The Soyuz-2-1v, GRAU index 14A15, known earlier in development as the Soyuz-1, is a Russian expendable carrier rocket. It was derived from the Soyuz-2. 1b, and is a member of the R-7 family of rockets and it is built by TsSKB Progress, at Samara in the Russian Federation. The Soyuz-2-1v represents a departure from earlier Soyuz rockets. Unlike the Soyuz-2-1b upon which it is based, it omits the four used on all other R-7 vehicles. Since the NK-33 is fixed, the RD-0110R engine is used to supply thrust vector control and it supplies an extra 230.5 kilonewtons of thrust and heats the pressurization gasses. The NK-33 engine, originally built for the N1 programme, offers increased performance over the RD-117, once the supply is exhausted, the NK-33 will be replaced by the RD-193. In April 2013, it was announced that the RD-193 engine had completed testing, the RD-193 is a lighter and shorter engine based on the Angaras RD-191, which is itself a derivative of the Zenits RD-170. The second stage of the Soyuz-2-1v is the same as the stage of the Soyuz-2-1b.
For most missions a Volga upper stage will be used to manoeuvre the payload from a parking orbit to its final destination. The Volga is derived from the system of the Yantar reconnaissance satellite. In 2009, the flight of the Soyuz-2-1v was announced as being scheduled for 2010, with this being delayed to 2011 and 2012 by development delays. By June 2011 it was scheduled to occur at the end of 2012, during a test firing of a first stage prototype in August 2012, a test stand software malfunction resulted in damage to the stand and prototype, delaying the static testing programme. The test was re-attempted in May 2013, and was declared successful despite the burn lasting 52 seconds shorter than had been expected, with this complete, the launch was scheduled for September 2013. It subsequently slipped to November and December, the maiden flight – which made use of a Volga upper stage – carried the Aist 1 microsatellite and a pair of SKRL-756 calibration spheres. Ahead of the launch, the rocket was rolled out to Site 43/4 at the Plesetsk Cosmodrome on 18 December 2013 with the launch scheduled for 23 December, the launch was delayed beyond 23 December by problems found during late testing at the pad.
An attempt to launch was made on 25 December, but it was scrubbed around ten minutes before the liftoff, despite reports that the launch could not take place before the end of the year, it was rescheduled for 10,30 UTC on 28 December. A further last-minute delay pushed the back to 12,30 UTC. Spacecraft separation occurred 100 minutes later, at 14,10 UTC, the second launch of the vehicle carried two payloads Kanopus-ST and KYuA-1, while the Kanopus-ST failed to separate from the final stage
Vulcain is a family of European first stage rocket engines for the Ariane 5. Its development began in 1988 and the first flight was completed in 1996, the updated version of the engine – Vulcain 2 was first successfully flown in 2005. Both members of the family use liquid oxygen/liquid hydrogen cryogenic fuel, as of 2012 no new version of the engine is in development. The development of Vulcain, carried out by a European partnership and it first flew in 1996 powering the ill-fated flight 501 without being the cause of the disaster, and had its first successful flight in 1997. In 2002 the upgraded Vulcain 2 with 20% more thrust first flew on flight 517, the cause was due to flight loads being much higher than expected, as the inquiry board concluded. The first successful flight of the Vulcain 2 occurred in 2005 on flight 521, although different upgrades to the engine have been proposed, there is no current program to develop an uprated version of the engine. If there will ever be one, it is likely that the new engine would be introduced after the PA batch of 30 Ariane 5 ECAs ordered on 10 May 2004 will be expended.
On 17 June 2007 Volvo Aero announced that in spring of 2008 it expected to hot-fire test a Vulcain 2 nozzle manufactured with a new sandwich technology, the Vulcain engines are gas-generator cycle cryogenic rocket engines fed with liquid oxygen and liquid hydrogen. The engine operating time is 600 s in both configurations,3 m tall and 1.76 m in diameter, the engine weighs 1686 kg and provides 137 t of thrust in its latest version. The oxygen turbopump rotates at 13600 rpm with a power of 3 MW while the hydrogen turbopump rotates at 34000 rpm with 12 MW of power, the total mass flow rate is 235 kg/s, of which 41.2 kg/s are of hydrogen. The main contractor for the Vulcain engines is Snecma Moteurs, which provides the liquid hydrogen turbopump. The liquid oxygen turbopump is the responsibility of Avio, and the gas turbines power the turbopumps. – Volvo Aero Development of the turbines for the Vulcain 2 turbopumps, – Volvo Aero High cycle fatigue of Vulcain 2 LOx turbine blades. – Volvo Aero An efficient concept design process, – Volvo Aero Vulcain 2 nozzle.
