The Zögling is a German high-wing, cable-braced, single seat primary glider, designed by Alexander Lippisch in 1926 and produced with many variations by a variety of manufacturers. The Zögling was designed to be a training glider for basic flight training; the usual launch method was by bungee cord from a sloped hill. Because training was conducted by solo flight the aircraft had to be easy to fly and easy to repair; the high-wing design uses a kingpost and cable bracing. The primary structure of the glider is of wood, with the wings, tail surfaces and inverted "V" kingpost all finished in doped aircraft fabric covering; the pilot sits on a simple seat in the open air, without a windshield. D. D. Zögling RRG-1 Zögling DFS Zögling 33 DFS Zögling 1 Lippisch Zögling Teichfuss L. T.30 G 101 production in Sweden National Soaring Museum, New York, United States US Southwest Soaring Museum – replica fuselage only Swedish Air Force Museum has a G 101 in storage Data from The Virtual Aviation MuseumGeneral characteristics Crew: One Length: 5.290 m Wingspan: 10.040 m Height: 2.010 m Related development DFS SG 38 Schulgleiter Slingsby PrimaryAircraft of comparable role and era Detroit G1 Gull Jongblood Primary Schweizer SGP 1-1 Cloudcraft Dickson Primary Related lists List of gliders Zögling photos in the National Soaring Museum
DFS SG 38 Schulgleiter
The Schneider DFS 108-14 SG-38 Schulgleiter is a German high-wing, cable-braced, single-seat primary glider, designed by Schneider and Hofmann at Edmund Schneider's factory at Grunau in 1938, hence the designation. It was produced including Deutsche Forschungsanstalt für Segelflug; the SG 38 was designed to be a training glider for basic flight training by the Nationalsozialistisches Fliegerkorps. The usual launch method was by bungee cord from a sloped hill; because training was conducted by solo flight the aircraft had to be easy to fly and easy to repair. The high-wing design uses a cable bracing; the primary structure of the glider is of wood, with the wings, tail surfaces and inverted "V" kingpost all finished in doped aircraft fabric covering. The pilot sits without a windshield; the basic configuration was similar to earlier gliders such as the Stamer Lippisch Zögling and the Grunau IX, but the SG 38 was an new design. Improvements included enlarged tail surfaces for better stability, a separate skid mounted on shock-absorbing springs, an updated seat for the pilot.
The SG-38 was built in Japan as the Tachikawa Ki-24. The SG-38 played a critical role in pilot training for the Luftwaffe in the Second World War, as a simple, but robust, trainer for the rapid increase in the number of pilots needed by Germany, it was flown by bungee launch on the slopes of the Wasserkuppe. From 1949 to 1951 Spain's AISA produced 50 licence-built aircraft. In the UK, Elliotts of Newbury built a copy of the SG.38 called the Elliotts Primary EoN. Deutsches Museum, Germany Musée de l'Air et de l'Espace, Paris – Le Bourget Airport, France National Museum of the United States Air Force, Ohio, USA Museo del Aire, Spain Danmarks Flymuseum, Stauning Vestjylland Airport, Denmark Shuttleworth Collection, Old Warden, England General characteristics Crew: One Length: 6.28 m Wingspan: 10.41 m Height: 2.43 m Wing area: 16 m2 Aspect ratio: 6.76 Empty weight: 100 kg Gross weight: 210 kg Performance Maximum speed: 115 km/h Never exceed speed: 115 km/h Maximum glide ratio: 10:1 at 52 km/h Wing loading: 13.75 kg/m2 Related development Elliotts Primary EoN G 101 Slingsby GrasshopperAircraft of comparable role and era Detroit G1 Gull Harakka Jongblood Primary Schweizer SGP 1-1 Related lists List of gliders List of Interwar military aircraft
Akaflieg München Mü10 Milan
The Akaflieg München Mü10 Milan is a two-seat glider aircraft, designed in Germany in 1934. Only one copy of the design was built; the Mü10 Milan is one of the most successful gliders built by Akaflieg München in its early history. Construction of this two-seater, designed by Dipl.-Ing. Egon Scheibe, uses mixed materials with wooden wings and tail surfaces covered with fabric, as well as a welded steel tube fuselage covered with fabric, the first time welded steel tubing was used for a practical sailplane. Performance of the Mü10 Milan was found to be good at low speeds, suiting the aircraft to thermalling, due to the use of homegrown aerofoil sections developed by Egon Scheibe, now leader of the Akaflieg München design team; the sections used were cambered in the leading edge with no camber aft of mid chord, producing a section with reduced twisting and pitching moments and high lift coefficients. Accommodation in the Mü10 Milan was in two cockpits, one forward of the wing leading edge for the student and another under the trailing edge of the centre-section aft of the mainspar.
