Marburg Picture Index
The Bildindex der Kunst und Architektur is an open online database of 2.2 million photographs of 1.7 million artworks and architectural objects. The owner/operator of this database is the German Documentation Center for Art History known formally as Bildarchiv Foto Marburg. In addition to its own image holdings, around 1 million images from 50 partner institutions are available online. Not all images are of German objects. Between 1977 and 2008, 1.4 million photographs from 15 different institutions were made available on microfiche by Bildarchiv Foto Marburg as the "Marburger Index - the list of art in Germany". Published digital reproductions of these microfiche photographs from the original partner institutions now form the basis of the image index. Photographs, Microfiches, MIDAS, DISKUS: The Bildarchiv Foto Marburg as German Center for the Documentation of Art History, by Fritz Laupichler, 1996 Image Index of Art and Architecture
Martigny is the capital of the district of Martigny in the canton of Valais in Switzerland. It lies at an elevation of 471 meters, its population is 15000 inhabitants, it is a junction of roads joining Italy and Switzerland. One road links it over the Great St. Bernard Pass to Aosta, the other over the col de la Forclaz to Chamonix. In winter, Martigny is known for its numerous nearby Alp ski resorts such as Verbier. Martigny lies about 33 kilometers south-southeast of Montreux, it is on the left foothills of the steep hillsdies of the Rhone Valley, at the foot of the Swiss Alps, is located at the point where the southwestern-flowing Rhone turns ninety degrees northward and heads toward. The river La Drance flows from the southern Valais Alps through Martigny and joins the Rhone from the left just after Rhone's distinctive rectangular change in direction. Martigny has an area, as of 2013, of 24.97 square kilometers. Of this area, 31.5 % is used for agricultural purposes. Of the rest of the land, 23.3% is settled and 5.3% is unproductive land.
In 1964 the current municipality was created with the merger of Martigny-Bourg. The Gaulish name of the settlement in the 1st century BC was either Octodurus or Octodurum, an oppidum or vicus of the Veragri. Octodurus was conquered by the Roman Republic in 57 BC, occupied by Servius Galba with the twelfth legion and some cavalry in order to protect the strategically important pass of Poeninus, by which road the mercatores had used to travel at great risk as well as paying great tolls. Galba, after capturing many local strongholds and receiving the submission of the people, sent troops into the country of the Nantuates, with his remaining army determined to winter in Octodurus. Galba gave one part of the town to the Gauls to winter in, assigned the other to his troops, he fortified himself with a ditch and rampart, thought he was safe. He was, however attacked by the Gauls before his defences were complete or all his supplies were brought into the camp, resulting in the Battle of Octodurus, a indecisive Roman victory.
Octodurus was on joined to the Roman Empire, as part of the Alpes Poeninae province. Pliny says. Octodurus declined over the following decades, between AD 41 and 47, a new Roman colony named Forum Claudii Augusti renamed'to Forum Claudii Vallensium, was established nearby to take the role of capital of the Vallis Poenina province; the town appears in the Tabula Peutingeriana. In the Notit. Prov. the place is called Civitas Vallensium Octodurus. At a period it was called Forum Claudii Vallensium Octodurensium, as an inscription shows. An episcopal see was established here in the 4th century, making the Roman Catholic Diocese of Sion the oldest bishopric in what is now Switzerland; the first attested bishop of Octodurus was Theodore/Theodolus, present at the Council of Aquileia in 381. A restored Roman amphitheatre, citizen living quarters, thermal baths can be seen in Martigny today. One authority speaks of the remains of a Roman aqueduct at Martigny. Many coins, other memorials of the Roman time, have been found about the place.
There are no records of the town during the early medieval period. In the Middle Ages, the town took Martin of Tours as its patron saint, became known by the German name Martinach, recorded in Latinized form as Martiniacum in 1018; the church of Martigny at the site of the ancient cathedral, was consecrated to St. Mary in 1177, to Notre-Dame-des-Champs in 1420. Martigny was placed under the protection of the House of Savoy in 1351, passing to Saint-Maurice in 1475, as the seven tithings in treaty with the bishop of Sion and the canton of Bern seized all of the Lower Valais; the town was granted a degree of autonomy, its citizens being allowed to elect their own local officials, known as the syndics. The economy of Martigny was traditionally based on viticulture; the town was flooded by the Dranse, most in 1595 and in 1818. From 1798 to 1802, Martigny was part of the imperialist Napoleonic Republic of Valais in the Rhodanic Republic, which passed to France from 1810 to 1814; the Valais/Wallis passed to Switzerland in 1815.