– Volvo Aero EADS N. V. – EADS welcomes contract signature for 30 Ariane 5 launchers at ILA2004 in Berlin Three billion Euros contract for 30 Ariane 5 launchers – EADS Astrium
Staged combustion cycle
The staged combustion cycle, called topping cycle or preburner cycle, is a thermodynamic cycle used in some bipropellant rocket engines. In staged combustion, one propellant is sent through a preburner, the resulting hot gas is used to power the engines turbines and pumps, injected into the main combustion chamber along with the remainder of the second propellant to complete combustion. There are two variants of the cycle depending on which propellant is sent through the preburner, oxidizer-rich staged combustion. The advantage of staged, or closed, combustion is that all of the cycles gases, disadvantages of staged combustion include harsh turbine conditions, exotic plumbing to carry the hot gases, and complicated feedback and control. In particular, ORSC requires advanced metallurgy due to extremely corrosive oxidizer-rich gas, while FRSC requires use of a fuel that will not coke, staged combustion was first proposed by Alexey Isaev in 1949. The first staged combustion engine was the S1.5400 used in the Soviet planetary rocket, designed by Melnikov, about the same time, Nikolai Kuznetsov began work on the closed cycle engine NK-9 for Korolevs orbital ICBM, GR-1.
Kuznetsov evolved that design into the NK-15 and NK-33 engines for the unsuccessful Lunar N1 rocket, the non-cryogenic N2O4/UDMH engine RD-253 using staged combustion was developed by Valentin Glushko around 1963 for the Proton rocket. After the failure of the N-1, Kuznetsov had been ordered to destroy the NK-33 technology, in the 1990s, Aerojet was contacted and eventually visited Kuznetsovs plant. Upon meeting initial skepticism about the specific impulse and other specifications. Oxidizer-rich staged combustion had been considered by American engineers, but deemed impossible, the Russian RD-180 engine, purchased by Lockheed Martin for the Atlas III and V rockets, employs this technique. The first laboratory staged-combustion test engine in the West was built in Germany in 1963 and this gives the efficiency advantages of staged combustion, while avoiding major engineering problems. The Space Shuttle Main Engine is another example of a combustion engine. The fuel turbopump is driven by the fuel-rich preburner, while the oxidizer-rich preburner drives the oxidizer turbopump and this eliminates the need for an interpropellant turbine seal normally required to separate oxidizer-rich gas from the fuel turbopump or fuel-rich gas from the oxidizer turbopump.
The increased mass flow from FFSC allows both turbines to run cooler and at lower pressure, leading to an engine life. Up to 25 flights were anticipated for one particular design studied by the DLR in the frame of the SpaceLiner project. Since the use of fuel and oxidizer preburners results in full gasification of each propellant before entering the combustion chamber. Full gasification of components leads to faster reactions in the combustion chamber. Oxidizer-rich staged combustion engines include the following, S1. 5400—First staged combustion rocket engine, nK-33—Soviet engine developed for the never-flown upgraded version of the N-1 launch vehicle
The J-2 was a liquid-fuel cryogenic rocket engine used on NASAs Saturn IB and Saturn V launch vehicles. Built in the U. S. by Rocketdyne, the J-2 burned cryogenic liquid hydrogen and liquid oxygen propellants, the engines preliminary design dates back to recommendations of the 1959 Silverstein Committee. Rocketdyne won approval to develop the J-2 in June 1960 and the first flight, AS-201, the engine produced a specific impulse of 421 seconds in a vacuum and had a mass of approximately 1,788 kilograms. Five J-2 engines were used on the Saturn Vs S-II second stage, proposals existed to use various numbers of J-2 engines in the upper stages of an even larger rocket, the planned Nova. The J-2 was Americas largest production LH2-fuelled rocket engine before the RS-25 Space Shuttle Main Engine, a modernized version of the engine, the J-2X, was considered for use on the Earth Departure Stage of NASAs Space Shuttle replacement, the Space Launch System. Unlike most liquid-fueled rocket engines in service at the time, the J-2 was designed to be restarted once after shutdown when flown on the Saturn V S-IVB third stage, the first burn, lasting about two minutes, placed the Apollo spacecraft into a low Earth parking orbit.