Entry into the front cockpit was via a removable canopy, built up with wooden frames and Plexiglas panels. The rear cockpit was accessed via a large door on the port side of the fuselage with windows under the wings forward to the front cockpit glazing and in the centre-section above the instructor's head; the rear access door could be used as an airbrake to assist in approach control. Despite the low performance of the Mü10 Milan, with an L/D of 20, the aircraft was listed as high performance as late as 1938 due to the many cross-country flights the aircraft is credited with, such as Hesselberg-Prague, a world record breaking 180 km flight in 1935, Salzburg-Fara d'Alpago / Italy and Bern-Pallanza/Lago Maggiore as a two-seater. Success in gliding competitions was achieved with the 1934 Rhön-construction prize and 1st place at the ISTUS Conference. At Salzburg it was flown by Ludwig Karch to a height gain of 2980m and 195 km distance over the Austrian Alps. The'Milan' was retired to the Deutsches Museum München, at Oberschleissheim, before World War II, surviving the war to be resurrected by Akaflieg München in 1951 to assist with training new students, as well as carry out long distance cross-country flights and mountain flying, until at least 1959 with the Mü10 being retired to the Deutsches Museum München for a second time.
Akaflieg München Mü10 Milan – two-place glider. One unit constructed. Akaflieg München Mü15 - Development of the Mü 10 with 19m span wings, flaps and a mainwheel. A development of the Mü10 with a longer wing, flaps and a mainwheel was first flown in 1940, at Ainring in Austria, as the Akaflieg München Mü15; this aircraft was equipped for blind flying but had poor roll response, requiring large doses of the oversized rudder to complete turns with lots of skid. Flown until the war situation became too serious, the Mü15 had flown a total of 45 hours when flying ceased in November 1941. Akaflieg München Mü20 - Further development of the Mü10/Mü15 line with a 20m wing and 500kg all-up weight. Design of the Mü20 was complete when work was abandoned. Further improvement in the two-seat Mü10/Mü15 line came with design of the 20m span Akaflieg München Mü20, design of, complete when it was abandoned. Akaflieg München Mü24 Milan II - A proposed instrument flying-versionIn the early 1960s students at the Akaflieg designed a cloud/instrument flying version of the Mü10.
The Akaflieg München Mü24 Milan II was to have had similar layout and profiles to the Mü10, with the slow-flying qualities of the Mü Scheibe aerofoil sections and improved aerodynamics for the fuselage and wings. The Mü24 did not progress beyond the drawing board. Data from General characteristics Crew: 1 pilot Capacity: 1 passenger Length: 6.725 m Wingspan: 17.8 m Wing area: 20 m2 Aspect ratio: 15.8 Wing profile: Scheibe Mü Empty weight: 180 kg Gross weight: 335 kg Performance Maximum glide ratio: 20 Rate of sink: 0.65 @ 50 km/h m/s Armament Simons, Martin. Sailplanes 1920-1945”. 2nd revised edition. EQIP Werbung und Verlag G.m.b. H.. Königswinter. 2006. ISBN 3-9806773-4-6
The Schleicher Rhönbussard, otherwise known as the DFS Rhönbussard was intended as an intermediate glider trainer which could fly competitively. It was designed by Hans Jacobs in Germany in the early 1930s. More than 200 were built. By the early 1930s a large performance and cost gap had been opened between the kind of glider in which people learned to soar and make cross country flights, like the Grunau Baby, the best sailplanes like the Schleicher Rhönadler. In 1932 the glider manufacturer Alexander Schleicher went to Hans Jacobs at the RRG on the Wasserkuppe, to seek a design for a glider more advanced than the Baby but smaller and easier to fly than Jacobs' Rhönadler; the result was the Rhönbussard. Since it was produced at the Schleicher works, it is attributed to them but in 1933 the RRG was replaced by the state owned DFS at Darmstadt, to which Jacobs moved and continued to refine the Rhönbussard, hence the alternative name; the Rhönbussard is an all wood and fabric aircraft, with a span 1.43 m greater than the Grunau Baby 1, a wing loading 50% higher and more refined aerodynamically, with a cantilever wing and a smooth, oval section fuselage.
