Touched by an Angel
Touched by an Angel is an American supernatural drama television series that premiered on CBS on September 21, 1994, ran for 211 episodes and nine seasons until its conclusion on April 27, 2003. Created by John Masius and executive produced by Martha Williamson, the series stars Roma Downey, as an angel named Monica, Della Reese, as her supervisor Tess. Throughout the series, Monica is tasked with bringing guidance and messages from God to various people who are at a crossroads in their lives. From Season Three onward, they are joined by Andrew, the angel of death; the series went into syndication in 1998, has been shown on Ion Television, Hallmark Channel, CBS Drama, Up, Disney Channel UK, Me-TV and Start TV. The episodes of the series revolved around the "cases" of Monica, a young angel promoted from the "search and rescue" division, who works under the guidance of Tess, a sarcastic boss who showed greater respect as an authority figure of her employee, is more of a surrogate mother, than a mentor.
Monica in one episode outlines that she started in the choir annunciations, followed by search and rescue and case work. Most cases involve a single person or a group of people who are at a crossroad in their lives and facing a large problem or tough decision. Monica and Tess bring them messages of hope from God and help give them guidance towards making their decision. During their first episode, the pair receive a red 1972 Cadillac Eldorado convertible as a gift; as the series progresses, Monica continues gaining experience as a case worker and, during some cases having to learn lessons of her own. During the series pilot, an angel of death named. In the season two premiere, "Interview with an Angel", the Angel of Death is introduced as Henry. In the season two episode entitled, "The One That Got Away" Andrew is introduced as the Angel of Death. During season seven, a new angel, Gloria, is sent by God during one of Monica's assignments, who becomes a regular character for seasons eight and nine, as a trainee under Monica and Tess's guidance.
In the series finale, Monica is up for promotion to supervisor, pending the outcome of a difficult case in which she must defend Zack, an innocent drifter accused of causing a boiler explosion at a school two years ago in the small town of Ascension, Colorado. The explosion killed most of the children. During the case, Monica sees many familiar faces, including Joey Machulis, one of Monica's previous assignments, a witness to the events, his brother Wayne, now sheriff, Sophie, a homeless acquaintance, Mike, a lawyer Monica saved during her search and rescue days, now the Mayor. An out of town developer claims Zack is the perpetrator and despite the lack of evidence, Zack is put on trial. Monica does all she can to help him, including asking Mike to represent him, but the prosecutor in the case, Jones, is Satan in disguise, Zack is convicted. After the trial, Monica is able to help the citizens realize their mistake and to see that Zack's return to the town had helped them start living again.
They begin going back to church, welcomed by the pastor. Their change of heart, cannot free Zack, so Monica visits him in jail and reveals that she is an angel, she promises him that she will become his guardian angel, forgoing all future assignments and the coveted promotion, to protect him from harm in prison. When she returns in the morning, the cell is empty; the citizens decide not to search for him, it is revealed that Joey inadvertently caused the explosion after the devil tricked him into turning the boiler too high to warm some kittens he'd found. The perplexed Monica returns to the desert to find Zack. There, she learns that Zack was God, that her defending him was a test, which she passed by being willing to sacrifice herself for him. Monica is promoted to supervisor; as she leaves, she says her goodbyes to Gloria, to Andrew, who gives her a pocket watch to remember their friendship by. Before parting, Tess gives Monica the keys to the Cadillac, as she is leaving her job to sit at God's feet.
