In computing, a plug-in is a software component that adds a specific feature to an existing computer program. When a program supports plug-ins, it enables customization. Web browsers have allowed executables as plug-ins, though they are now deprecated. Two plug-in examples are the Adobe Flash Player for playing videos and a Java virtual machine for running applets. A theme or skin is a preset package containing additional or changed graphical appearance details, achieved by the use of a graphical user interface that can be applied to specific software and websites to suit the purpose, topic, or tastes of different users to customize the look and feel of a piece of computer software or an operating system front-end GUI. Applications support plug-ins for many reasons; some of the main reasons include: to enable third-party developers to create abilities which extend an application to support adding new features to reduce the size of an application to separate source code from an application because of incompatible software licenses.
Types of applications and why they use plug-ins: Audio editors use plug-ins to generate, process or analyze sound. Ardour and Audacity are examples of such editors. Digital audio workstations use plug-ins to process it. Examples include ProTools. Email clients use plug-ins to encrypt email. Pretty Good Privacy is an example of such plug-ins. Video game console emulators use plug-ins to modularize the separate subsystems of the devices they seek to emulate. For example, the PCSX2 emulator makes use of video, optical, etc. plug-ins for those respective components of the PlayStation 2. Graphics software use plug-ins to support file formats and process images. Media players use plug-ins to apply filters. Foobar2000, GStreamer, Quintessential, VST, Winamp, XMMS are examples of such media players. Packet sniffers use plug-ins to decode packet formats. OmniPeek is an example of such packet sniffers. Remote sensing applications use plug-ins to process data from different sensor types. Text editors and Integrated development environments use plug-ins to support programming languages or enhance development process e.g. Visual Studio, RAD Studio, IntelliJ IDEA, jEdit and MonoDevelop support plug-ins.
Visual Studio itself can be plugged into other applications via Visual Studio Tools for Office and Visual Studio Tools for Applications. Web browsers have used executables as plug-ins, though they are now deprecated. Examples include Java SE, QuickTime, Microsoft Silverlight and Unity; the host application provides services which the plug-in can use, including a way for plug-ins to register themselves with the host application and a protocol for the exchange of data with plug-ins. Plug-ins depend on the services provided by the host application and do not work by themselves. Conversely, the host application operates independently of the plug-ins, making it possible for end-users to add and update plug-ins dynamically without needing to make changes to the host application. Programmers implement plug-in functionality using shared libraries, which get dynamically loaded at run time, installed in a place prescribed by the host application. HyperCard supported a similar facility, but more included the plug-in code in the HyperCard documents themselves.
Thus the HyperCard stack became a self-contained application in its own right, distributable as a single entity that end-users could run without the need for additional installation-steps. Programs may implement plugins by loading a directory of simple script files written in a scripting language like Python or Lua. In Mozilla Foundation definitions, the words "add-on", "extension" and "plug-in" are not synonyms. "Add-on" can refer to anything. Extensions comprise a subtype, albeit the most powerful one. Mozilla applications come with integrated add-on managers that, similar to package managers, install and manage extensions; the term, "Plug-in", however refers to NPAPI-based web content renderers. Plug-ins are being deprecated. Plug-ins appeared as early as the mid 1970s, when the EDT text editor running on the Unisys VS/9 operating system using the UNIVAC Series 90 mainframe computers provided the ability to run a program from the editor and to allow such a program to access the editor buffer, thus allowing an external program to access an edit session in memory.
The plug-in program could make calls to the editor to have it perform text-editing services upon the buffer that the editor shared with the plug-in. The Waterloo Fortran compiler used this feature to allow interactive compilation of Fortran programs edited by EDT. Early PC software applications to incorporate plug-in functionality included HyperCard and QuarkXPress on the Macintosh, both released in 1987. In 1988, Silicon Beach Software included plug-in functionality in Digital Darkroom and SuperPaint, Ed Bomke coined the term plug-in. Applet Browser extension
FlightGear Flight Simulator is a free, open source multi-platform flight simulator developed by the FlightGear project since 1997. David Murr started the project on April 8, 1996; the project continued in development. It has specific builds for a variety of operating systems including Microsoft Windows, Mac OS X, Linux, IRIX, Solaris. FlightGear source code is released under the terms of the GNU General Public License and is free and open-source software; some commercial products—Earth Flight Sim, Flight Pro Sim, Flight Simulator Plus, Pro Flight Simulator, Real Flight Simulator, Virtual Pilot 3D, others—are copies of old versions of FlightGear, see Commercial redistribution. They are not endorsed by the FlightGear project. FlightGear started as an online proposal in 1996 in Canada, he proposed a new flight simulator developed by volunteers over the Internet as alternative to proprietary, available simulators like the Microsoft Flight Simulator. The flight simulator was created using custom 3D graphics code.