The wing, lacking dihedral, has a parallel chord centre section and straight tapered outer panels ending in semi-elliptical tips. It is built around a single spar with plywood covering forward to form a torsion resisting D-box. Behind the spar the wing is fabric covered; the whole span of the trailing edge of the outer panels carries ailerons. The earliest Rhönbussards had no lift losing or drag increasing surfaces but examples followed the development of these at the DFS: first with spoilers deployed above the upper wing surface with DFS-type airbrakes rotating out of both surfaces on a common span-wise axis at about mid-chord and with parallel ruler action Schempp-Hirth brakes mounted just behind the spar; the wing is mounted on faired aft into the main fuselage. This is shorter than that of the Baby and for centre of gravity reasons the Rhönbussard's open cockpit is under the leading edge of the wing, restricting the pilot's upward and rear view; the fuselage tapers to the rear and is ply covered all over apart from a metal nose cone, including the fin and tail bumper.
The fin is narrow and straight edged but the fabric covered rudder, extending down to the keel, is full and more rounded. The fabric covered, straight tapered and square tipped horizontal tail is placed on top of the fuselage, with its trailing edge forward of the rudder hinge; the Rhönbussard took off on a jettisonable two wheeled dolly. The Rhönbussard first flew in 1933; as intended the Rhönbussard proved popular, providing good performance at a moderate cost, more than two hundred were built by Schleicher. Sixteen of them competed at the 15th Rhön International meeting in 1934, where they were only outnumbered by Grunau Babys. Two years at the same meeting Eugen Wagner managed a 325 km flight and many other flights of 200–300 km were made over the years. At competitions it did well. One Rhönbussard set a sailplane world altitude record in 1936. Piloted by Hermann Seeler, it reached more than 5,000 m, but he lost control in cloud and the aircraft broke up. Seeler escaped by parachute but his sealed barometer was not so fortunate, leaving his feat unrecorded.
Despite this failure, the Rhönbussard's structure was strong and the type was used by several pioneers of glider aerobatics in displays. Three Rhönbussards remained on European civil aircraft registers in 2010, two in Germany and one in Belgium. One of the German aircraft had at one time served with the Royal Air Force under civil registration. Deutsches Segelflugmuseum mit Modellflug, Wasserkuppe: Rhönbussard. Data from Die Beruhmtesten SegelflugzeugeGeneral characteristics Crew: One Length: 5.80 m Wingspan: 14.30 m Wing area: 14.10 m2 Aspect ratio: 14.50 Airfoil: Göttingen 535 Empty weight: 150 kg Gross weight: 245 kg Performance Stall speed: 50 km/h Never exceed speed: 130 km/h Maximum glide ratio: 19.8:1 Rate of sink: 0.75 m/s Wing loading: 17.4 kg/m2 Göttingen 535 airfoil
The DFS Rhönsperber, otherwise known as the Schweyer Rhönsperber or Jacobs Rhönsperber was a single seat competition glider designed in Germany by Hans Jacobs and first flown in 1935. For several years it was regarded as the best German sailplane and about one hundred were built. In 1935, Hans Jacobs was asked by Alexander Lippisch to become chief designer of sailplanes at DFS at Darmstadt, after the closure the RRG at the Wasserkuppe in 1933; the Rhönsperber was not unlike his earlier Rhönbussard, but was enlarged all round, with a repositioned wing and an enclosed cockpit. With a greater aspect ratio, its performance was better. For a few years after its first flight in 1935, the Rhönsperber was held to be the best German competition sailplane; the Rhönbussard had its wing over the cockpit, limiting the pilot's view, but on the Rhönsperber it was lowered to mid fuselage. It is an wood and fabric aircraft with a wing built around a single spar. Forward of the spar the wing is plywood covered around the leading edge, forming a torsion-resisting D-box.