In the 1840s, Martigny was the stage of a confrontation between the liberal-radical "Young Switzerland" and the conservative "Old Switzerland" movements, culminating in the Battle at the Trient of 21 May 1844, taking place a few kilometers outside town. The town was split into independent municipalities of Martigny-Ville, Martigny-Bourg and Martigny-Combe in the 1830s. La Bâtiaz and Trient were further split off Martigny-Combe in 1899, respectively; this administrative fragmentation of the town was reversed in the 20th century, with a fusion of Martigny-Ville with La Bâtiaz in 1956 and with Martigny-Bourg in 1964. Martigny was connected to the Simplon railway in 18
Integrated Authority File
The Integrated Authority File or GND is an international authority file for the organisation of personal names, subject headings and corporate bodies from catalogues. It is used for documentation in libraries and also by archives and museums; the GND is managed by the German National Library in cooperation with various regional library networks in German-speaking Europe and other partners. The GND falls under the Creative Commons Zero licence; the GND specification provides a hierarchy of high-level entities and sub-classes, useful in library classification, an approach to unambiguous identification of single elements. It comprises an ontology intended for knowledge representation in the semantic web, available in the RDF format; the Integrated Authority File became operational in April 2012 and integrates the content of the following authority files, which have since been discontinued: Name Authority File Corporate Bodies Authority File Subject Headings Authority File Uniform Title File of the Deutsches Musikarchiv At the time of its introduction on 5 April 2012, the GND held 9,493,860 files, including 2,650,000 personalised names.
There are seven main types of GND entities: LIBRIS Virtual International Authority File Information pages about the GND from the German National Library Search via OGND Bereitstellung des ersten GND-Grundbestandes DNB, 19 April 2012 From Authority Control to Linked Authority Data Presentation given by Reinhold Heuvelmann to the ALA MARC Formats Interest Group, June 2012
A portmanteau or portmanteau word is a linguistic blend of words, in which parts of multiple words or their phones are combined into a new word, as in smog, coined by blending smoke and fog, or motel, from motor and hotel. In linguistics, a portmanteau is defined as a single morph; the definition overlaps with the grammatical term contraction, but contractions are formed from words that would otherwise appear together in sequence, such as do and not to make don't, whereas a portmanteau word is formed by combining two or more existing words that all relate to a singular concept. A portmanteau differs from a compound, which does not involve the truncation of parts of the stems of the blended words. For instance, starfish is not a portmanteau, of star and fish; the word portmanteau was first used in this sense by Lewis Carroll in the book Through the Looking-Glass, in which Humpty Dumpty explains to Alice the coinage of the unusual words in "Jabberwocky", where slithy means "slimy and lithe" and mimsy is "miserable and flimsy".
Humpty Dumpty explains to Alice the practice of combining words in various ways: You see it's like a portmanteau—there are two meanings packed up into one word. In his introduction to The Hunting of the Snark, Carroll uses portmanteau when discussing lexical selection: Humpty Dumpty's theory, of two meanings packed into one word like a portmanteau, seems to me the right explanation for all. For instance, take the two words "fuming" and "furious." Make up your mind that you will say both words, but leave it unsettled which you will say first … if you have the rarest of gifts, a balanced mind, you will say "frumious." In then-contemporary English, a portmanteau was a suitcase. The etymology of the word is the French porte-manteau, from porter, "to carry", manteau, "cloak". In modern French, a porte-manteau is a clothes valet, a coat-tree or similar article of furniture for hanging up jackets, hats and the like. An occasional synonym for "portmanteau word" is frankenword, an autological word exemplifying the phenomenon it describes, blending "Frankenstein" and "word".