Development of an OpenGL based version was spearheaded by Curtis Olson starting in 1997. FlightGear incorporated other open-source resources, including the LaRCsim flight model from NASA, available elevation data; the first working binaries using OpenGL came out in 1997. In June 2014 Honda lawyers issued a takedown request in which it was claimed that the HondaJet model in the simulator infringes on Honda's trademarks. Subsequently, HondaJet became the first model removed from the simulator due to legal reasons. Several networking options allow FlightGear to communicate with other instances of FlightGear. A multiplayer protocol is available for using FlightGear on a local network in a multi aircraft environment; this can be used for formation air traffic control simulation. Soon after the original Multiplayer Protocol became available, it was expanded to allow playing over the internet. Several instances of FlightGear can be synchronized to allow for a multi-monitor environment. Although not developed or analyzed as a game in the traditional sense, FlightGear has undergone reviews in a number of online and offline publications, received positive reviews as a flight simulator game.
FlightGear 1.0.0 was noted as being impressive for a game over a decade in the making, with a wide variety of aircraft and features. PC Magazine noted how it is designed to be easy to add new scenery. Linux Format reviewed version 2.0 and rated it 8/10. FlightGear has been used in a range of projects in academia and industry and home-built cockpits. FlightGear Flight Simulator version 1.9.1 has been marketed over the Internet by third parties under several aliases and product names, such as Earth Flight Sim, Flight Pro Sim, Flight Simulator Plus, Pro Flight Simulator, Real Flight Simulator, Virtual Pilot 3D. Aeronautical Development Agency, India. Veridian Engineering Division, Buffalo, NY. MathWorks FlightGear to Simulink interface. NASA/Ames Human Centered System Lab - 737NG full scale cockpit simulator. Pragolet s.r.o. for light and ultra-light sports aircraft. ATC Flight Simulator Company, FAA approved flight simulator ActiveFly paragliding simulator Robert Heffley Engineering PAL-V Europe NV Max Planck Institute for Biological Cybernetics, HeliLab and MPI CyberMotion Simulator Institute for Scientific Research Simuladores Guaraní, Argentina Endless Runway Project, consortium of several European aerospace institutes.
Minia University, Egypt The Department of Aircraft and Aeroengine from the Chinese Air Force Engineering University Universiti Teknologi Malaysia Nanjing University of Aeronautics and Astronautics, China Indian Institute of Technology Shenyang Institute of Automation, China RMIT University, Australia Institute of Aerospace Engineering at the RWTH Aachen University of Naples, Italy University of Wales Intelligent Robotics Group, Aberystwyth, UK Delft University of Technology, the Netherlands Hamburg University of Applied Sciences, Germany Technical University of Munich Czech Technical University in Prague French Aerospace Lab and University of Toulouse, France Pázmány Péter Catholic University and the Hungarian Academy of Sciences University of Sheffield, England Supaéro Durham University, England University of Illinois at Urbana Champaign, USA Simon Fraser University, British Columbia Canada. Iowa State University, USA University of Minnesota, USA University of Tennessee, Chattanooga, USA Department of Aerospace Engineering at The Pennsylvania State University, USA Northeastern University, Boston, USA Arizona State University, USA University of Montreal and the University of Toulouse, France The Center for Coastal & Ocean Mapping/Joint Hydrographic Center at the University of New Hampshire, USA University of Michigan, USA University of Toronto Institute for Aerospace Studies, Canada Purdue University, Indiana, USA University of Arizona, USA National Technological University, Argentina Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais, Brazil Team Viper John Wojnaroski's 747 cockpit Microsoft Flight Simulator List of open source games X-Plane youbeQ GeoFS YSFlight Lockheed Martin Prepar3D Official website FlightGear on SourceForge.net About FlightProSim, Flight Simulator Plus, ProFlightSimulator and EarthFlightSim
A computer program is a collection of instructions that performs a specific task when executed by a computer. A computer requires programs to function. A computer program is written by a computer programmer in a programming language. From the program in its human-readable form of source code, a compiler can derive machine code—a form consisting of instructions that the computer can directly execute. Alternatively, a computer program may be executed with the aid of an interpreter. A collection of computer programs and related data are referred to as software. Computer programs may be categorized along functional lines, such as application software and system software; the underlying method used for some calculation or manipulation is known as an algorithm. The earliest programmable machines preceded the invention of the digital computer. In 1801, Joseph-Marie Jacquard devised a loom that would weave a pattern by following a series of perforated cards. Patterns could be repeated by arranging the cards.
