitan area was 483,744. Tours stands between Orléans and the Atlantic coast; the surrounding district, the traditional province of Touraine, is known for its wines, for the alleged perfection of its local spoken French, for the Battle of Tours. The historical center of Tours is a UNESCO World Heritage Site; the city is the end-point of the annual Paris–Tours cycle race. In Gallic times the city was important as a crossing point of the Loire. Becoming part of the Roman Empire during the 1st century AD, the city was named "Caesarodunum"; the name evolved in the 4th century when the original Gallic name, became first "Civitas Turonum" "Tours". It was at this time that the amphitheatre of Tours, one of the five largest amphitheatres of the Empire, was built.
Tours became the metropolis of the Roman province of Lugdunum towards 380–388, dominating the Loire Valley and Brittany. One of the outstanding figures of the history of the city was Saint Martin, second bishop who shared his coat with a naked beggar in Amiens; this incident and the importance of Martin in the medieval Christian West made Tours, its position on the route of pilgrimage to Santiago de Compostela, a major centre during the Middle Ages. In the 6th century Gregory of Tours, author of the Ten Books of History, made his mark on the town by restoring the cathedral destroyed by a fire in 561. Saint Martin's monastery benefited from its inception, at the start of the 6th century from patronage and support from the Frankish king, which increased the influence of the saint, the abbey and the city in Gaul. In the 9th century, Tours was at the heart of the Carolingian Rebirth, in particular because of Alcuin abbot of Marmoutier. In 732 AD, Abdul Rahman Al Ghafiqi and a large army of Muslim horsemen from Al-Andalus advanced 500 kilometres deep into France, were stopped at Tours by Charles Martel and his infantry igniting the Battle of Tours.
The outcome was defeat for the Muslims, preventing France from Islamic conquest. In 845, Tours repulsed the first attack of the Viking chief Hasting. In 850, the Vikings settled at the mouths of the Loire. Still led by Hasting, they went up the Loire again in 852 and sacked Angers and the abbey of Marmoutier. During the Middle Ages, Tours consisted of competing centres; the "City" in the east, successor of the late Roman'castrum', was composed of the archiepiscopal establishment and of the castle of Tours, seat of the authority of the Counts of Tours and of the King of France. In the west, the "new city" structured around the Abbey of Saint Martin was freed from the control of the City during the 10th century and became "Châteauneuf"; this space, organized between Saint Martin and the Loire, became the economic centre of Tours. Between these two centres remained Varennes and fields, little occupied except for the Abbaye Saint-Julien established on the banks of the Loire; the two centres were linked during the 14th century.
Tours became the capital of the county of Tours or Touraine, territory bitterly disputed between the counts of Blois and Anjou – the latter were victorious in the 11th century. It was the capital of France at the time of Louis XI, who had settled in the castle of Montils and Touraine remained until the 16th century a permanent residence of the kings and court; the rebirth gave Tours and Touraine many private mansions and castles, joined together to some extent under the generic name of the Châteaux of the Loire. It is at the time of Louis XI that the silk industry was introduced – despite difficulties, the industry still survives to this day. Charles IX passed through the city at the time of his royal tour of France between 1564 and 1566, accompanied by the Court and various noblemen: his brother the Duke of Anjou, Henri de Navarre, the cardinals of Bourbon and Lorraine. At this time, the Catholics returned to power in Angers: the intendant assumed the right to nominate the aldermen; the Massacre of Saint-Barthelemy was not repeated at Tours.