Monica is last shown driving away. Roma Downey as Monica, Tess's young, soft kind-hearted angel, sent town-to-town to encourage people. She's the show's main protagonist, she appears in all but two episodes. Della Reese as Tess, a tough and sarcastic, but loving supervisor who plays a key role in every one of Monica's cases. She's the show's main protagonist, she appears in all but three episodes. John Dye as Andrew, known as "the Angel of Death". Appeared in 185 episodes. Valerie Bertinelli as Gloria, an accident prone intelligent angel made to understand the way of life in the 21st century. Appeared in 45 episodes. Alexis Cruz as Rafael, an angel Paul Winfield as Sam, an archangel Charles Rocket as Adam, an angel of death Randy Travis as Wayne Machulis and as Jed Winslow Wendy Phillips as Claire Greene and as Ruth Ann Russell Gerald McRaney as Russell Greene and as Dr. Joe Patcherik Celeste Holm as Hattie Greene Eddie Karr as Nathaniel Greene Paul Wittenburg as Joey Machuli
Federal Communications Commission
The Federal Communications Commission is an independent agency of the United States government created by statute to regulate interstate communications by radio, wire and cable. The FCC serves the public in the areas of broadband access, fair competition, radio frequency use, media responsibility, public safety, homeland security; the FCC was formed by the Communications Act of 1934 to replace the radio regulation functions of the Federal Radio Commission. The FCC took over wire communication regulation from the Interstate Commerce Commission; the FCC's mandated jurisdiction covers the 50 states, the District of Columbia, the Territories of the United States. The FCC provides varied degrees of cooperation and leadership for similar communications bodies in other countries of North America; the FCC is funded by regulatory fees. It has an estimated fiscal-2016 budget of US $388 million, it has 1,688 federal employees, made up of 50% males and 50% females as of December, 2017. The FCC's mission, specified in Section One of the Communications Act of 1934 and amended by the Telecommunications Act of 1996 is to "make available so far as possible, to all the people of the United States, without discrimination on the basis of race, religion, national origin, or sex, efficient and world-wide wire and radio communication services with adequate facilities at reasonable charges."
The Act furthermore provides that the FCC was created "for the purpose of the national defense" and "for the purpose of promoting safety of life and property through the use of wire and radio communications."Consistent with the objectives of the Act as well as the 1999 Government Performance and Results Act, the FCC has identified four goals in its 2018-22 Strategic Plan. They are: Closing the Digital Divide, Promoting Innovation, Protecting Consumers & Public Safety, Reforming the FCC's Processes; the FCC is directed by five commissioners appointed by the President of the United States and confirmed by the United States Senate for five-year terms, except when filling an unexpired term. The U. S. President designates one of the commissioners to serve as chairman. Only three commissioners may be members of the same political party. None of them may have a financial interest in any FCC-related business. † Commissioners may continue serving until the appointment of their replacements. However, they may not serve beyond the end of the next session of Congress following term expiration.
In practice, this means that commissioners may serve up to 1 1/2 years beyond the official term expiration dates listed above if no replacement is appointed. This would end on the date that Congress adjourns its annual session no than noon on January 4; the FCC is organized into seven Bureaus, which process applications for licenses and other filings, analyze complaints, conduct investigations and implement regulations, participate in hearings. The Consumer & Governmental Affairs Bureau develops and implements the FCC's consumer policies, including disability access. CGB serves as the public face of the FCC through outreach and education, as well as through their Consumer Center, responsible for responding to consumer inquiries and complaints. CGB maintains collaborative partnerships with state and tribal governments in such areas as emergency preparedness and implementation of new technologies; the Enforcement Bureau is responsible for enforcement of provisions of the Communications Act 1934, FCC rules, FCC orders, terms and conditions of station authorizations.
Major areas of enforcement that are handled by the Enforcement Bureau are consumer protection, local competition, public safety, homeland security. The International Bureau develops international policies in telecommunications, such as coordination of frequency allocation and orbital assignments so as to minimize cases of international electromagnetic interference involving U. S. licensees. The International Bureau oversees FCC compliance with the international Radio Regulations and other international agreements; the Media Bureau develops and administers the policy and licensing programs relating to electronic media, including cable television, broadcast television, radio in the United States and its territories. The Media Bureau handles post-licensing matters regarding direct broadcast satellite service; the Wireless Telecommunications Bureau regulates domestic wireless telecommunications programs and policies, including licensing. The bureau implements competitive bidding for spectrum auctions and regulates wireless communications services including mobile phones, public safety, other commercial and private radio services.
The Wireline Competition Bureau develops policy concerning wire line telecommunications. The Wireline Competition Bureau's main objective is to promote growth and economical investments in wireline technology infrastructure, development and services; the Public Safety and Homeland Security Bureau was launched in 2006 with a focus on critical communications infrastructure. The FCC has eleven Staff Offices; the FCC's Offices provide support services to the Bureaus. The Office of Administrative Law Judges is responsible for conducting hearings ordered by the Commission; the hearing function includes acting on interlocutory requests filed in the proceedings such as petitions to intervene, petitions to enlarge issues, contested discovery requests. An Administrative Law Judge, appointed under the Administrative Procedure Act, presides at the hearing during which documents and sworn testimony are received in evidence, witnesses are cross-examined. At the co
James Clayton "Jim" Dobson, Jr. is an American evangelical Christian author and founder in 1977 of Focus on the Family, which he led until 2003. In the 1980s he was ranked as one of the most influential spokesmen for conservative social positions in American public life. Although never an ordained minister, he was called "the nation's most influential evangelical leader" by The New York Times while Slate portrayed him as a successor to evangelical leaders Jerry Falwell and Pat Robertson, he is no longer affiliated with Focus on the Family. Dobson founded Family Talk as a non-profit organization in 2010 and launched a new radio broadcast, Family Talk with Dr. James Dobson, that began on May 3, 2010 on over 300 stations nationwide; as part of his former role in the organization, he produced Focus on the Family, a daily radio program which according to the organization was broadcast in more than a dozen languages and on over 7,000 stations worldwide, heard daily by more than 220 million people in 164 countries.