In 1837, Charles Babbage was inspired by Jacquard's loom to attempt to build the Analytical Engine. The names of the components of the calculating device were borrowed from the textile industry. In the textile industry, yarn was brought from the store to be milled; the device would have had a "store"—memory to hold 1,000 numbers of 40 decimal digits each. Numbers from the "store" would have been transferred to the "mill", for processing, and a "thread" being the execution of programmed instructions by the device. It was programmed using two sets of perforated cards—one to direct the operation and the other for the input variables. However, after more than 17,000 pounds of the British government's money, the thousands of cogged wheels and gears never worked together. During a nine-month period in 1842–43, Ada Lovelace translated the memoir of Italian mathematician Luigi Menabrea; the memoir covered the Analytical Engine. The translation contained Note G which detailed a method for calculating Bernoulli numbers using the Analytical Engine.
This note is recognized by some historians as the world's first written computer program. In 1936, Alan Turing introduced the Universal Turing machine—a theoretical device that can model every computation that can be performed on a Turing complete computing machine, it is a finite-state machine. The machine can move the tape forth, changing its contents as it performs an algorithm; the machine starts in the initial state, goes through a sequence of steps, halts when it encounters the halt state. This machine is considered by some to be the origin of the stored-program computer—used by John von Neumann for the "Electronic Computing Instrument" that now bears the von Neumann architecture name; the Z3 computer, invented by Konrad Zuse in Germany, was a programmable computer. A digital computer uses electricity as the calculating component; the Z3 contained 2,400 relays to create the circuits. The circuits provided a floating-point, nine-instruction computer. Programming the Z3 was through a specially designed keyboard and punched tape.
The Electronic Numerical Integrator And Computer was a Turing complete, general-purpose computer that used 17,468 vacuum tubes to create the circuits. At its core, it was a series of Pascalines wired together, its 40 units weighed 30 tons, occupied 1,800 square feet, consumed $650 per hour in electricity when idle. It had 20 base-10 accumulators. Programming the ENIAC took up to two months. Three function tables needed to be rolled to fixed function panels. Function tables were connected to function panels using heavy black cables; each function table had 728 rotating knobs. Programming the ENIAC involved setting some of the 3,000 switches. Debugging a program took a week; the programmers of the ENIAC were women who were known collectively as the "ENIAC girls." The ENIAC featured parallel operations. Different sets of accumulators could work on different algorithms, it used punched card machines for input and output, it was controlled with a clock signal. It ran for eight years, calculating hydrogen bomb parameters, predicting weather patterns, producing firing tables to aim artillery guns.
The Manchester Baby was a stored-program computer. Programming transitioned away from setting dials. Only three bits of memory were available to store each instruction, so it was limited to eight instructions. 32 switches were available for programming. Computers manufactured; the computer program was written on paper for reference. An instruction was represented by a configuration of on/off settings. After setting the configuration, an execute button was pressed; this process was repeated. Computer programs were manually input via paper tape or punched cards. After the medium was loaded, the starting address was set via switches and the execute button pressed. In 1961, the Burroughs B5000 was built to be programmed in the ALGOL 60 language; the hardware featured circuits to ease the compile phase. In 1964, the IBM System/360 was a line of six computers each having the same instruction set architecture; the Model 30 was the least expensive. Customers could retain the same application software; each System/360 model featured multiprogramming.
With operating system support, multiple programs could be in memory at once. When one was waiting for input/output, another could compute; each model could emulate other computers. Customers could upgrade to the System/360 and ret
A website or Web site is a collection of related network web resources, such as web pages, multimedia content, which are identified with a common domain name, published on at least one web server. Notable examples are wikipedia.org, google.com, amazon.com. Websites can be accessed via a public Internet Protocol network, such as the Internet, or a private local area network, by a uniform resource locator that identifies the site. Websites can be used in various fashions. Websites are dedicated to a particular topic or purpose, ranging from entertainment and social networking to providing news and education. All publicly accessible websites collectively constitute the World Wide Web, while private websites, such as a company's website for its employees, are part of an intranet. Web pages, which are the building blocks of websites, are documents composed in plain text interspersed with formatting instructions of Hypertext Markup Language, they may incorporate elements from other websites with suitable markup anchors.