After the crew verified that the spacecraft was operating nominally, the J-2 was re-ignited for translunar injection, the thrust chamber was constructed of 0.30 millimetres thick stainless steel tubes, stacked longitudinally and furnace-brazed to form a single unit. The chamber was bell-shaped with a 27.5,1 expansion area ratio for efficient operation at altitude, fuel entered from a manifold, located midway between the thrust chamber throat and the exit, at a pressure of more than 6,900 kPa. In cooling the chamber, the made a one-half pass downward through 180 tubes and was returned in a full pass up to the thrust chamber injector through 360 tubes. Once propellants passed through the injector, they were ignited by the spark igniter. The thrust chamber injector received the propellants under pressure from the turbopumps,614 hollow oxidizer posts were machined to form an integral part of the injector, with fuel nozzles threaded through and installed over the oxidizer posts in concentric rings.
The injector face was porous, being formed from layers of steel wire mesh. The propellants were injected uniformly to ensure satisfactory combustion, the injector and oxidizer dome assembly was located at the top of the thrust chamber. The dome provided a manifold for the distribution of the LOX to the injector and served as a mount for the gimbal bearing, the augmented spark igniter was mounted to the injector face and provided the flame to ignite the propellants in the combustion chamber. When engine start was initiated, the spark exciters energized two spark plugs mounted in the side of the combustion chamber, the control system started the initial flow of oxidizer and fuel to the spark igniter. As the oxidizer and fuel entered the chamber of the ASI, they mixed and were ignited. The ASI operated continuously during entire engine firing, was uncooled, thrust was transmitted through the gimbal, which consisted of a compact, highly loaded universal joint consisting of a spherical, socket-type bearing.
This was covered with a Teflon/fiberglass coating that provided a dry, the propellant feed system consists of separate fuel and oxidizer turbopumps, several valves and oxidizer flowmeters, and interconnecting lines
Russia, officially the Russian Federation, is a country in Eurasia. The European western part of the country is more populated and urbanised than the eastern. Russias capital Moscow is one of the largest cities in the world, other urban centers include Saint Petersburg, Yekaterinburg, Nizhny Novgorod. Extending across the entirety of Northern Asia and much of Eastern Europe, Russia spans eleven time zones and incorporates a range of environments. It shares maritime borders with Japan by the Sea of Okhotsk, the East Slavs emerged as a recognizable group in Europe between the 3rd and 8th centuries AD. Founded and ruled by a Varangian warrior elite and their descendants, in 988 it adopted Orthodox Christianity from the Byzantine Empire, beginning the synthesis of Byzantine and Slavic cultures that defined Russian culture for the next millennium. Rus ultimately disintegrated into a number of states, most of the Rus lands were overrun by the Mongol invasion. The Soviet Union played a role in the Allied victory in World War II.
The Soviet era saw some of the most significant technological achievements of the 20th century, including the worlds first human-made satellite and the launching of the first humans in space. By the end of 1990, the Soviet Union had the second largest economy, largest standing military in the world. It is governed as a federal semi-presidential republic, the Russian economy ranks as the twelfth largest by nominal GDP and sixth largest by purchasing power parity in 2015. Russias extensive mineral and energy resources are the largest such reserves in the world, making it one of the producers of oil. The country is one of the five recognized nuclear weapons states and possesses the largest stockpile of weapons of mass destruction, Russia is a great power as well as a regional power and has been characterised as a potential superpower. The name Russia is derived from Rus, a state populated mostly by the East Slavs. However, this name became more prominent in the history, and the country typically was called by its inhabitants Русская Земля.
In order to distinguish this state from other states derived from it, it is denoted as Kievan Rus by modern historiography, an old Latin version of the name Rus was Ruthenia, mostly applied to the western and southern regions of Rus that were adjacent to Catholic Europe. The current name of the country, Россия, comes from the Byzantine Greek designation of the Kievan Rus, the standard way to refer to citizens of Russia is Russians in English and rossiyane in Russian. There are two Russian words which are translated into English as Russians
The HM7B is a European cryogenic upper stage rocket engine used in Ariane rocket family. It will be replaced by Vinci as an engine for Ariane 6. Nearly 300 engines have been produced to date, the development of HM7 engine begun in 1973 on a base of HM4 rocket engine. It was designed to power a third stage of newly constructed Ariane 1, maiden flight took place on 24 December 1979 successfully placing CAT-1 satellite on the orbit. Introduction of Ariane 2 and Ariane 3 it become necessary to improve performance of the upper stage engine and it was achieved by extending engine nozzle and increasing chamber pressure from 30 to 35 bar increasing specific impulse and by this burn time from 570 to 735 seconds. Qualification tests were completed in 1983 and a variant was designated HM7B. It was used on Ariane 4 upper stage where the time increased to 780 seconds. The HM7B is a regeneratively cooled gas generator rocket engine fed with liquid oxygen and it has no restart capability, the engine is continuously fired for 950 seconds in its Ariane 5 version.