Focus on the Family was carried by about sixty U. S. television stations daily. Dobson founded the Family Research Council in 1981. James Dobson was born to Myrtle Georgia and James C. Dobson, Sr. on April 21, 1936, in Shreveport, Louisiana. From his earliest childhood, religion played a central part in his life, he once told a reporter that he learned to pray before he learned to talk, says he gave his life to Jesus at the age of three, in response to an altar call by his father. He is the son and great-grandson of Church of the Nazarene ministers, although he does not speak for the denomination in any capacity, his father, James Dobson Sr. never went to college. He was a traveling evangelist, chiefly in the southwest; the parents took their young son along to watch his father preach. Like most Nazarenes, they forbade going to movies. Young "Jimmie Lee" concentrated on his studies. Dobson studied academic psychology, which most evangelical Christians in the 1950s and 1960s did not look upon favorably.
He came to believe that he was being called to become a Christian counselor or a Christian psychologist. He served as captain of the school's tennis team. In 1967 Dobson received his doctorate in psychology from the University of Southern California. For a time, Dobson worked as an assistant to Paul Popenoe at the Institute of Family Relations, a marriage-counseling center, in Los Angeles. Dobson arguably first became well-known with the publication of Dare to Discipline, which encouraged parents to use corporal punishment in disciplining their children. Dobson's social and political opinions are read among many evangelical church congregations in the United States. Dobson publishes monthly bulletins called Focus on the Family, which are dispensed as inserts in some Sunday church-service bulletins. Dobson interviewed serial killer Ted Bundy on-camera the day before Bundy's execution on January 24, 1989; the interview became controversial because Bundy was given an opportunity to attempt to explain his actions.
Bundy claimed in the interview that violent pornography played a significant role in molding and crystallizing his fantasies. In May 1989, during an interview with John Tanner, a Republican Florida prosecutor, Dobson called for Bundy to be forgiven; the Bundy tapes gave Focus on the Family revenues of over $1 million, $600,000 of which it donated to anti-pornography groups and to anti-abortion groups. Dobson stepped down as President and CEO of Focus on the Family in 2003, resigned from the position of chairman of the board in February 2009. Dobson explained his departure as a result of "significant philosophical differences" with successor Jim Daly. In 2010 Dobson founded Family Talk, a non-profit organization that produces his radio program, Dr. James Dobson's Family Talk. Dobson appears as a guest on the Fox News Channel. Dobson married the former Shirley Deere on August 26, 1960; the couple has two children and Ryan. Ryan Dobson graduated from Biola University in California, he was adopted by the Dobsons and is an ardent supporter of adoption adoption of troubled children.
Dobson attended Point Loma Nazarene University, where he was team captain of the tennis team, most valuable player in 1956 and 1958, returned to coach in 1968-1969. Dobson earned a PhD in child development from the University of Southern California in 1967, he was an Associate Clinical Professor of Pediatrics at the University of Southern California School of Medicine for 14 years. He spent 17 years on the staff of the Children's Hospital of Los Angeles in the Division of Child Development and Medical Genetics. Dobson is a licensed psychologist in the State of California. At the invitation of Presidents and Attorneys General, Dobson has served on government advisory panels and testified at several government hearings, he was given the "Layman of the Year" award by the National Association of Evangelicals in 1982, "The Children's Friend" honor by Childhelp USA in 1987, the Humanitarian Award by the California Psychological Association in 1988. In 2005, Dobson received an honorary doctorate from Indiana Wesleyan University and was inducted into IWU's Society of World Changers, while speaking at the university's Academic Convocation.
