Sheila Chandra is a retired English pop singer of Indian descent. She is no longer able to perform, as the result of burning mouth syndrome, which she has had since 2010. Sheila Chandra was born in London, she first came to public attention as an actress, playing Sudhamani Patel in the BBC school drama Grange Hill from 1979 to 1981. As a teenager she formed the band Monsoon with bassist Martin Smith. Monsoon created a fusion of Indian pop styles; the band recorded its only album, Third Eye, in 1982 from which it had a surprise hit single, "Ever So Lonely", which peaked at No. 12 in the UK. Monsoon followed-up with the single "Shakti,". 41, but this was to be the band's final charting single. The album includes a cover of the Beatles' "Tomorrow Never Knows", featuring the distinctive EBow guitar sound of Bill Nelson. Resenting pressure from their record company over musical direction, Monsoon dissolved in 1982 and Coe and Smith set about promoting Chandra as a solo artist on independent Indipop Records.
Chandra went on to release a number of albums in the 1980s, at times experimenting with her voice as an instrument through a range of techniques. After a creative split with Martin Smith, Chandra released three albums on Peter Gabriel's Real World label —Weaving My Ancestors' Voices, The Zen Kiss, ABoneCroneDrone. In the 1990s Chandra decided, having been a studio artist to give concerts for the first time, concurrently released a trilogy of albums on Peter Gabriel's Real World label; these were in the minimalist solo voice and drone style, which she developed for live performances, so that she could perform alone on stage with only the occasional taped drone for accompaniment. Martin Smith was no longer involved by this time. Drawing on similarities of structure between Indian ragas and English folk melodies, she started to incorporate many British and Irish traditional songs and techniques, as well as other vocal styles and techniques from around the world. In 1990 Chandra interrupted her sabbatical to record a single, "Raining", with the folk-synth band Ancient Beatbox which appeared on its self-titled album.
In 2000 she contributed two tracks, one a cover version of Tim Buckley's "Song to the Siren" and the other a remix of her solo track "Ever So Lonely/Eyes/Ocean" by Stephen Haig, to the album Gifted on Real World Records. In 2001 she released a collaborative album with the Ganges Orchestra titled This Sentence is True based on her two experimental EPs with that group. 2002 saw the release of a remix of her original hit single "Ever So Lonely" retitled "So Lonely" by the band Jakatta. It charted at No. 8 in the UK. In 2002 she performed a song titled "Breath of Life" with Howard Shore for The Lord of the Rings: The Two Towers soundtrack. In 2007, she recorded two songs for Simon Emmerson's project The Imagined Village, which set out to reinterpret traditional British songs using a wide range of contemporary British musicians, she appeared with the Imagined Village on a concert tour of Britain in 2007. In 2009, Chandra began experiencing symptoms of what was diagnosed as burning mouth syndrome, as a result of which she is unable to sing, laugh or cry without suffering intense pain.
She has thus been rendered mute. As a result of her illness Chandra retired from music, she turned her attention to writing self-help books, the first of which, Banish Clutter Forever – How the Toothbrush Principle Will Change Your Life, was published in 2010. With Monsoon: Third Eye With the Ganges Orchestra: This Sentence is True EEP1 & EEP2 Pure Drones, Vol. I Pure Drones, Vol. II Pure Drones, Vol. III Solo: Out on My Own Quiet The Struggle Nada Brahma Roots and Wings Silk Weaving My Ancestors' Voices The Zen Kiss ABoneCroneDrone Moonsung: A Real World Retrospective The Indipop Retrospective "Ever So Lonely" "Shakti" "Tomorrow Never Knows" "Wings of the Dawn" "Ever So Lonely" "So Lonely" "Raining" with Ancient Beatbox "Breath of Life" in The Lord of the Rings: The Two Towers "Arwen's Fate" in The Lord of the Rings: The Two Towers "Welcome Sailor" and "'Ouses,'Ouses,'Ouses" from Imagined Village Banish Clutter Forever – How the Toothbrush Principle Will Change Your Life ISBN 978-0-09-193502-3 Mathur, Rakesh.