It provides 62.7 kN of thrust with an impulse of 444.2 s. The engines chamber pressure is 3.5 MPa, spacecraft propulsion Timeline of hydrogen technologies Comparison of orbital rocket engines HM4 RL-10 Vinci CE-7.5
The LE-7 and its succeeding upgrade model the LE-7A are staged combustion cycle LH2/LOX liquid rocket engines produced in Japan for the H-II series of launch vehicles. NASDA and NAL have since been integrated into JAXA, however, a large part of the work was contracted to Mitsubishi, with Ishikawajima-Harima providing turbomachinery, and the engine is often referred to as the Mitsubishi LE-7. The original LE-7 was designed to be a high efficiency, medium-sized motor with sufficient thrust for use on the H-II, the fuel turbopump had an issue using the originally designed inducer where the inducer would itself begin to cavitate and cause an imbalance resulting in excessive vibration. The LE-7A is a model from the LE-7 rocket engine. Basic design is unchanged from the original model, the 7A had additional engineering effort placed on cost cutting and performance developments. Specific emphasis was placed on reducing or the amount of required welding by allowing for more machined or cast components and this resulted in a substantial rework of the pipe routing.
To combat the fuel inducer complications described above, the fuel inducer was redesigned for the 7A, the oxidizer inducer was redesigned, but this was primarily due to poor performance at low inlet pressures as opposed to reliability concerns. The fuel turbopump itself was the subject of various durability enhancements, additionally the combustion chamber/injector assembly underwent a number of small changes, like decreasing the number of injector elements, to reduce machining complexity and improve reliability. While these changes resulted in a drop in maximum specific impulse to 440 seconds. For the new model, a nozzle extension was designed that could be added to the base of the new standard “short” nozzle when extra performance was required. Before this new nozzle was ready, some H-IIA’s were launched using only the short nozzle, the 7A no longer uses a separate nozzle extension in any configuration. The new H-IIB launch vehicles uses two LE-7A engines in its first stage
Able to launch payloads heavier than 5,000 kg into low-Earth orbit, Antares is the largest rocket operated by Orbital ATK. Antares launches from the Mid-Atlantic Regional Spaceport and made its flight on April 21,2013. NASA awarded Orbital a Commercial Orbital Transportation Services Space Act Agreement in 2008 to demonstrate delivery of cargo to the International Space Station, for these COTS missions Orbital intends to use Antares to launch its Cygnus spacecraft. In addition, Antares will compete for small-to-medium missions, originally designated the Taurus II, Orbital Sciences renamed the vehicle Antares, after the star of the same name, on December 12,2011. The first four Antares launch attempts were successful, during the fifth launch on October 28,2014, the rocket failed catastrophically, and the vehicle and payload were destroyed. The failure was traced to a fault in the first stage engines, after completion of a redesign program, the rocket had a successful return to flight on October 17,2016, delivering cargo to the ISS.
The NASA COTS award was for US$171 million and Orbital Sciences expected to invest an additional $150 million, a Commercial Resupply Service contract of $1.9 billion for 8 flights was awarded in 2008. As of April 2012, development costs were estimated at $472 million, on June 10,2008 it was announced that the Mid-Atlantic Regional Spaceport, formerly part of the Wallops Flight Facility, in Virginia, would be the primary launch site for the rocket. Launch pad 0A, previously used for the failed Conestoga rocket, Wallops allows launches which reach the International Space Stations orbit as effectively as those from Cape Canaveral, while being less crowded. The first Antares flight launched a Cygnus mass simulator, on December 10,2009 Alliant Techsystems Inc. test fired their Castor 30 motor for use as the second stage of the Antares rocket. In March 2010 Orbital Sciences and Aerojet completed test firings of the NK-33 engines, on February 22,2013 a hot fire test was successfully performed, the entire first stage being erected on the pad and held down while the engines fired for 29 seconds.