In 2008, Dobson's Focus on the Famil
Atheism is, in the broadest sense, the absence of belief in the existence of deities. Less broadly, atheism is the rejection of belief. In an narrower sense, atheism is the position that there are no deities. Atheism is contrasted with theism, which, in its most general form, is the belief that at least one deity exists; the etymological root for the word atheism originated before the 5th century BCE from the ancient Greek ἄθεος, meaning "without god". In antiquity it had multiple uses as a pejorative term applied to those thought to reject the gods worshiped by the larger society, those who were forsaken by the gods, or those who had no commitment to belief in the gods; the term denoted a social category created by orthodox religionists into which those who did not share their religious beliefs were placed. The actual term atheism emerged first in the 16th century. With the spread of freethought, skeptical inquiry, subsequent increase in criticism of religion, application of the term narrowed in scope.
The first individuals to identify themselves using the word atheist lived in the 18th century during the Age of Enlightenment. The French Revolution, noted for its "unprecedented atheism," witnessed the first major political movement in history to advocate for the supremacy of human reason; the French Revolution can be described as the first period where atheism became implemented politically. Arguments for atheism range from the philosophical to historical approaches. Rationales for not believing in deities include arguments that there is a lack of empirical evidence, the problem of evil, the argument from inconsistent revelations, the rejection of concepts that cannot be falsified, the argument from nonbelief. Nonbelievers contend that atheism is a more parsimonious position than theism and that everyone is born without beliefs in deities. Although some atheists have adopted secular philosophies, there is no one ideology or set of behaviors to which all atheists adhere. Since conceptions of atheism vary, accurate estimations of current numbers of atheists are difficult.
According to global Win-Gallup International studies, 13% of respondents were "convinced atheists" in 2012, 11% were "convinced atheists" in 2015, in 2017, 9% were "convinced atheists". However, other researchers have advised caution with WIN/Gallup figures since other surveys which have used the same wording for decades and have a bigger sample size have reached lower figures. An older survey by the British Broadcasting Corporation in 2004 recorded atheists as comprising 8% of the world's population. Other older estimates have indicated that atheists comprise 2% of the world's population, while the irreligious add a further 12%. According to these polls and East Asia are the regions with the highest rates of atheism. In 2015, 61 % of people in China reported; the figures for a 2010 Eurobarometer survey in the European Union reported that 20% of the EU population claimed not to believe in "any sort of spirit, God or life force". Writers disagree on how best to define and classify atheism, contesting what supernatural entities are considered gods, whether it is a philosophic position in its own right or the absence of one, whether it requires a conscious, explicit rejection.
Atheism has been regarded as compatible with agnosticism, has been contrasted with it. A variety of categories have been used to distinguish the different forms of atheism; some of the ambiguity and controversy involved in defining atheism arises from difficulty in reaching a consensus for the definitions of words like deity and god. The plurality of wildly different conceptions of God and deities leads to differing ideas regarding atheism's applicability; the ancient Romans accused Christians of being atheists for not worshiping the pagan deities. This view fell into disfavor as theism came to be understood as encompassing belief in any divinity. With respect to the range of phenomena being rejected, atheism may counter anything from the existence of a deity, to the existence of any spiritual, supernatural, or transcendental concepts, such as those of Buddhism, Hinduism and Taoism. Definitions of atheism vary in the degree of consideration a person must put to the idea of gods to be considered an atheist.
Atheism has sometimes been defined to include the simple absence of belief. This broad definition would include newborns and other people who have not been exposed to theistic ideas; as far back as 1772, Baron d'Holbach said. George H. Smith suggested that: "The man, unacquainted with theism is an atheist because he does not believe in a god; this category would include the child with the conceptual capacity to grasp the issues involved, but, still unaware of those issues. The fact that this child does not believe in god qualifies him as an atheist." Implicit atheism is "the absence of theistic belief without a conscious rejection of it" and explicit atheism is the conscious rejection of belief. For the purposes of his paper on "philosophical atheism", Ernest Nagel contested including mere absence of theistic belief as a type of atheism. Graham Oppy classifies as innocents those who never considered the question because they lack any understanding of what a god is. According to Oppy, these could be one-month-old babies, humans with severe traumatic brain injuries, or patients with advanced dementia.