Nada Brahma. Schaefer, John. Sheila Chandra's Interview with John Schaefer at WNYC 1993: Weaving My Ancestors' Voices. Schaefer, John. Sheila Chandra's Interview with John Schaefer at WNYC 1996: ABoneCroneDrone. Prasad, Anil. Sheila Chandra: Natural extensions in Innerviews, 3 May 2000. Joe F. Compton. "The Commonality is Brilliance...". Mite. Sheila Chandra Interview in Mutant Renegade Zine No. 13, Winter 2000. Teropong. Sheila Chandra in Womad Singapore, 23 August 2008. Millard, Rosie. Another Fine Mess You've Got Me Out Of at Andrew. Peter Gabriel's Real World Records: interviews with Sheila Chandra, the Blind Boys of Alabama, Thomas Mapfumo and Yungchen Lhamo on cbcmusic.ca Official website Sheila Chandra at Imagined Village Sheila Chandra at AllMusic Sheila Chandra on IMDb Sheila Chandra at Ectophiles' Guide to Good Music
MusicBrainz is a project that aims to create an open data music database, similar to the freedb project. MusicBrainz was founded in response to the restrictions placed on the Compact Disc Database, a database for software applications to look up audio CD information on the Internet. MusicBrainz has expanded its goals to reach beyond a compact disc metadata storehouse to become a structured open online database for music. MusicBrainz captures information about artists, their recorded works, the relationships between them. Recorded works entries capture at a minimum the album title, track titles, the length of each track; these entries are maintained by volunteer editors. Recorded works can store information about the release date and country, the CD ID, cover art, acoustic fingerprint, free-form annotation text and other metadata; as of 21 September 2018, MusicBrainz contained information about 1.4 million artists, 2 million releases, 19 million recordings. End-users can use software that communicates with MusicBrainz to add metadata tags to their digital media files, such as FLAC, MP3, Ogg Vorbis or AAC.
MusicBrainz allows contributors to upload cover art images of releases to the database. Internet Archive provides the bandwidth and legal protection for hosting the images, while MusicBrainz stores metadata and provides public access through the web and via an API for third parties to use; as with other contributions, the MusicBrainz community is in charge of maintaining and reviewing the data. Cover art is provided for items on sale at Amazon.com and some other online resources, but CAA is now preferred because it gives the community more control and flexibility for managing the images. Besides collecting metadata about music, MusicBrainz allows looking up recordings by their acoustic fingerprint. A separate application, such as MusicBrainz Picard, must be used for this. In 2000, MusicBrainz started using Relatable's patented TRM for acoustic fingerprint matching; this feature allowed the database to grow quickly. However, by 2005 TRM was showing scalability issues as the number of tracks in the database had reached into the millions.
This issue was resolved in May 2006 when MusicBrainz partnered with MusicIP, replacing TRM with MusicDNS. TRMs were phased out and replaced by MusicDNS in November 2008. In October 2009 MusicIP was acquired by AmpliFIND; some time after the acquisition, the MusicDNS service began having intermittent problems. Since the future of the free identification service was uncertain, a replacement for it was sought; the Chromaprint acoustic fingerprinting algorithm, the basis for AcoustID identification service, was started in February 2010 by a long-time MusicBrainz contributor Lukáš Lalinský. While AcoustID and Chromaprint are not MusicBrainz projects, they are tied with each other and both are open source. Chromaprint works by analyzing the first two minutes of a track, detecting the strength in each of 12 pitch classes, storing these 8 times per second. Additional post-processing is applied to compress this fingerprint while retaining patterns; the AcoustID search server searches from the database of fingerprints by similarity and returns the AcoustID identifier along with MusicBrainz recording identifiers if known.