The first stage of Antares burns RP-1 and liquid oxygen, like the Zenit—also manufactured by Yuzhnoye—the Antares vehicle has a diameter of 3.9 m with a matching 3.9 m payload fairing. The Antares 100-series first stage was powered by two Aerojet AJ26 engines and these began as Kuznetsov NK-33 engines built in the Soviet Union in the late 1960s and early 1970s,43 of which were purchased by Aerojet in the 1990s. 20 of these were refurbished into AJ26 engines for Antares, modifications included equipping the engines for gimballing, adding US electronics, and qualifying the engines to fire for twice as long as designed and to operate at 108% of their original thrust. Together they produced 3,265 kilonewtons of thrust at sea level and 3,630 kN in vacuum, due to concerns over corrosion and the limited supply of AJ26 engines, Orbital had selected new first stage engines. The new engines were planned to debut in 2017 and allow Orbital to bid on a second major contract for cargo resupply of the ISS.
In December 2014 Orbital Sciences announced that the RD-181—a modified version of the RD-191—would replace the AJ26 on the Antares 200-series, the first flight of the re-engined Antares 230 configuration was October 17,2016 carrying the Cygnus CRS OA-5 cargo to the ISS. The Antares 200 and 300 first stages are powered by two RD-181 engines, which provide 440 kilonewtons more thrust than the dual AJ26 engines used on the Antares 100
Liquid hydrogen is the liquid state of the element hydrogen. Hydrogen is found naturally in the molecular H2 form, one common method of obtaining liquid hydrogen involves a compressor resembling a jet engine in both appearance and principle. Liquid hydrogen is used as a concentrated form of hydrogen storage. As in any gas, storing it as liquid takes less space than storing it as a gas at temperature and pressure. However, the density is very low compared to other common fuels. Once liquefied, it can be maintained as a liquid in pressurized, liquid hydrogen consists of 99. 79% parahydrogen,0. 21% orthohydrogen. In 1885 Zygmunt Florenty Wróblewski published hydrogens critical temperature as 33 K, critical pressure,13.3 atmospheres, hydrogen was liquefied by James Dewar in 1898 by using regenerative cooling and his invention, the vacuum flask. The first synthesis of the stable form of liquid hydrogen, was achieved by Paul Harteck. Room–temperature hydrogen consists mostly of the orthohydrogen form, practical H2–O2 rocket engines run fuel-rich so that the exhaust contains some unburned hydrogen.
This reduces combustion chamber and nozzle erosion and it reduces the molecular weight of the exhaust which can actually increase specific impulse despite the incomplete combustion. Liquid hydrogen can be used as the fuel for an internal combustion engine or fuel cell, various submarines and concept hydrogen vehicles have been built using this form of hydrogen. Due to its similarity, builders can sometimes modify and share equipment with systems designed for LNG, because of the lower volumetric energy, the hydrogen volumes needed for combustion are large. Unless LH2 is injected instead of gas, hydrogen-fueled piston engines usually require larger fuel systems, unless direct injection is used, a severe gas-displacement effect hampers maximum breathing and increases pumping losses. Liquid hydrogen is used to cool neutrons to be used in neutron scattering. Since neutrons and hydrogen nuclei have similar masses, kinetic energy exchange per interaction is maximum, superheated liquid hydrogen was used in many bubble chamber experiments.
The first thermonuclear bomb, Ivy Mike, used liquid deuterium, the product of its combustion with oxygen alone is water vapor, which can be cooled with some of the liquid hydrogen. Since water is harmless to the environment, an engine burning it can be considered zero emissions, liquid hydrogen has a much higher specific energy than gasoline, natural gas, or diesel. The density of hydrogen is only 70.99 g/L
Angara (rocket family)
The Angara rocket family is a family of space-launch vehicles being developed by the Moscow-based Khrunichev State Research and Production Space Center. The rockets are to put between 3,800 and 24,500 kg into low Earth orbit and are intended, along with Soyuz-2 variants, the Soviet Unions main spaceport, Baikonur Cosmodrome, was located in Kazakhstan, and Russia encountered difficulties negotiating for its use. Several companies submitted bids for the new rocket, and in 1994 Khrunichev, khrunichevs initial design called for the use of a modified RD-170 for first stage propulsion and a liquid hydrogen powered second stage. This new modular rocket would require construction of a new launch pad, by 2004, the design of Angara had taken shape and the project proceeded with development of the launchers. In 2014,22 years after Angaras original conception, the first launch took place on July 9, the Universal Rocket Module forms the core of every Angara vehicle. In the Angara A5, four additional URM-1s act as boosters, each URM-1 is powered by a single NPO Energomash RD-191 burning liquid oxygen and RP-1.