Many neologisms are examples of blends. In Punch in 1896, the word brunch was introduced as a "portmanteau word." In 1964, the newly independent African republic of Tanganyika and Zanzibar chose the portmanteau word Tanzania as its name. Eurasia is a portmanteau of Europe and Asia; some city names are portmanteaus of the border regions they straddle: Texarkana spreads across the Texas-Arkansas border, while Calexico and Mexicali are the American and Mexican sides of a single conurbation. A scientific example is a liger, a cross between a male lion and a female tiger. Many company or brand names are portmanteaus, including Microsoft, a portmanteau of microcomputer and software. "Jeoportmanteau!" is a recurring category on the American television quiz show Jeopardy!. The category's name is itself a portmanteau of the words "Jeopardy" and "portmanteau." Responses in the category are portmanteaus constructed by fitting two words together. Portmanteau words may be produced by joining together proper nouns with common nouns, such as "gerrymandering", which refers to the scheme of Massachusetts Governor Elbridge Gerry for politically contrived redistricting.
The term gerrymander has itself contributed to portmanteau terms playmander. Oxbridge is a common portmanteau for the UK's two oldest universities, those of Oxford and Cambridge. In 2016, Britain's planned exit from the European Union became known as "Brexit". David Beckham's English mansion Rowneybury House was nicknamed "Beckingham Palace", a portmanteau of his surname and Buckingham Palace. Many portmanteau words do not appear in all dictionaries. For example, a spork is an eating utensil, a combination of a spoon and a fork, a skort is an item of clothing, part skirt, part shorts. On the other hand, turducken, a dish made by inserting a chicken into a duck, the duck into a turkey, was added to the Oxford English Dictionary in 2010; the word refudiate was first used by Sarah Palin when she misspoke, conflating the words refute and repudiate. Though a gaffe, the word was recognized as the New Oxford American Dictionary's "Word of the Year" in 2010; the business lexicon is replete with newly coined portmanteau words like "permalance", "advertainment", "advertorial", "infotainment", "infomercial".
A company name may be portmanteau as well as a product name. Two proper names can be used in creating a portmanteau word in r
National Library of Israel
The National Library of Israel Jewish National and University Library, is the library dedicated to collecting the cultural treasures of Israel and of Jewish heritage. The library holds more than 5 million books, is located on the Givat Ram campus of the Hebrew University of Jerusalem; the National Library owns the world's largest collections of Hebraica and Judaica, is the repository of many rare and unique manuscripts and artifacts. The B'nai Brith library, founded in Jerusalem in 1892, was the first public library in Palestine to serve the Jewish community; the library was located on B'nai Brith street, between the Meah Shearim neighborhood and the Russian Compound. Ten years the Bet Midrash Abrabanel library, as it was known, moved to Ethiopia Street. In 1920, when plans were drawn up for the Hebrew University, the B'nai Brith collection became the basis for a university library; the books were moved to Mount Scopus. In 1948, when access to the university campus on Mount Scopus was blocked, most of the books were moved to the university's temporary quarters in the Terra Sancta building in Rehavia.
By that time, the university collection included over one million books. For lack of space, some of the books were placed in storerooms around the city. In 1960, they were moved to the new JNUL building in Givat Ram. In the late 1970s, when the new university complex on Mount Scopus was inaugurated and the faculties of Law and Social Science returned there, departmental libraries opened on that campus and the number of visitors to the Givat Ram library dropped. In the 1990s, the building suffered from maintenance problems such as rainwater leaks and insect infestation. In 2007 the library was recognized as The National Library of the State of Israel after the passage of the National Library Law; the law, which came into effect on 23 July 2008, changed the library's name to "National Library of Israel" and turned it temporarily to a subsidiary company of the University to become a independent community interest company, jointly owned by the Government of Israel, the Hebrew University and other organizations.
In 2011, the library launched a website granting public access to books, maps and music from its collections. In 2014, the project for a new home of the Library in Jerusalem was unveiled; the 34,000 square meters building, designed by the Swiss architecture firm Herzog & de Meuron, is scheduled for full completion in 2021. The library's mission is to secure copies of all material published in any language. By law, two copies of all printed matter published in Israel must be deposited in the National Library. In 2001, the law was amended to include audio and video recordings, other non-print media. Many manuscripts, including some of the library's unique volumes such the 13th century Worms Mahzor, have been scanned and are now available on the Internet. Among the library's special collections are the personal papers of hundreds of outstanding Jewish figures, the National Sound Archives, the Laor Map Collection and numerous other collections of Hebraica and Judaica; the library possesses some of Isaac Newton's manuscripts dealing with theological subjects.