Since 2003, MusicBrainz's core data are in the public domain, additional content, including moderation data, is placed under the Creative Commons CC-BY-NC-SA-2.0 license. The relational database management system is PostgreSQL; the server software is covered by the GNU General Public License. The MusicBrainz client software library, libmusicbrainz, is licensed under the GNU Lesser General Public License, which allows use of the code by proprietary software products. In December 2004, the MusicBrainz project was turned over to the MetaBrainz Foundation, a non-profit group, by its creator Robert Kaye. On 20 January 2006, the first commercial venture to use MusicBrainz data was the Barcelona, Spain-based Linkara in their Linkara Música service. On 28 June 2007, BBC announced that it has licensed MusicBrainz's live data feed to augment their music Web pages; the BBC online music editors will join the MusicBrainz community to contribute their knowledge to the database. On 28 July 2008, the beta of the new BBC Music site was launched, which publishes a page for each MusicBrainz artist.
Amarok – KDE audio player Banshee – multi-platform audio player Beets – automatic CLI music tagger/organiser for Unix-like systems Clementine – multi-platform audio player CDex – Microsoft Windows CD ripper Demlo – a dynamic and extensible music manager using a CLI iEatBrainz – Mac OS X deprecated foo_musicbrainz component for foobar2000 – Music Library/Audio Player Jaikoz – Java mass tag editor Max – Mac OS X CD ripper and audio transcoder Mp3tag – Windows metadata editor and music organizer MusicBrainz Picard – cross-platform album-oriented tag editor MusicBrainz Tagger – deprecated Microsoft Windows tag editor puddletag – a tag editor for PyQt under the GPLv3 Rhythmbox music player – an audio player for Unix-like systems Sound Juicer – GNOME CD ripper Zortam Mp3 Media Studio – Windows music organizer and ID3 Tag Editor. Freedb clients can access MusicBrainz data through the freedb protocol by using the MusicBrainz to FreeDB gateway service, mb2freedb. List of online music databases Making Metadata: The Case of Mus
Moruroa historically known as Aopuni, is an atoll which forms part of the Tuamotu Archipelago in French Polynesia in the southern Pacific Ocean. It is located about 1,250 kilometres southeast of Tahiti. Administratively Moruroa Atoll is part of the commune of Tureia, which includes the atolls of Tureia, Fangataufa and Vanavana. France undertook nuclear weapon tests between 1966 and 1996 at Moruroa and Fangataufa, causing international protests, notably in 1974 and 1995; the number of tests performed has been variously reported as 175 and 181. Though ancient Polynesians knew Mururoa Atoll by the ancestral name of Hiti-Tautau-Mai, there is no firm historical evidence that it has been permanently inhabited; the first recorded European to visit this atoll was Commander Philip Carteret on HMS Swallow in 1767, just a few days after he had discovered Pitcairn Island. Carteret named Mururoa "Bishop of Osnaburgh Island". In 1792, the British whaler Matilda was wrecked here, it became known as Matilda's Rocks.
Frederick William Beechey visited it in 1826. Mururoa, its sister atoll Fangataufa, were the site of extensive nuclear testing by France between 1966 and 1996, as well as the site of numerous protests by various vessels, including the Rainbow Warrior; the atoll was established as a nuclear test site by France on September 21, 1962, when the Direction des Centres d'Expérimentations Nucléaires was established to administer the nuclear testing. This followed with the construction of various infrastructures on the atoll commencing in May 1963; the atoll of Hao, 245 nautical miles to the north-west of Mururoa, was chosen as a support base for the nuclear tests and other operations. Despite objections from some 30 members of the Polynesian Territorial Assembly, the first nuclear test was conducted on July 2, 1966, code named Aldebaran, when a plutonium fission bomb was exploded in the lagoon. Greenpeace states in a 21st-century study that the explosion sucked all the water from the lagoon, "raining dead fish and mollusks down on the atoll", that it spread contamination across the Pacific as far as Peru and New Zealand.