Aft of the spar, the covering is fabric. Each wing has two sections, a parallel-chord centre section and a double straight tapered outer panel, ending with semi-elliptical tips; the only dihedral, 5 °, is on the centre section. Airbrakes are centrally placed on the upper centre section surface and fabric-covered ailerons fill the trailing edges of the outer panels; the fuselage is ply covered and of teardrop cross section, deep around the generously dimensioned cockpit. The canopy is multi-framed with a rather upright windscreen; the narrow fin is ply covered but the rest of the empennage is fabric over wood framing. The rudder, like the fin, is straight tapered with a rounded tip. A straight tapered tailplane and elevators are placed on top of the fuselage, the elevators having a cut-out for rudder movement; the Rhönsperber has no landing wheel, only a curved main skid reaching from the nose to behind mid-chord, an integral, pronounced tail bumper. Since the DFS built only prototypes, construction of the Rhönsperber was undertaken by Flugzeugbau Schweyer at Ludwigshafen who produced about one hundred.
One notable flight set, albeit a new world distance record of 474 km. Flown by Ludwig Hofmann in 1935, this was the first glider flight over more than 400 km. Another glider world record was set in 1937; the first sailplane crossing of the Alps was flown by Heini Dittmar in 1936. Another well-known aviator, Ernst Udet had his own Rhönsperber, which he once flew from the Jungfraujoch in 1935; the following year Peter Riedel gave demonstrations of glider aerobatics at the Winter Olympics, taking off and landing on ice. Hanna Reitsch put a Rhönsperber through some vigorous aerobatics, reaching 385 km/h in a dive and losing 12,920 m in a forty-two turn, 165 second spin. There were many competition successes; the type was marketed in the U. S. by Emil Lehecka, who imported one for his participation in the US Annual National Soaring Contest in 1937. A Rhönsperber, flying with a Rhönbussard empennage which has a more angular horizontal tail, is still active in the U. K. as of 2018. A "perfect" Rhönsperber replica, built by Otto Grau in 1997, remained on the German civil aircraft register in 2010.
Muzeum Locnictwa Polskiego, Krakov: Rhönsperber SP-148 Data from Die berümtesten SegelflugzeugeGeneral characteristics Crew: One Length: 6.05 m Wingspan: 15.30 m Wing area: 15.10 m2 Aspect ratio: 15.30 Airfoil: centre section Göttingen 535, Göttingen 409 at tip Empty weight: 162 kg Gross weight: 255 kg Performance Maximum speed: 200 km/h Stall speed: 60 km/h Maximum glide ratio: 20:1 at 58 km/h Rate of sink: 0.72 m/s at 58 km/h Wing loading: 16.90 kg/m2 Related lists List of gliders Göttingen 535 airfoil Göttingen 409 airfoil
The DFS Kranich is a type of German glider. It was developed by Hans Jacobs for the Deutsche Forschungsanstalt für Segelflug. Series production of the Kranich took place in the aircraft division of Karl Schweyer AG in Mannheim; the two-seater was, in its version 2, the most built two-seat glider in Germany from 1935 to 1939. Several hundred examples were built. On 11 October 1940 Erich Klöckner in a Kranich achieved the record height in a glider of 11,460 m; because it occurred in wartime, the altitude record was not recognized by the Allied occupying powers, Klöckner only received official recognition by the Fédération Aéronautique Internationale in the late 1990s. This record height was only exceeded ten years after the flight by the American Bill Ivans during a similar scientific program in the Sierra Nevada. In 1942 30 Kranichs were built by the Swedish manufacturer AB Flygplan in Norrköping, delivered to the Swedish Air Force for training purposes; these machines were given the military designation Flygplan Se 103.