Web pages are accessed and transported with the Hypertext Transfer Protocol, which may optionally employ encryption to provide security and privacy for the user. The user's application a web browser, renders the page content according to its HTML markup instructions onto a display terminal. Hyperlinking between web pages conveys to the reader the site structure and guides the navigation of the site, which starts with a home page containing a directory of the site web content; some websites require user subscription to access content. Examples of subscription websites include many business sites, news websites, academic journal websites, gaming websites, file-sharing websites, message boards, web-based email, social networking websites, websites providing real-time stock market data, as well as sites providing various other services. End users can access websites on a range of devices, including desktop and laptop computers, tablet computers and smart TVs; the World Wide Web was created in 1990 by the British CERN physicist Tim Berners-Lee.
On 30 April 1993, CERN announced. Before the introduction of HTML and HTTP, other protocols such as File Transfer Protocol and the gopher protocol were used to retrieve individual files from a server; these protocols offer a simple directory structure which the user navigates and where they choose files to download. Documents were most presented as plain text files without formatting, or were encoded in word processor formats. Websites can be used in various fashions. Websites can be the work of an individual, a business or other organization, are dedicated to a particular topic or purpose. Any website can contain a hyperlink to any other website, so the distinction between individual sites, as perceived by the user, can be blurred. Websites are written in, or converted to, HTML and are accessed using a software interface classified as a user agent. Web pages can be viewed or otherwise accessed from a range of computer-based and Internet-enabled devices of various sizes, including desktop computers, tablet computers and smartphones.
A website is hosted on a computer system known as a web server called an HTTP server. These terms can refer to the software that runs on these systems which retrieves and delivers the web pages in response to requests from the website's users. Apache is the most used web server software and Microsoft's IIS is commonly used; some alternatives, such as Nginx, Hiawatha or Cherokee, are functional and lightweight. A static website is one that has web pages stored on the server in the format, sent to a client web browser, it is coded in Hypertext Markup Language. Images are used to effect the desired appearance and as part of the main content. Audio or video might be considered "static" content if it plays automatically or is non-interactive; this type of website displays the same information to all visitors. Similar to handing out a printed brochure to customers or clients, a static website will provide consistent, standard information for an extended period of time. Although the website owner may make updates periodically, it is a manual process to edit the text and other content and may require basic website design skills and software.
Simple forms or marketing examples of websites, such as classic website, a five-page website or a brochure website are static websites, because they present pre-defined, static information to the user. This may include information about a company and its products and services through text, animations, audio/video, navigation menus. Static websites can be edited using four broad categories of software: Text editors, such as Notepad or TextEdit, where content and HTML markup are manipulated directly within the editor program WYSIWYG offline editors, such as Microsoft FrontPage and Adobe Dreamweaver, with which the site is edited using a GUI and the final HTML markup is generated automatically by the editor software WYSIWYG online editors which create media rich online presentation like web pages, intro, blogs, an
RealFlight is a radio-controlled airplane and helicopter simulation software series created by Knife Edge Software and published by Great Planes. The software allows for the flying of numerous aircraft with simulated physics so that the user can get an attempted real-life flying experience. Included in the software are various flying sites and aircraft models all of which represent real-life models; the software includes an airport editor and an aircraft editor to allow for the creation of new flying sites and aircraft. Within RealFlight, editing aircraft is limited to changing the aerodynamic properties. In order to create new visual models, the use of a 3D modeling application such as Autodesk 3ds Max or Blender is required; the software is released in "generations," with each new generation including major updates and new features. The most recent is RealFlight Generation 7.5, which included additions such as water and water physics, an improved user interface, more aircraft, more flying sites, an improved "InterLink Elite" controller.