The Protestants were imprisoned by the aldermen -- a measure. The permanent return of the Court to Paris and Versailles marked the beginning of a slow but permanent decline. Guillaume the Metayer, known as Rochambeau, the well known counter-revolutionary chief of Mayenne, was shot there on Thermidor 8, year VI. However, it was the arrival of the railway in the 19th century which saved the city by making it an important nodal point; the main railway station is known as Tours-Saint-Pierre-des-Corps. At that time, Tours was expanding towards the south into a district known as the Prébendes; the importance of the city as a centre of communications contributed to its revival and, as the 20th century progressed, Tours became a dynamic conurbation, economically oriented towards the service sector. The city was affected by the First World War. A force of 25,000 American soldiers arrived in 1917, setting up textile factories for the manufacture of uniforms, repair shops for military equipment, munitions dumps, an army post office and an Americ
Transilien is the SNCF Mobilités suburban rail network serving Ile-de-France train stations. "Transilien" is a derivative of the demonym for people living in Île-de-France. The area covered does not correspond with the administrative boundaries of the region: the trains serve several stations located in Normandy, in the Hauts-de-France and in the Centre-Val de Loire regions. On the other hand, some stations located at the margins of the region are not served by the network, but only by regional express trains from neighboring regions. Transilien is the heir to suburban trains. Transilien operates jointly with RATP the first two lines of the regional express network of Île-de-France: line A and line B. Transilien operates the other three lines of this network: line C, the line D and line E; the regional express network of Île-de-France crosses right through the Paris basement. This network includes ten other "Transilien" non-RER lines, which leave and end in the major Parisian stations, at the exception of line U linking the Saint-Quentin-en-Yvelines urban area to the La Défense business district, tramway line 4 linking the Aulnay-sous-Bois and Bondy railway stations, tramway line 11 Express which connects, for now, the Épinay-sur-Seine and Bourget train stations.
"Transilien", like "TER" or "TGV", is a trademark owned by SNCF Mobilités. Created on September 20, 1999, it is directed since 2014 by Alain Krakovitch, it applies to passenger trains and stations managed by SNCF Mobilités' "Île-de-France" department. As a result, railway lines operated by RATP are not part of Transilien; the rail network, owned by SNCF Réseau, is used by mainline passenger trains, including TGV and Intercités, by other transport operators and freight trains. The first line of the suburbs of Paris is open August 1837 between Paris and Saint-Germain; this line was handed over to the RATP on 1 October 1972. Its immediate success led to the creation of numerous lines intended to link the main cities of France. Suburban service has long been marginal for large companies, with the exception of the West, where several short lines crossing residential areas are seeing their local traffic increase sharply; the creation of workers subscriptions marked a sharp increase in traffic, the beginnings of massive urbanization of the Paris periphery, with the phenomenon of migrant workers.
The housing cost's increase as a result of major Haussmann works and the hygienic conditions inside Paris prompted workers and employees working in the capital to live in the rural suburbs. The suburban trains allowed them and still allow them to rally their jobs inside the Île-de-France; the successive topographic maps of the French IGN show the urbanization of the Parisian suburbs over the decades near the stations of the suburban lines. In the region south of the capital, these lines follow the bottom of the valleys because the steam traction did not support the steep gradients: the urbanization of the trays takes place with the advent of the automobile for the general public during the second half of the 20th century; the automobiles allows either to go directly to work, or to live at a distance from the station, where the land prices and rents are lower than in the immediate vicinity of the stations. Geographers sometimes use pictured expressions to describe these two periods: the urbanization is done in "fingers of glove" along the lines of suburban trains in "spot of oil" with the car that allows to live a little further from the station.
In 1938, the new SNCF exploited the disparate lines and materials bequeathed by the big companies. If the West seems to be favored, with its electrified lines and powerful self-propelled equipment, the remaining of the network was still far from these standards. During the Second World War, the traffic is disorganized and drastically limited. Bombings destroyed parts of the rolling stock; the transport conditions are tedious, remains so for several years after the end of the conflict, a period when many works had to be rebuilt. The bad memory of these difficult years, the individual transports' multiplication reduced the traffic, with regression from 1946 to 1958, an worse situation between 1952 and 1958. From 1959 to 1969, major electrification began the gradual modernization of the rail network, with the final disappearance of steam traction in the suburbs in 1970; the proliferation of automobile congestion combined with the modernization of the network led to the return of traffic. From 1969 to 1988, the creation of the RER caused a radical change in the image of rail transport.