President Charles de Gaulle himself was present at Moruroa on 10 September 1966 when a test was conducted, using a device suspended from a balloon. Most of these tests were conducted on the western end of the atoll, designated as Dindon. Smaller blasts were detonated on the northern end of the atoll, designated as Denise. Three nuclear devices were detonated on barges, three were air dropped from bombers, the rest were suspended from helium filled balloons. A total of 41 atmospheric nuclear tests were conducted at Mururoa between 1966 and 1974. France abandoned atmospheric nuclear testing in 1974 and moved to underground testing in the midst of intense world pressure, sparked by the New Zealand Government of the time, which sent two frigates, HMNZS Canterbury and Otago, to the atoll in protest for a nuclear free Pacific. Shafts were drilled deep into the volcanic rocks underlying the atolls where nuclear devices were detonated; this practice created much controversy as cracking of the atolls was discovered, resulting in fears that the radioactive material trapped under the atolls would escape and contaminate the surrounding ocean and neighbouring atolls, a case of so-called tired mountain syndrome.
A major accident occurred on 25 July 1979 when a test was conducted at half the usual depth because the nuclear device got stuck halfway down the 800 metre shaft. It was detonated and caused a large submarine landslide on the southwest rim of the atoll, causing a significant chunk of the outer slope of the atoll to break loose and causing a tsunami affecting Mururoa and injuring workers; the blast caused a 40 cm wide crack to appear on the atoll. French president Jacques Chirac's decision to run a nuclear test series at Mururoa on 5 September and 2 October 1995, just one year before the Comprehensive Test Ban Treaty was to be signed, caused worldwide protest, including an embargo of French wine. Riots took place across Polynesia, the South Pacific Forum threatened to suspend France; these tests were meant to provide the nation with enough data to improve further nuclear technology without needing additional series of tests. The test site at Mururoa was dismantled following France’s last nuclear test to date, detonated on 27 January 1996, but the atoll is still guarded by the French Forces.
In total, 181 explosions took place at Fangataufa, 41 of which were atmospheric. However, the total number has been variously reported: nuclear scientists working at the site claim 175 explosions in total took place in the Pacific. A recent report suggests that only 11 of the 20 monitoring system sensors are functional which could mean the atoll could collapse without forewarning of the monitoring system. Bengt Danielsson, a member of the Kon-Tiki crew.
A rave is an organized dance party at a nightclub, outdoor festival, warehouse, or other private property featuring performances by DJs, playing a seamless flow of electronic dance music. DJs at rave events play electronic dance music on vinyl, CDs and digital audio from a wide range of genres, including techno, house, drum & bass and post-industrial. Live performers have been known to perform, in addition to other types of performance artists such as go-go dancers and fire dancers; the music is amplified with a large, powerful sound reinforcement system with large subwoofers to produce a deep bass sound. The music is accompanied by laser light shows, projected coloured images, visual effects and fog machines. While some raves may be small parties held at nightclubs or private homes, some raves have grown to immense size, such as the large festivals and events featuring multiple DJs and dance areas; some electronic dance music festivals have features of raves, but on a larger commercial scale.
Raves may last for a long time, with some events continuing for twenty-four hours, lasting all through the night. Law enforcement raids and anti-rave laws have presented a challenge to the rave scene in many countries; this is due to the association of illegal drugs such as MDMA, LSD, GHB, methamphetamine and cannabis. In addition to drugs, raves make use of non-authorized, secret venues, such as squat parties at unoccupied homes, unused warehouses, or aircraft hangars; these concerns are attributed to a type of moral panic surrounding rave culture. In the late 1950s in London, England the term "rave" was used to describe the "wild bohemian parties" of the Soho beatnik set. Jazz musician Mick Mulligan, known for indulging in such excesses, had the nickname "king of the ravers". In 1958, Buddy Holly recorded the hit "Rave On", citing the madness and frenzy of a feeling and the desire for it never to end; the word "rave" was used in the burgeoning mod youth culture of the early 1960s as the way to describe any wild party in general.