The collection, donated by the family of the collector Abraham Yahuda, includes a large number of works by Newton about mysticism, analyses of holy books, predictions about the end of days and the appearance of the ancient Temple in Jerusalem. It contains maps that Newton sketched about mythical events to assist him in his end of days calculations; the library houses the personal archives of Gershom Scholem. Following the occupation of West Jerusalem by Haganah forces in May 1948, the libraries of a number Palestinians who fled the country as well as of other well-to-do Palestinians were transferred to the National Library; these collections included those of Henry Cattan, Khalil Beidas, Khalil al-Sakakini and Aref Hikmet Nashashibi. About 30,000 books were removed from homes in West Jerusalem, with another 40,000 taken from other cities in Mandatory Palestine, it is unclear whether the books were being kept and protected or if they were looted from the abandoned houses of their owners. About 6,000 of these books are in the library today indexed with the label AP – "Abandoned Property".
The books are cataloged, can be viewed from the Library's general catalog and are consulted by the public, including Arab scholars from all over the world. List of national and state libraries Union List of Israel Judaica Archival Project Official website
Information Center for Israeli Art
The Information Center for Israeli Art is the largest collection of primary resources documenting the history of the Israeli art in Israel. Over 12,000 artists files are housed in the Center in the Israel Jerusalem; as a research center within the Israel Museum, the Information Center for Israeli Art houses materials related to a broad variety of Israeli visual art and artists. All regions of the country and numerous eras and art movements are represented. In addition to the papers of artists, the Center collects documentary material from art galleries, art dealers, art collectors, it houses a collection of over 700 Israeli art-related videos and publishes a selection of over 5,800 Israeli artist biographies online. The Information Center reopened after extensive museum renovations; the Center offers its visitors a wealth of material collected since 1975, now accessible through the computerized information system. Center visitors from all around the world can enjoy services providing them with digital information by email.
The Information Center for Israeli Art documents and catalogs information about Israeli artists and their work from the beginning of Israeli art till today. The center encompasses over 12,800 artists – painters, photographers, graphic designers, industrial designers, ceramicists and more; the material in the Center is collected into artist files, for prominent and well-known artists as well as those who have not been exhibited. The database and artist files include biographical information, newspaper clippings and articles regarding art shows in Israel and abroad, invitations to exhibitions, slides and photographs or artwork; the Information Center for Israeli Art contains important and unique collections from many galleries and artists. One example of this is the Debel Gallery Archives; the Debel Gallery was established in 1973 in Jerusalem. Since January 2007 the Debel Gallery Archive is housed within the Information Center for Israeli Art at the Israel Museum, Jerusalem, it includes background material, exhibition histories, photos of invitations from 1973 to 1990, recordings of interviews with artists, correspondence with artists, much more.
An additional collection of rich visual material documenting Israeli art is the Israel Zafrir Photographer Archive, containing over 10,000 photographs of Israeli artwork and artists. The Gabriel Talphir Archive consists of letters and photographs sent by artists to the well known art critic and author; the Nahum Zolotov Archive found in the Center, contains sketches and notations from the renowned Israeli architect. The Frank E. van Raalte Film Archive contains over 100 films interviewing Israeli artists. The Bat Sheva and Yitzhak Katz Archive contains personal writings and letters of artists including Sionah Tagger, Israel Paldi and Arieh Lubin; the Artifact Gallery Archive contains exhibitions and artists files including Nahum Tevet, Philip Rantzer and Diti Almog. In addition, the Max Farbmann and the Jakob Eisenscher Archives include photographs and newspaper articles about these Israeli artists; as of January 2010, new information received by the Information Center for Israeli Art is filed digitally.