RER Line A experienced a spectacular increase in traffic, which leads to a saturation point in less than ten years. On 1 September 1999, the first class is removed on all trains in the commuter network, as well as on the RER. At the time, it represented only 1% of travelers. First class had been removed on the Paris metro in 1991. However, despite the numerous investments made over the past three decades, the suburban network suffered from a poor public image, but from decision-makers and local authorities. While the RATP benefited from the image of the RER, associated with it, an aura of modernity and innovation with a visible logo, the SNCF network reminded people of the subu
Stadler Rail, is a Swiss manufacturer of railway rolling stock, with an emphasis on regional train multiple units and trams. It is headquartered in Switzerland. Stadler Rail is focused on niche products and is one of the last European manufacturers of rack railway rolling stock; the holding company consists of eight subsidiaries with locations in Algeria, Italy, the Netherlands, Poland, Spain, Czech Republic and Belarus. Stadler Rail employed 6,100 employees by 2012, including 2,750 in Switzerland, 1,200 in Germany, 1,000 in Belarus, 400 in Hungary and 400 in Poland; this had increased to 7,000 employees by 2017. Stadler formed joint venture with Azerbaijan-based company International Railway Distribution LLC in 2014; as at March 2019, Peter Spuhler owned 80% of the share capital, with RAG Stiftung and key employees each owning 10%. In April 2019, the company was listed on the SIX Swiss Exchange with Spuhler retaining a 40% shareholding. Bussnang. Weiden in der Oberpfalz. Albuixech. A. U. Stadler markets a range of standard modular vehicles, including: The EC250, a high speed electric multiple unit under development.
The FLIRT, an electric,diesel or bi-mode multiple unit. The GTW, an articulated railcar; the KISS, a bilevel electric multiple unit. The Regio Shuttle, a single unit diesel Railcar; the WINK, a diesel/battery or electric/battery short multiple unit. The SPATZ, a narrow gauge railcar with panoramic windows; the Tango, a high-floor or partial low-floor tram. the Variobahn, a low-floor tram. Since purchasing Vossloh España in 2016, Stadler Rail have additionally manufactured the following former Vossloh designs: The Citylink, a tram-train in service in Germany and the United Kingdom The Euro, a diesel-electric locomotive built for the European market The Eurolight, a lighter variant for passenger and light freight roles, in use in the United Kingdom The Euro Dual, an electro-diesel variant, in use in the United Kingdom Stadler has built a number of custom vehicles for specific customers, in some cases including elements of their standard designs; these include: The NExT, a custom design for Regionalverkehr Bern-Solothurn in Switzerland The Allegra, a custom EMU for Rhaetian Railway in Switzerland The Ee 922, an electric shunting locomotive built for Swiss Federal Railways The Eem 923, a hybrid electro-diesel shunting locomotive built for Swiss Federal Railways semi-modular light-rail vehicles for the Forchbahn and Trogenerbahn in Switzerland Rack railway cars for the Wengernalpbahn, the Jungfraubahn and the Rorschach-Heiden-Bahn in Switzerland, the Montserrat Railway and the Vall de Núria Railway in Spain, the Diakofto–Kalavryta Railway in Greece The He 4/4 for the Brazilian MRS logistics, the most powerful cogwheel locomotive in the world As-yet unnamed bilevel coaches for the Rocky Mountaineer.