People who were gregarious party animals were described as "ravers". Pop musicians such as Steve Marriott of The Small Faces and Keith Moon of The Who were self-described "ravers". Presaging the word's subsequent 1980s association with electronic music, the word "rave" was a common term used regarding the music of mid-1960s garage rock and psychedelia bands. Along with being an alternative term for partying at such garage events in general, the "rave-up" referred to a specific crescendo moment near the end of a song where the music was played faster and with intense soloing or elements of controlled feedback, it was part of the title of an electronic music performance event held on 28 January 1967 at London's Roundhouse titled the "Million Volt Light and Sound Rave". The event featured the only known public airing of an experimental sound collage created for the occasion by Paul McCartney of The Beatles – the legendary Carnival of Light recording. With the rapid change of British pop culture from the mod era of 1963–1966 to the hippie era of 1967 and beyond, the term fell out of popular usage.
During the 1970s and early 1980s until its resurrection, the term was not in vogue, one notable exception being in the lyrics of the song "Drive-In Saturday" by David Bowie which includes the line, "It's a crash course for the ravers." Its use during that era would have been perceived as a quaint or ironic use of bygone slang: part of the dated 1960s lexicon along with words such as "groovy". The perception of the word "rave" changed again in the late 1980s when the term was revived and adopted by a new youth culture inspired by the use of the term in Jamaica. In the mid to late 1980s, a wave of psychedelic and other electronic dance music, most notably acid house music, emerged from acid house music parties in the mid-to-late 1980s in the Chicago area in the United States. After Chicago acid house artists began experiencing overseas success, acid house spread and caught on in the United Kingdom within clubs and free-parties, first in Manchester in the mid-1980s and later in London. In the late 1980s, the word "rave" was adopted to describe the subculture that grew out of the acid house movement.
Activities were related to the party atmosphere of Ibiza, a Mediterranean island in Spain, frequented by British, Greek and German youth on vacation, who would hold raves and dance parties. By the 1990s, genres such as acid, breakbeat hardcore, happy hardcore, post-industrial and electronica were all being featured at raves, both large and small. There were mainstream events. Acid house music parties were first re-branded "rave parties" in the media, during the summer of 1989 by Genesis P-Orridge during a television interview. In 1990, raves were held "underground" in several cities, such as Berlin and Patras, in basements and forests. British politicians responded with hostility to the emerging rave party trend. Politicians began to fine promoters who held unauthorized parties. Police crackdowns on these unauthorized parties drove the rave scene into the countryside; the word "rave" somehow caught on in the UK to describe common semi-spontaneous weekend parties occurring at vario
Greenpeace is a non-governmental environmental organization with offices in over 39 countries and an international coordinating body in Amsterdam, the Netherlands. Greenpeace was founded in 1971 by Irving Stowe, Dorothy Stowe, Canadian and US ex-pat environmental activists. Greenpeace states its goal is to "ensure the ability of the Earth to nurture life in all its diversity" and focuses its campaigning on worldwide issues such as climate change, overfishing, commercial whaling, genetic engineering, anti-nuclear issues, it uses direct action, lobbying and ecotage to achieve its goals. The global organization does not accept funding from governments, corporations, or political parties, relying on three million individual supporters and foundation grants. Greenpeace has a general consultative status with the United Nations Economic and Social Council and is a founding member of the INGO Accountability Charter, an international non-governmental organization that intends to foster accountability and transparency of non-governmental organizations.
Greenpeace is known for its direct actions and has been described as the most visible environmental organization in the world. Greenpeace has raised environmental issues to public knowledge, influenced both the private and the public sector. Greenpeace has been a source of controversy; the organization's direct actions have sparked legal actions against Greenpeace activists, such as fines and suspended sentences for destroying a test plot of genetically modified wheat and damaging the Nazca Lines, a UN World Heritage site in Peru. In the late 1960s, the U. S. had plans for an underground nuclear weapon test in the tectonically unstable island of Amchitka in Alaska. Because of the 1964 Alaska earthquake, the plans raised some concerns of the test triggering earthquakes and causing a tsunami. A 1969 demonstration of 7,000 people blocked the Peace Arch Border Crossing between British Columbia and Washington, carrying signs reading "Don't Make A Wave. It's Your Fault If Our Fault Goes"; the protests did not stop the U.