Between 1950 and 1952 50 examples of a modified copy of the Kranich II were built in Poland, known as the SZD-C Żuraw. After the war, Jacobs designed the Kranich III, a new development different from its predecessors, it was produced at the Focke-Wulf aircraft factory in Bremen. The first flight was on 1 May 1952, piloted by Hanna Reitsch. Thirty-seven were built. Kranich The initial prototype designed by Hans Jacobs for the DFS. Kranich II Production aircraft built by Karl Schweyer AG and by Mraz, but in Poland and Sweden Flygplan Se 103 License production of 30 aircraft in Sweden for the Swedish Air Force SZD-C Żuraw License production of a modified Kranich in Poland Focke-Wulf Kranich III A major re-design. Data from The World's Sailplanes:Die Segelflugzeuge der Welt:Les Planeurs du MondeGeneral characteristics Crew: 2 Length: 7.7 m Wingspan: 18 m Wing area: 22.7 m2 Aspect ratio: 14.3 Airfoil: Göttingen 535 Empty weight: 185 kg Max takeoff weight: 350 kg Performance Never exceed speed: 175 km/h Rough air speed max: 128 km/h Aerotow speed: 100 km/h Winch launch speed: 80 km/h Maximum glide ratio: 23.6 at 70 km/h Rate of sink: 0.7 m/s at 60 km/h Wing loading: 19.4 kg/m2 Horst Lommel: Vom Höhenaufklärer bis zum Raumgleiter 1935 – 1945, Geheimprojekte der DFS, Motorbuch Verlag, Stuttgart 2000, ISBN 3-613-02072-6 aerokurier magazine 1/1999: Erich Klöckners Vorstoß zur Tropopause, Motor Presse 1999 Georg Brütting.
The DFS Habicht was designed in 1936 by Hans Jacobs as an unlimited aerobatic sailplane, with support provided by the Deutsche Forschungsanstalt für Segelflug. Four planes were made available for the Olympic Games of 1936, where the maneuvers of the Habicht over and inside the Olympic stadium enthralled spectators; the flight qualities of the Habicht were praised by pilots, including Hanna Reitsch. It participated in many airshows abroad before the war, including the 1938 National Air Races in Cleveland, Ohio. Modified versions of the Habicht, dubbed the Stummel-Habicht were used to train pilots to land the Messerschmitt Me 163 Komet rocket-powered fighter, for training Hitler Youth pilots for flying the Heinkel He 162 Spatz jet fighter; the Me 163 was designed to use its entire load of fuel to reach combat altitude and return to the ground as a glider, with the He 162A having a short, 30-minute flight envelope with a fast landing speed. However, the landing speed of around 200 km/h posed a special challenge for pilots.
Trainees therefore began on a Stummel-Habicht on which the original Habicht's 13.6-metre gull wings had been replaced with straight wings of 8-metre span, progressed to another version with a 6-metre span. Few Habichts survived World War II. There is one craft, flown by famous French aerobatic pilot Marcel Doret, in the Musée de l'Air et de l'Espace in Paris. Another, with the registration D-8002, flew in Southern Germany until it was destroyed by the collapse of the hangar wherein it was stored. Apart from these original examples, Türk Hava Kurumu manufactured six reverse-engineered copies of the Habicht as the THK-3 in 1945-1946. After lengthy and patient research to recover the design documentation, Josef Kurz and other members of the Oldtimer Segelflugclub Wasserkuppe built an all-new Habicht. After an extended exhibition career, this exemplar, registered as D-8002, flies from the Wasserkuppe club's airfield. Another airworthy Habicht was built by the Zahn family and first flew in 2001. Since at the hands of pilot Christoph Zahn, it has provided aerobatics demonstrations at numerous air shows.
AustriaAustrian Air Force General characteristics Crew: One pilot Length: 6.58 m Wingspan: 13.60 m Wing area: 15.8 m2 Aspect ratio: 11.7 Empty weight: 250 kg Gross weight: 350 kg Performance Maximum speed: 250 km/h Maximum glide ratio: 21 Rate of sink: 0.8 m/s Armament Höntsch, Hannes. "Schönhagen und das letzte Aufgebot". Flieger Revue. OSC Wasserkuppe DFS Habicht D-1901 RCGroups' forum thread on DFS Habicht and Stummel-Habicht gliders, with drawings