The cars will be similar in design to the Colorado Railcar Ultra Dome. Metelica tram for Ostrava Under construction driverless Glasgow Subway rolling stock The Class 777 electric multiple units for suburban Merseyrail services. 354 CQ400 rail cars for Atlanta, GA's MARTA Heavy Rail system. Stadler Rail Stadler Winterthur
Le Mans tramway
Le Mans tramway consists of a two-line tramway in the city of Le Mans, Pays de la Loire, France. The design of the rolling stock was carried out by RCP Design Global agency, which formulated the general concept, interior environment and the tram livery on behalf of Alstom. Trams in France List of town tramway systems in France Media related to Trams in Le Mans at Wikimedia Commons SETRAM official website
The Angers tramway is a single-line tramway in the French city of Angers in Pays de la Loire. Opened on 25 June 2011, Line A is operated by Keolis and replaced some bus lines, with the buses redeployed throughout the rest of the metropolitan area. Alstom's APS ground-level power supply has been used on two parts of the line totalling 1.5 km in order to avoid overhead lines in the centre of Angers and Avrillé. Angers is the second city using such system, after Bordeaux. April 2007: Works started. April 2010: Delivery of the Citadis 302 trams December 2010: Testing January 2011: Operation of shadow service without passengers 25 June 2011: Line A in service The total budget for the first line, re-evaluated in 2008, is around €350m, up from the 2004 estimate of €250m. Main features for Line A: North-South connection across the metropolitan area, connecting Avrillé to La Roseraie. Non-stop service from 5.30 AM until 0.30 AM 12 kilometers 25 stations End to end journey time of 37 minutes. An estimated 35,000 passengers expected daily.
As the line goes on both banks of the Maine, a new bridge was built to allow the trams to cross the river. It connects Angers' University Hospital Centre to Saint-Serge; this 270m bridge is accessible to pedestrians as well as emergency vehicles. Angers-Roseraie Jean Vilar Jean XXIII Bamako Strasbourg Place Lafayette Les Gares Foch-Haras Foch-Maison Bleue Ralliement Molière Saint-Serge Université Berges de Maine C. H. U-Hôpital Capucins Jean Moulin Les Hauts De Saint Aubin Verneau Terra Botanica Plateau Mayenne Bois du Roy Acacias Saint Gilles Bascule Avrillé-Ardenne Good public transport system for Avrillé, bringing more life to the city centre and assisting with the development of new neighbourhoods Connecting new districts: Plateaux de la Mayenne and des Capucins Tram station close to Terra Botanica Connecting important facilities such as the University Hospital Centre, Angers Saint-Laud railway station and the administrative city The new bridge on the Maine is used by trams and pedestrians between the hospital and the Gaumont Film Company studios.
A better connections to the Angers city centre and improved traffic flows A more attractive city centre Complementarity of different transport types around the central connection point, Angers Saint-Laud railway station and bus station Connecting La Roseraie as part of the urban renovation of the district. No connection to the biggest campus of Angers in Belle-Beille, to be connected by Line B. Line A passes through place du Ralliement, which will still be accessible for pedestrians and delivery vehicles as well as bicycles, but buses will not have access to it, nor will other tram lines. Angers Loire Métropole awarded Alstom a €47m contract to supply 17 Citadis 302 trams on 15 November 2006. Design and personalization of the rolling stock is characterized by the front end "convergence" V-shape similar in form to a shield; the other major feature is the ubiquity of a rainbow, designed by the French agency RCP Design Global is found in the color scheme and interior design of the trams and other transportation in the city.
The interior of the trams is marked by floral figures in different colors on the ceiling, white walls and green seats to reflect the geological layers of Anjou. The 16 km Line B was expected to be opened by 2020, it was planned to run from Beaucouzé, via the Atoll shopping centre via the Campus Belle-Beille - Université Angers to the main railway station and Parc des Expositions through Monplaisir district. However, in 2016 the city presented a revised proposal for the future Line B. Stopping at the Technopole Angers at the Universities Belle-Beille Campus, the lines length is stripped to 10 km. Due to financial reasons, the start of construction has been postponed for 2019, so that a start of passenger transport can not be expected until 2022. Trams in France List of town tramway systems in France Angers Loire métropole tram website
The TGV is France's intercity high-speed rail service, operated by the SNCF, the state-owned national rail operator. The SNCF started working on a high-speed rail network in 1966 and presented the project to President Valéry Giscard d'Estaing who approved it. Designed as turbotrains to be powered by gas turbines, TGV prototypes evolved into electric trains with the 1973 oil crisis. In 1976 the SNCF ordered 87 high-speed trains from GEC-Alstom. Following the inaugural service between Paris and Lyon in 1981 on the LGV Sud-Est, the network, centered on Paris, has expanded to connect major cities across France and in neighbouring countries on a combination of high-speed and conventional lines; the TGV network in France carries about 110 million passengers a year. Like the Shinkansen in Japan, the TGV has never experienced a fatal accident during its operational history; the high-speed tracks, maintained by SNCF Réseau, are subject to heavy regulation. Confronted with the fact that train drivers would not be able to see signals along the track-side when trains reach full speed, engineers developed the TVM technology, which would be exported worldwide.