S. from detonating the bomb. While no earthquake or tsunami followed the test, the opposition grew when the U. S. announced. Among the opposers were Jim Bohlen, a veteran who had served in the U. S. Navy, Irving Stowe and Dorothy Stowe, who had become Quakers; as members of the Sierra Club Canada, they were frustrated by the lack of action by the organization. From Irving Stowe, Jim Bohlen learned of a form of passive resistance, "bearing witness", where objectionable activity is protested by mere presence. Jim Bohlen's wife Marie came up with the idea to sail to Amchitka, inspired by the anti-nuclear voyages of Albert Bigelow in 1958; the idea was linked to The Sierra Club. The Sierra Club did not like this connection and in 1970 The Don't Make a Wave Committee was established for the protest. Early meetings were held in the Shaughnessy home of his wife Bobbi Hunter. Subsequently, the Stowe home at 2775 Courtenay Street became the headquarters; as Rex Weyler put it in his chronology, Greenpeace, in 1969, Irving and Dorothy Stowe's "quiet home on Courtenay Street would soon become a hub of monumental, global significance".
Some of the first Greenpeace meetings were held there. The first office was opened in a backroom, storefront on Cypress and West Broadway SE corner in Kitsilano, Vancouver. Within half a year Greenpeace would move in to share the upstairs office space with The Society Promoting Environmental Conservation at 4th and Maple in Kitsilano. Irving Stowe arranged a benefit concert that took place on October 16, 1970 at the Pacific Coliseum in Vancouver; the concert created the financial basis for the first Greenpeace campaign. Amchitka, the 1970 concert that launched Greenpeace was published by Greenpeace in November 2009 on CD and is available as an mp3 download via the Amchitka concert website. Using the money raised with the concert, the Don't Make a Wave Committee chartered a ship, the Phyllis Cormack owned and sailed by John Cormack; the ship was renamed Greenpeace for the protest after a term coined by activist Bill Darnell. In the autumn of 1971, the ship sailed towards Amchitka and faced the U.
S. Coast Guard ship Confidence; because of this and the bad weather the crew decided to return to Canada only to find out that the news about their journey and reported support from the crew of the Confidence had generated sympathy for their protest. After this Greenpeace tried to navigate to the test site with other vessels, until the U. S. detonated the bomb. The nuclear test was criticized and the U. S. decided not to continue with their test plans at Amchitka. Environmental historian Frank Zelko dates the formation of the "Don't Make a Wave Committee" to 1969 and according to Jim Bohlen the group adopted the name "Don't Make a Wave Committee" on 28 November 1969. According to the Greenpeace web site, The Don't Make a Wave Committee was established in 1970. Certificate of incorporation of The Don't Make a Wave Committee dates the incorporation to the fifth of October, 1970. Researcher Vanessa Timmer dates the official incorporation to 1971. Greenpeace itself calls the protest voyage of 1971 as "the beginning".
According to Patrick Moore, an early member and has since distanced himself from Greenpeace, Rex Weyler, the name of "The Don't Make a Wave Committee" was changed to Greenpeace Foundation in 1972. Vanessa Timmer has
Electronic music is music that employs electronic musical instruments, digital instruments and circuitry-based music technology. In general, a distinction can be made between sound produced using electromechanical means, that produced using electronics only. Electromechanical instruments include mechanical elements, such as strings, so on, electric elements, such as magnetic pickups, power amplifiers and loudspeakers. Examples of electromechanical sound producing devices include the telharmonium, Hammond organ, the electric guitar, which are made loud enough for performers and audiences to hear with an instrument amplifier and speaker cabinet. Pure electronic instruments do not have vibrating strings, hammers, or other sound-producing mechanisms. Devices such as the theremin and computer can produce electronic sounds; the first electronic devices for performing music were developed at the end of the 19th century, shortly afterward Italian futurists explored sounds that had not been considered musical.