Philosophers such as Antony Flew and Michael Martin have contrasted positive (st
Madalyn Murray O'Hair
Madalyn Murray O'Hair was an American activist supporting atheism and separation of church and state. In 1963 she founded American Atheists and served as its president to 1986, after which her son Jon Garth Murray succeeded her, she created the first issues of American Atheist Magazine. O'Hair is best known for the Murray v. Curlett lawsuit, which challenged the policy of mandatory prayers and Bible reading in Baltimore public schools, in which she named her first son William J. Murray as plaintiff. Consolidated with Abington School District v. Schempp, it was heard by the United States Supreme Court, which ruled that official Bible-reading in American public schools was unconstitutional; the Supreme Court had prohibited sponsored prayer in schools in Engel v. Vitale on similar grounds. Through American Atheists, O'Hair filed numerous other suits on issues of separation of church and state. In 1995, O'Hair, her second son Jon Garth Murray, her adopted daughter Robin Murray O'Hair, disappeared from Austin, Texas.
Garth Murray withdrew hundreds of thousands of dollars from American Atheists' funds, there was speculation that the trio had absconded. David Roland Waters, a convicted felon and former employee of American Atheists, was convicted of murdering O'Hair, Jon Garth Murray, Robin Murray O'Hair; the bodies were not found until Waters led authorities to their burial place following his conviction. Madalyn Mays was born in the Beechview neighborhood of Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, on April 13, 1919, the daughter of Lena Christina and John Irwin Mays, she had an older brother, John Irwin Jr.. Their father was of Irish ethnicity and their mother was of German ancestry. At the age of four, Madalyn was baptized into her father's Presbyterian church; the family moved to Ohio, in 1936, Mays graduated from Rossford High School in Rossford. In 1941, Mays married a steelworker, they separated when they both enlisted for World War II service, he in the United States Marine Corps, she in the Women's Army Corps. In April 1945, while posted to a cryptography position in Italy, she began a relationship with officer William J. Murray, Jr. a married Roman Catholic.
He refused to divorce his wife. Mays adopted the name Madalyn Murray, she gave birth to her son with officer Murray after returning to Ohio, named the boy William J. Murray III. In 1949, Murray completed a bachelor's degree from Ashland University, she did not pass the bar exam. She moved with Bill to Maryland. On November 16, 1954, she gave birth to her second son, Jon Garth Murray, fathered by her boyfriend Michael Fiorillo, their relationship ended, it is believed that the boy, known as Garth, never met his father. It was rumored that Murray sought to defect to the Soviet Union at their embassy in Paris in 1960, but that the Soviets denied her entry. Murray with her sons returned to Baltimore in 1960 to live with her mother and brother Irv at their house in the Loch Raven neighborhood. In 1960 she filed a lawsuit against the Baltimore Public School System, naming her son William J. Murray III as plaintiff, she said that its practices of mandatory prayer and required reading of the Bible were unconstitutional.
The US Supreme Court upheld her position by a ruling in 1963. Because of hostility in Baltimore against her family related to this case, Murray left Maryland with her sons in 1963 and moved to Honolulu, Hawaii, she had assaulted five Baltimore City Police Department officers who tried to retrieve her son Bill's girlfriend Susan from her house. Susan gave birth to Bill's daughter. Murray adopted Robin. In 1965, Murray married U. S. Marine Richard O'Hair, changed her surname, he had belonged to a Communist group in Detroit during the 1940s. During investigations of the 1950s, he gave more than 100 names of other members to the FBI, he was investigated for falsely claiming to be an FBI agent. Although the couple separated, they were married until his death in 1978. In 1960, Murray filed a lawsuit against the Baltimore City Public School System, naming her son William as plaintiff, she challenged the city school system's practice of requiring students to participate in Bible readings at the city's public schools.
She said her son's refusal to participate had resulted in bullying by classmates and that administrators condoned this behavior. After consolidation with Abington School District v. Schempp, the lawsuit was heard by the Supreme Court of the United States in 1963; the Court voted 8–1 in Schempp's favor, saying that mandatory public Bible readings by students were unconstitutional. Prayer in schools other than Bible-readings had been ruled as unconstitutional the year before by the Court in Engel v. Vitale. O'Hair filed a number of other lawsuits: one was against the National Aeronautics and Space Administration because of the Apollo 8 Genesis reading; the case was rejected by the U. S. Supreme Court for lack of jurisdiction; the challenge had limited effect. In the Apollo 11 mission, NASA officials asked lunar module pilot Buzz Aldrin to refrain from quoting the Bible in broadcasts, he was allowed to conduct the first communion service in space. O'Hair appeared on The Phil Donahue Show several times, including the first episode in 1967.
Donahue said that O'Hair was unpleasant in person and had mocked him off-camera for being a Catholic. She appeared on the show in March 1970 to debate Preacher Bob Harrington, "The Chaplain of Bou