It allows for a train engaging in an emergency braking to request within seconds all following trains to reduce their speed. The TVM safety mechanism enables TGVs using the same line to depart every three minutes. A TGV test train set the world record for the fastest wheeled train, reaching 574.8 km/h on 3 April 2007. Conventional TGV services operate up to 320 km/h on the LGV Est, LGV Rhin-Rhône and LGV Méditerranée. In 2007, the world's fastest scheduled rail journey was a start-to-stop average speed of 279.4 km/h between the Gare de Champagne-Ardenne and Gare de Lorraine on the LGV Est, not surpassed until the 2013 reported average of 283.7 km/h express service on the Shijiazhuang to Zhengzhou segment of China's Shijiazhuang–Wuhan high-speed railway. The TGV was conceived at the same period as other technological projects sponsored by the Government of France, including the Ariane 1 rocket and Concorde supersonic airliner; the commercial success of the first high-speed line led to a rapid development of services to the south, west and east.
Eager to emulate the TGV's success, neighbouring countries Italy and Germany developed their own high-speed rail services. The TGV system itself extends to neighbouring countries, either directly or through TGV-derivative networks linking France to Switzerland, to Belgium and the Netherlands, as well as to the United Kingdom. Several future lines are planned, including extensions to surrounding countries. Cities such as Tours and Le Mans have become part of a "TGV commuter belt" around Paris. A visitor attraction in itself, it stops at Disneyland Paris and in tourist cities such as Avignon and Aix-en-Provence as well. Brest, Chambéry, Nice and Biarritz are reachable by TGVs running on a mix of LGVs and modernised lines. In 2007, the SNCF generated profits of €1.1 billion driven by higher margins on the TGV network. The idea of the TGV was first proposed in the 1960s, after Japan had begun construction of the Shinkansen in 1959. At the time the Government of France favoured new technology, exploring the production of hovercraft and the Aérotrain air-cushion vehicle.
The SNCF began researching high-speed trains on conventional tracks. In 1976, the administration agreed to fund the first line. By the mid-1990s, the trains were so popular that SNCF President Louis Gallois declared that the TGV was "the train that saved French railways", it was planned that the TGV standing for très grande vitesse or turbine grande vitesse, would be propelled by gas turbines, selected for their small size, good power-to-weight ratio and ability to deliver high power over an extended period. The first prototype, TGV 001, was the only gas-turbine TGV: following the increase in the price of oil during the 1973 energy crisis, gas turbines were deemed uneconomic and the project turned to electricity from overhead lines, generated by new nuclear power stations. TGV 001 was not a wasted prototype: its gas turbine was only one of its many new technologies for high-speed rail travel, it tested high-speed brakes, needed to dissipate the large amount of kinetic energy of a train at high speed, high-speed aerodynamics, signalling.
It was articulated, comprising two adjacent carriages sharing a bogie, allowing free yet controlled motion with respect to one another. It reached 318 km/h, its interior and exterior were styled by British-born designer Jack Cooper, whose work formed the basis of early TGV designs, including the distinctive nose shape of the first power cars. Changing the TGV to electric traction required a significant design overhaul; the first electric prototype, nick