During the 1920s and 1930s, electronic instruments were introduced and the first compositions for electronic instruments were made. By the 1940s, magnetic audio tape allowed musicians to tape sounds and modify them by changing the tape speed or direction, leading to the development of electroacoustic tape music in the 1940s, in Egypt and France. Musique concrète, created in Paris in 1948, was based on editing together recorded fragments of natural and industrial sounds. Music produced from electronic generators was first produced in Germany in 1953. Electronic music was created in Japan and the United States beginning in the 1950s. An important new development was the advent of computers to compose music. Algorithmic composition with computers was first demonstrated in the 1950s. In the 1960s, live electronics were pioneered in America and Europe, Japanese electronic musical instruments began influencing the music industry, Jamaican dub music emerged as a form of popular electronic music. In the early 1970s, the monophonic Minimoog synthesizer and Japanese drum machines helped popularize synthesized electronic music.
In the 1970s, electronic music began having a significant influence on popular music, with the adoption of polyphonic synthesizers, electronic drums, drum machines, turntables, through the emergence of genres such as disco, new wave, synth-pop, hip hop and EDM. In the 1980s, electronic music became more dominant in popular music, with a greater reliance on synthesizers, the adoption of programmable drum machines such as the Roland TR-808 and bass synthesizers such as the TB-303. In the early 1980s, digital technologies for synthesizers including digital synthesizers such as the Yamaha DX7 were popularized, a group of musicians and music merchants developed the Musical Instrument Digital Interface. Electronically produced music became prevalent in the popular domain by the 1990s, because of the advent of affordable music technology. Contemporary electronic music includes many varieties and ranges from experimental art music to popular forms such as electronic dance music. Today, pop electronic music is most recognizable in its 4/4 form and more connected with the mainstream culture as opposed to its preceding forms which were specialized to niche markets.
At the turn of the 20th century, experimentation with emerging electronics led to the first electronic musical instruments. These initial inventions were not sold, but were instead used in demonstrations and public performances; the audiences were presented with reproductions of existing music instead of new compositions for the instruments. While some were considered novelties and produced simple tones, the Telharmonium synthesized the sound of orchestral instruments, it achieved viable public interest and made commercial progress into streaming music through telephone networks. Critics of musical conventions at the time saw promise in these developments. Ferruccio Busoni encouraged the composition of microtonal music allowed for by electronic instruments, he predicted the use of machines in future music, writing the influential Sketch of a New Esthetic of Music. Futurists such as Francesco Balilla Pratella and Luigi Russolo began composing music with acoustic noise to evoke the sound of machinery.
They predicted expansions in timbre allowed for by electronics in the influential manifesto The Art of Noises. Developments of the vacuum tube led to electronic instruments that were smaller and more practical for performance. In particular, the theremin, ondes Martenot and trautonium were commercially produced by the early 1930s. From the late 1920s, the increased practicality of electronic instruments influenced composers such as Joseph Schillinger to adopt them, they were used within orchestras, most composers wrote parts for the theremin that could otherwise be performed with string instruments. Avant-garde composers criticized the predominant use of electronic instruments for conventional purposes; the instruments offered expansions in pitch resources that were exploited by advocates of microtonal music such as Charles Ives, Dimitrios Levidis, Olivier Messiaen and Edgard Varèse. Further, Percy Grainger used the theremin to abandon fixed tonation while Russian composers such as Gavriil Popov treated it as a source of noise in otherwise-acoustic noise music.