RealFlight requires the connection of an InterLink controller, included with the software, in order to operate. Knife Edge Software develops packs containing additional content for RealFlight, each of which adds new airfields and additional aircraft. For users of RealFlight G4 or newer, the older series of "Add-On" packs have been reworked, with several aircraft receiving updates, can be downloaded from the RealFlight website; the "Add-Ons" volumes, which are no longer supported, have been superseded by the newer "Expansion Pack" series of products. The Add-Ons line is compatible with versions of RealFlight dating back to RealFlight Classic, with the exception of Add-Ons 5, which requires RealFlight G2 or higher. Expansion Pack 1 through Expansion Pack 4 require RealFlight G3 or higher, Expansion Pack 5 and up require RealFlight G4 or higher. Expansion Packs 1 through 3 are now discontinued products. RealFlight Home Page Knife Edge Software Home Page
A radio-controlled aircraft is a small flying machine, controlled remotely by an operator on the ground using a hand-held radio transmitter. The transmitter communicates with a receiver within the craft that sends signals to servomechanisms which move the control surfaces based on the position of joysticks on the transmitter; the control surfaces, in turn, affect the orientation of the plane. Flying RC aircraft as a hobby grew from the 2000s with improvements in the cost, weight and capabilities of motors and electronics. A wide variety of models and styles is available. Scientific and military organizations are using RC aircraft for experiments, gathering weather readings, aerodynamic modeling and testing. Unmanned aerial vehicle or spy planes add video or autonomous capabilities, may be armed; the earliest examples of electronically guided model aircraft were hydrogen-filled model airships of the late 19th century. They were flown as a music hall act around theater auditoriums using a basic form of spark-emitted radio signal.
During World War II, the U. S. Army and Navy used. There are many types of radio-controlled aircraft. For beginning hobbyists, there are park trainers. For more experienced pilots there are glow plug engine, electric sailplane aircraft. For expert flyers, pylon racers, autogyros, 3D aircraft, other high-end competition aircraft provide adequate challenge; some models are made to operate like a bird instead. Replicating historic and little known types and makes of full-size aircraft as "flying scale" models, which are possible with control line and free flight types of model aircraft reach their maximum realism and behavior when built for radio-control flying; the most realistic form of aeromodeling, in its main purpose to replicate full-scale aircraft designs from aviation history, for testing of future aviation designs, or to realize never-built "proposed" aircraft, is that of radio-control scale aeromodeling, as the most practical way to re-create "vintage" full-scale aircraft designs for flight once more, from long ago.
RC Scale model aircraft can be of any type of steerable airship lighter-than-air aviation craft, or more of the heavier-than-air fixed wing glider/sailplane, fixed-wing single or multi-engine aircraft, or rotary-wing aircraft such as autogyros or helicopters. Full-scale aircraft designs from every era of aviation, from the "Pioneer Era" and World War I's start, through to the 21st century, have been modeled as radio-control scale model aircraft. Builders of RC Scale aircraft can enjoy the challenge of creating a controllable, miniature aircraft that "looks" like the full scale original in the air with no "fine details", such as a detailed cockpit, or replicate many operable features of a selected full scale aircraft design down to having operable cable-connected flight control surfaces, illuminated navigation lighting on the aircraft's exterior, realistically retracting landing gear, etc. if the full-sized aircraft possessed such features as part of its design. Various scale sizes of RC scale aircraft have been built in the decades since modern digital-proportional, miniaturized RC gear came on the market in the 1960s, everything from indoor-flyable electric powered RC Scale models, to "giant scale" RC Scale models, in scale size ranges that run from 20% to 25%, upwards to 30 to 50% size of some smaller full scale aircraft designs, that can replicate some of the actual flight characteristics of the full scale aircraft they are based on, have been enjoyed, continue to be built and flown, in sanctioned competition and for personal pleasure, as part of the RC scale aeromodeling hobby.
Gliders are planes that do not have any type of propulsion. Unpowered glider flight must be sustained through exploitation of the natural lift produced from thermals or wind hitting a slope. Dynamic soaring is another popular way of providing energy to gliders, becoming more and more common; however conventional slope soaring gliders are capable of achieving speeds comparable with similar sized powered craft. Gliders are partial to slow flying and have high aspect ratio, as well as low wing loading. Two and three-channel gliders which use only rudder control for steering and dihedral or polyhedral wing shape to automatically counteract rolling are popular as training craft, due to their ability to fly slowly and high tolerance to error. Powered gliders have seen an increase in popularity. By combining the efficient wing size and wide speed envelope of a glider airframe with an electric motor, it is possible to achieve long flight times and high carrying capacity, as well as glide in any suitable location regardless of thermals or lift.
A common method of maximising flight duration is to fly a powered glider upwards to a chosen altitude and descending in an unpowered glide. Folding propellers which reduce drag are standard. Powered gliders built with stability in mind and capable of aerobatics, high speed flight and sustained vertical flight are classified as'Hot-liners'.'Warm-liners' are powered craft with similar abilities but less extreme thrust capability. Jets can be expensive and use a micro turbine or ducted fan to power them. Most airframes are constructed from carbon fiber. For electric powered flight which are powered by electric ducted fans, may be made of styrofoam. Inside the aircraft, wooden spars reinforce the body to make a rigid airframe, they ha