In 2011, the Center database had been enriched with over 25,000 newspaper articles, the number of exhibitions documented in the Center surpassed 15,000. The Center website offers bilingual information on 5800 selected Israeli artists and includes a short biography, thousands of Israeli works of art from the Israel Museum collection and other art collections from around the world as well as a comprehensive list of exhibitions for each artist. Visual arts in Israel Israeli sculpture List of public art in Israel The Information Center for Israeli Art at the Israel Museum List of selected Israeli artists from the Information Center for Israeli Art database at the Israel Museum List of Israeli Artist Archives found in the Information Center for Israeli Art database at the Israel Museum
National Library of Poland
The National Library of Poland is the central Polish library, subject directly to the Ministry of Culture and National Heritage of the Republic of Poland. The library collects books, journals and audiovisual publications published in the territory of Poland, as well as Polonica published abroad, it is the most important humanities research library, the main archive of Polish writing and the state centre of bibliographic information about books. It plays a significant role as a research facility and is an important methodological center for other Polish libraries; the National Library receives a copy of every book published in Poland as legal deposit. The Jagiellonian Library is the only other library in Poland to have a national library status. There are three general sections: The Library The Bibliographic Institute of the National Library The Book and Readership Institute The National Library's history has origins in the 18th century including items from the collections of John III Sobieski which were obtained from his grand daughter Maria Karolina Sobieska, Duchess of Bouillon.
However, the Załuski collection was confiscated by troops of Russian tsarina Catherine II in the aftermath of the second Partition of Poland and sent to Saint Petersburg, where the books formed the mass of the Imperial Public Library on its formation in 1795. Parts of the collection were damaged or destroyed as they were mishandled while being removed from the library and transported to Russia, many were stolen. According to the historian Joachim Lelewel, the Zaluskis' books, "could be bought at Grodno by the basket"; because of that, when Poland regained her independence in 1918, there was no central institution to serve in the capacity of a national library. On 24 February 1928, by the decree of president Ignacy Mościcki, the National Library was created in its modern form, it was opened in 1930 and had 200 thousand volumes. Its first Director General was Stefan Demby, succeeded in 1934 by Stefan Vrtel-Wierczyński; the collections of the library were extended. For instance, in 1932 president Mościcki donated all of the books and manuscripts from the Wilanów Palace Museum to the library, some 40 thousand volumes and 20 thousand pictures from the collection of Stanisław Kostka Potocki.
The National Library lacked a seat of its own. Because of that, the collections had to be accommodated in several places; the main reading room was located in the newly built library building of the Warsaw School of Economics. In 1935 the Potocki Palace in Warsaw became home for the special collections. A new, purpose-built building for the library was planned in what is now the Pole Mokotowskie, in a planned monumental "Government District". However, its construction was hampered by the outbreak of World War II. Before World War II, the library collections consisted of: 6.5 million books and journals from 19th and 20th centuries 3,000 early prints 2,200 incunables 52,000 manuscripts maps and musicIn 1940 the Nazi occupants changed the National Library into Municipal Library of Warsaw and divided it as follows: Department of Books for Germans Restricted Department, containing books that were not available to readers All special collections from various Warsaw offices and institutions In 1944 the special collections were set ablaze by the Nazi occupants as a part of repressions after the Warsaw Uprising.
80,000 early printed books, including priceless 16th-18th century Polonica, 26,000 manuscripts, 2,500 incunables, 100,000 drawings and engravings, 50,000 pieces of sheet music and theatre materials were destroyed. It is estimated that out of over 6 million volumes in Warsaw's major libraries in 1939, 3.6 million volumes were lost during World War II, a large part of them belonging to the National Library. Today the collections of the National Library are one of the largest in the country. Among 7,900,000 volumes held in the library are 160,000 objects printed before 1801, over 26,000 manuscripts, over 114,000 music prints and 400,000 drawings; the library collections include photographs and other iconographic documents, more than 101,000 atlases and maps, over 2,000,000 ephemera, as well as over 2,000,000 books and about 800,000 copies of journals from 19th to 21st centuries. Notable items in the collection include 151 leaves of the Codex Suprasliensis, inscribed in UNESCO's Memory of the World Programme Register in 2007 in recognition for its supranational and supraregional significance.
In 2012 the library signed an agreement to add 1.3 million Polish library records to WorldCat. List of libraries damaged during the World War II Digital Library of the National Library of Poland National Library website Polona - National Digital Library A Commonwealth of Diverse Cultures