Developments in early recording technology paralleled that of electronic instruments. The first means of recording and reproducing audio was invented in the late 19th century with the mechanical phonograph. Record players became a common household item, by the 1920s comp
The environmental movement including conservation and green politics, is a diverse scientific and political movement for addressing environmental issues. Environmentalists advocate the sustainable management of resources and stewardship of the environment through changes in public policy and individual behavior. In its recognition of humanity as a participant in ecosystems, the movement is centered on ecology and human rights; the environmental movement is an international movement, represented by a range of organizations, from the large to grassroots and varies from country to country. Due to its large membership and strong beliefs, speculative nature, the environmental movement is not always united in its goals; the movement encompasses some other movements with a more specific focus, such as the climate movement. At its broadest, the movement includes private citizens, religious devotees, scientists, nonprofit organizations and individual advocates. Early interest in the environment was a feature of the Romantic movement in the early 19th century.
The poet William Wordsworth had travelled extensively in the Lake District and wrote that it is a "sort of national property in which every man has a right and interest who has an eye to perceive and a heart to enjoy". The origins of the environmental movement lay in the response to increasing levels of smoke pollution in the atmosphere during the Industrial Revolution; the emergence of great factories and the concomitant immense growth in coal consumption gave rise to an unprecedented level of air pollution in industrial centers. Under increasing political pressure from the urban middle-class, the first large-scale, modern environmental laws came in the form of Britain's Alkali Acts, passed in 1863, to regulate the deleterious air pollution given off by the Leblanc process, used to produce soda ash; the modern conservation movement was first manifested in the forests of India, with the practical application of scientific conservation principles. The conservation ethic that began to evolve included three core principles: that the human activity damaged the environment, that there was a civic duty to maintain the environment for future generations, that scientific, empirically based methods should be applied to ensure this duty was carried out.
Sir James Ranald Martin was prominent in promoting this ideology, publishing many medico-topographical reports that demonstrated the scale of damage wrought through large-scale deforestation and desiccation, lobbying extensively for the institutionalization of forest conservation activities in British India through the establishment of Forest Departments. The Madras Board of Revenue started local conservation efforts in 1842, headed by Alexander Gibson, a professional botanist who systematically adopted a forest conservation program based on scientific principles; this was the first case of state management of forests in the world. The government under Governor-General Lord Dalhousie introduced the first permanent and large-scale forest conservation program in the world in 1855, a model that soon spread to other colonies, as well the United States. In 1860, the Department banned the use shifting cultivation. Dr. Hugh Cleghorn's 1861 manual, The forests and gardens of South India, became the definitive work on the subject and was used by forest assistants in the subcontinent.
Sir Dietrich Brandis joined the British service in 1856 as superintendent of the teak forests of Pegu division in eastern Burma. During that time Burma's teak forests were controlled by militant Karen tribals, he introduced the "taungya" system, in which Karen villagers provided labour for clearing and weeding teak plantations. He helped establish research and training institutions; the Imperial Forestry School at Dehradun was founded by him. The late 19th century saw the formation of the first wildlife conservation societies; the zoologist Alfred Newton published a series of investigations into the Desirability of establishing a'Close-time' for the preservation of indigenous animals between 1872 and 1903. His advocacy for legislation to protect animals from hunting during the mating season led to the formation of the Plumage League in 1889; the society acted as a protest group campaigning against the use of great crested grebe and kittiwake skins and feathers in fur clothing. The Society attracted growing support from the suburban middle-classes, influenced the passage of the Sea Birds Preservation Act in 1869 as the first nature protection law in the world.
For most of the century from 1850 to 1950, the primary environmental cause was the mitigation of air pollution. The Coal Smoke Abatement Society was formed in 1898 making it one of the oldest environmental NGOs, it was founded by artist Sir William Blake Richmond, frustrated with the pall cast by coal smoke. Although there were earlier pieces of legislation, the Public Health Act 1875 required all furnaces and fireplaces to consume their own smoke. Systematic and general efforts on behalf of the environment only began in the late 19th century. Starting with the formation of the Commons Preservation Society in 1865, the movement championed rural preservation against the encroachments of industrialisation. Robert Hunter, solicitor for the society, worked with Hardwicke Rawnsley, Octavia Hill, and