The RD-191 is an engine derived from the four-chamber RD-170. The RD-191 is capable of throttling down to at least 30%, the URM-1 consists of a liquid oxygen tank at the top, followed by an intertank structure containing flight control and telemetry equipment, with the kerosene tank below that. At the base of the module is a bay containing engine gimballing equipment for vehicle pitch and yaw. The second stage of the Angara, designated URM-2, uses one KBKhA RD-0124A engine burning liquid oxygen, the RD-0124A is nearly identical to the RD-0124 currently powering the second stage of Soyuz-2, designated Block I. The URM-2 has a diameter of 3.6 meters for the Angara A5 and other proposed variants. The Angara 1.2 will fly a smaller RD-0124A-powered second stage, Angara 1.2 will not use an upper stage, nor will Angara A5 when delivering payloads to low orbits. For higher energy orbits such as GTO, Angara A5 will use the Briz-M upper stage, powered by one S5. 98M burning N2O4 and UDMH, or eventually a new upper stage.
This stage will use the LH2/LOX powered RD-0146D and allow Angara A5 to bring up to two more mass to GTO. The Blok D is being considered as a stage when launched from Vostochny since it will avoid the toxic propellant of the Briz-M. The smallest Angara under development is the Angara 1.2, which consists of one URM-1 core and it has a lift-off mass of 171 tonnes and can deliver 3.8 tonnes of payload to a 200 km x 60° orbit. A modified Angara 1.2, called Angara 1. 2pp and this flight lasted 22 minutes and carried a mass simulator weighing 1,430 kilograms. Weighing 773 tonnes at lift-off, Angara A5 has a capacity of 24.5 tonnes to a 200 km x 60° orbit
The RL10 is a liquid-fuel cryogenic rocket engine used on the Centaur, S-IV and DCSS upper stages. Several versions of the engine have been flown, with two, the RL10A-4-2 and the RL10B-2, still being produced and flown on the Atlas V and Delta IV. The engine produces a specific impulse of 373 to 470 s in a vacuum and has a mass ranging from 131 to 317 kg, the RL10 was first tested on the ground in 1959, at Pratt and Whitneys Florida Research and Development Center in West Palm Beach, Florida. It was first flown in 1962 in a suborbital test. For that launch, two RL10A-3 engines powered the Centaur upper stage of an Atlas launch vehicle, the launch was used to conduct a heavily instrumented performance and structural integrity test of the vehicle. The RL10 was designed for the USAF from the beginning as a motor for the Lunex lunar lander. The RL10 has been upgraded over the years, one current model, the RL10B-2, powers the Delta IV second stage. It has been modified from the original RL10 to improve performance.
Some of the include a extendable nozzle and electro-mechanical gimbaling for reduced weight. Current specific impulse is 464 seconds, a flaw in the brazing of an RL10B-2 combustion chamber was identified as the cause of failure for the May 4,1999, Delta III launch carrying the Orion-3 communications satellite. Four modified RL10A-5 engines, all of them with the ability to be throttled, were used in the McDonnell Douglas DC-X, up to seven RL10 engines would be used in the proposed Jupiter Upper Stage, serving an equivalent role to the Ares V Earth Departure Stage. The Common Extensible Cryogenic Engine is a testbed to develop RL10 engines that throttle well, NASA has contracted with Pratt & Whitney Rocketdyne to develop the CECE demonstrator engine. In 2007 its operability was demonstrated at 11-to-1 throttle ratios, in 2009 NASA reported successfully throttling from 104 percent thrust to eight percent thrust, a record for an engine of this type. Chugging was eliminated by injector and propellant feed system modifications that control the pressure, additional missions could include the provision of the high-energy technical capacity for the cleanup of space debris.
We know the list price on an RL10, thats what this study will figure out, is it worthwhile to build an RL10 replacement. While NASA frequently uses EELVs to launch large payloads, the programmes administration is largely run through other channels. An RL10 is on display at the New England Air Museum, Windsor Locks, Connecticut An RL10 is on display at the Museum of Science and Industry, spacecraft propulsion RL60 RD-0146 XCOR/ULA aluminum alloy nozzle engine, under development in 2011 Notes Bibliography Connors, Jack. The Engines of Pratt & Whitney, A Technical History, American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics