Rostral migratory stream
The rostral migratory stream is a specialized migratory route found in the brain of some animals along which neuronal precursors that originated in the subventricular zone of the brain migrate to reach the main olfactory bulb. The importance of the RMS lies in its ability to refine and change an animal's sensitivity to smells, which explains its importance and larger size in the rodent brain as compared to the human brain, as our olfactory sense is not as developed; this pathway has been studied in the rodent and both the squirrel monkey and rhesus monkey. When the neurons reach the OB they differentiate into GABAergic interneurons as they are integrated into either the granule cell layer or periglomerular layer. Although it was believed that neurons could not regenerate in the adult brain, neurogenesis has been shown to occur in mammalian brains, including those of primates. However, neurogenesis is limited to the hippocampus and SVZ, the RMS is one mechanism neurons use to relocate from these areas.
The RMS was named and discovered by J. Altman in 1969 using 3H-thymidine autoradiography in the rat brain, he traced the migration of labeled cells from the SVZ, situated throughout the lateral walls of the lateral ventricles, rostrally to the main olfactory bulb. He quantitatively studied the effect of age on the size of the RMS. There is still some ongoing debate about the extent of the RMS and adult SVZ neurogenesis of new neurons in humans. Vascular cells are known to play a prominent role in regulating proliferation of adult neural precursors. In the adult subgranular zone, dense clusters of dividing cells were found to be anatomically close to the vasculature capillaries. Contacts between adult SVZ neuronal precursors and blood vessels are unusually permeable and devoid of astrocyte and pericyte interferences, suggesting that blood-derived cues are gaining direct access to adult neural precursors and their progeny; the vasculature provides the substrate for new neuron migration after injury in the adult striatum.
In the RMS, vascular cells are arranged parallel to the route of the migrating cells and provide a scaffolding. Glial cells are associated with the blood vessels. Astrocytes form gap junctions and are associated with the vasculature and its basal lamina in the adult SVZ and subsequently in the RMS, they may serve as an interface to modulate influences of endothelial and circulation-derived factors as well as the availability of cytokines and growth factors in this system. In addition, astrocytes derived from the neurogenic hippocampus and SVZ, but not from the non-neurogenic spinal cord, promote proliferation and neuronal fate commitment of multipotent adult neural stem cells in culture, suggesting a role in the RMS. Astrocytes express a number of secreted and membrane-attached factors both in vitro and in vivo that are known to regulate proliferation and fate specification of adult neural precursors as well as neuronal migration and synapse formation. In the adult SVZ, astrocytes express Robo receptors and regulate the rapid migration of SLIT1-expressing neuroblasts through the RMS.
Additionally, it has been proposed that the neuroblasts themselves play a role in modulating the astrocytes through Slit-Robo interactions. In the absence of Slit, astrocytic processes do not align or create the "tubes", instead running across the migrating neurons. Adult SVZ astrocytes appear to release glutamate to regulate the survival of neuroblasts. Unique to the adult SVZ, ependymal cells lining the ventricular wall are in close association with neural precursors and their progeny, acting like a shield to protect the "neurogenic niche", a zone in which stem cells are retained after embryonic development for the production of new cells of the nervous system. Ependymal cells regulate neuronal fate specification of adult neural precursors through release of Noggin. Beating of the cilia of ependymal cells appears to set up concentration gradients of guidance molecules, such as cytokines TNF-α and IGF-1, to direct migration of neuroblasts, such as in the RMS. Microglia actively regulate adult neurogenesis.
Under basal conditions, apoptotic corpses of newly generated neurons are phagocytosed from the niche by unactivated microglia in the adult SGZ. Under inflammatory conditions, reactivated microglia can have both beneficial and detrimental effects on different aspects of adult neurogenesis, depending on the balance between secreted molecules with pro- and anti-inflammatory action. In one study, the activation of microglia and recruitment of T cells were suggested to be required for enriched environment-induced SGZ neurogenesis, suggesting a possible role in the RMS. Cells in the RMS are believed to move by "chain migration"; these neuroblasts are connected by membrane specializations including gap junctions and adherens junctions, moving along each other towards the olfactory bulb through glial tubes. The pathway and mechanisms behind this movement are a ventriculo-olfactory neurogenic system, a glial framework, a chemotaxic cell signalling system; the olfactory system is made up in part of the RMS which stretches from the subventricular zone in the wall of the lateral ventricle, through the basal forebrain, to the olfactory bulb.
VONS is the name given to this pathway, it consists of the subventricular zone, the RMS, the olfactory tract and the olfactory bulb. Developing neurons leave the subventricular zone and enter the RMS and travel caudally and ventrally along the undersurface of
Humble Independent School District
Humble Independent School District is a school district located in Humble, Texas, USA. It serves the city of Humble, small portions of the city of Houston, portions of unincorporated Harris County; as of fall 2016, the district serves over 41,000 students. And as of June 2016, Humble ISD is led by Dr. Elizabeth Cenalia-Fagen after Dr. Guy M. Sconzo's retirement. Humble ISD has five high schools and one magnet high school; the district's flagship high school, Humble High School, opened in 1918. It moved to a new building, Charles Bender High School in 1929, to its current location on Wilson Road, as Humble High School, in 1965. In 1979, Humble ISD opened Kingwood High School in the northern part of the district. Quest High School, the district's magnet high school of choice, opened in 1995 in the Community Learning Center. In recent years, Humble ISD has become one of the fastest growing school districts in Texas. Humble High School's population grew to over 3000 students, which led to the opening of Atascocita High School in 2006.
AHS was designed with smaller learning communities, in which students take their core classes in one of eight houses located at the school. After the opening of AHS, Humble and Kingwood High Schools were renovated and installed with smaller learning communities. In 2007, the district opened Kingwood Park High School at the former Kingwood ninth grade campus. Continued growth in the southern part of the district has led to Humble ISD building Summer Creek High School, which opened in 2009. Humble ISD has seven middle schools and 25 elementary schools; the district built the eco-friendly Atascocita Springs Elementary School in Eagle Springs, Woodcreek Middle School near Summer Creek High School. Both campuses opened in August 2010. Turner Stadium, the district's largest stadium shared by the all five high schools, was renovated for the 2012 AAU Junior Olympics. In 2010, the school district was rated "recognized" by the Texas Education Agency. Early Residents: The Humble area was part of Austin's Colony, established in the 1820s.
The earliest land grant in the area was given to colony member David Harris in 1824. Harris's land was on the east side of the district. One of the earliest settlers in this area was another colony member. Dunman was the rider who carried Col. William Travis's letter from the Alamo to the town of Liberty in early 1836. After Texas gained independence from Mexico, Dunman was awarded with a land grant in Harris County. For his land, Dunman chose a place at the West Fork of the San Jacinto River, on the north side of present-day Humble. Another early settler to the area was a Civil War veteran from Louisiana named Pleasant Smith Humble. Pleasant Humble purchased part of the land owned by Joseph Dunman, settled near the banks of the San Jacinto River, he took over operation of a ferry, in operation since the 1850s, ran a grocery store. Over the next few years, more families moved into this northeastern part of Harris County. In 1873, just a few years after the conclusion of the Civil War, the earliest known school in the area was opened by Joseph W. Dunman, son of early settler Joseph Dunman.
The school was called Joe Dunman's Schoolhouse, was used as a polling place by the local citizens. It was located on the Atascocita Road, just north of the present-day location of River Pines Elementary School, it was a owned school, its students were children of wealthier families in the area who could afford to pay for their children to be taught reading and classic literature. At the time, Texas had an ineffective public education system, most children in Texas did not receive an education. Growth of the Community: In 1875, Paul Bremond secured a contract to build a railroad from Houston to Louisiana; as the tracks were built through the woods of East Texas, sawmills opened along the train's right-of-way. Many sawmill communities developed and thrived along the railroad, including some in the Humble area. By April 1877, 28 miles of track of the Houston East & West Texas Railway had been laid from Houston to New Caney; as the railway neared completion, to generate funds, Bremond ran daily entertainment excursions for the citizens of Houston.
In 1878, one popular excursion ran 19 miles from Houston to San Jacinto Springs, located on the north side of the San Jacinto River near present-day Hamblen Road. At San Jacinto Springs, Bremond's company provided dancing and swimming; these excursions introduced Houston residents to the natural beauty of this part of Harris County. In 1876, the Texas legislature passed an updated constitution which increased the availability of schooling to more children across the state; the Constitution of 1876 resulted in the creation of more school communities across Harris County. The closest school community to the Humble area was established on the west side of the railroad tracks on December 22, 1876. Harris County School Community No. 13, the Durdin School Community, had the Higgs School. The Higgs School was located on present-day Lee Road near FM 1960. Pleasant Humble was on the school board for the Durdin School Community. Strangely, residents in the area did not organize a school community around Joe Dunman's Schoolhouse on the east side of the railroad tracks.
It continued to operate from 1876 to 1883 as a private school. The first town-like community to develop in the area centered around the Lord and Noble sawmill on the east side of the railroad tracks. By 1882, Texas was an established c
Russian Musical Society
The Russian Musical Society was the first music school in Russia open to the general public. It was launched in 1859 by the Grand Duchess Elena Pavlovna and Anton Rubinstein, one of the few notable Russian pianists and composers of the day. Disbanded in the Russian Revolution, it has since been revived; the Russian Musical Society was an organization founded in 1859 by the Grand Duchess Elena Pavlovna and her protégé, pianist and composer Anton Rubinstein, with the intent of raising the standard of music in the country and disseminating musical education. Rubinstein and the Grand Duchess's travels together in Europe a decade earlier had prompted them to set up a permanent society to encourage both the study and performance of music in Russia; the Grand Duchess was the provider and driving force for the RMS obtaining her nephew's Imperial approval. Rubinstein provided the musical leadership, his presence lent the RMS a further appearance of prestige, given both his international career as a pianist and his reputation as a composer of distinction—qualities uncommon at that time for any native-born musician in Russia.
The RMS's inaugural concert was given in November 1859, with Rubinstein playing one of his piano concertos. By the mid-1860s, concerts given by the RMS had introduced the general public to all the symphonies, piano concertos and overtures of Ludwig van Beethoven. Audiences had heard oratorios by George Frideric Handel, cantatas by Johann Sebastian Bach, operas by Christoph Willibald Gluck, as well as works by Robert Schumann and Franz Schubert. Russian music had been performed. Operas by Russian composers which were presented included those of Mikhail Glinka, Alexander Dargomyzhsky and Anton Rubinstein, among others. Most important, were the music classes offered by the RMS, open to all students, which gave rise to professorial education; these classes were held at the Mikhailovsky Palace. Until the inception of the RMS, there had been no music school in Russia to provide a basic professional training in music. Music instruction had been limited to the homes of private schools. Native Russian musicians and performers were rare.
Classical concerts were performed by foreign musicians from Germany. In addition to the classes of the RMS, the Free Music School, which emphasised choral singing, was formed. Both the classes and the school became popular; as surprising as the number of students who enrolled was their extreme diversity. Bureaucrats, merchants and university students attended, as well as many young women who lacked the means to study privately. In 1860, helped and encouraged by his brother Anton, Nikolai Rubinstein and Prince Nikolai Petrovitch Troubetzkoy founded a Moscow branch of the RMS in Rubinstein's own house; this branch proved so successful that they relocated it into larger quarters and expanded their work there. Troubetzkoy was the chairman of RMS for seventeen years; the RMS's formal successors were the St. Petersburg Conservatory, which opened, in September 1862, the Moscow Conservatory, founded by Nikolai Rubinstein and Prince Nikolai Petrovitch Troubetzkoy in September 1866. Following the Russian Revolution of 1917, the RMS was disbanded in the same year.
The All-Russian Musical Society, established in 1987 is meant to be the legal successor of the Russian Musical Society traditions and cultural legacy. On February 18 of 2010 upon the decision of the All-Russian Music Society Fifth convention the society was renamed back to the original title of the Russian Music Society, which marked the official reincarnation of the original organization; the modern RMS is the public agency with functions of the creative union. It consolidates thousands of people that represent musical and choreographic culture of Russia and its nations on both professional and amateur levels; the Society has chapters in all Russian regions, which allows it to influence the condition and development of the modern musical and choreographic art in the country, as well to track and analyze cultural trends. Among major forms of the RMS involvement and its regional branches are organization of concerts, folklore holidays, master classes, music festivals and competitions; the RMS assists Russian soloists and music groups in participation at the International festivals and concert tours.
Brown, Tchaikovsky: The Early Years, 1840-1874 Poznansky, Tchaikovsky: The Quest for the Inner Man Struttle, Tchaikovsky, His Music and Times Warrack, Tchaikovsky RMS history RMS Official website
Republic of South Maluku
South Maluku the Republic of South Maluku, is an unrecognized secessionist republic in the southern Maluku Islands archipelago in Maritime Southeast Asia that claims the islands of Ambon and Seram as part of its territory, all of which are part of the Indonesian province of Maluku. Dutch conquest exerted colonial control across the archipelago in the 19th century, establishing a unitary administration; the borders of present-day Indonesia were formed through colonial expansion finalised in the 20th century. After the occupation by the Japanese Empire during World War II ended in 1945, nationalist leaders on Java unilaterally declared Indonesian independence. Not all regions and peoples of present-day Indonesia subscribed to the proclaimed Unitary State of the Republic of Indonesia. Early organised indigenous resistance came from the South Moluccas with support and aid from the Dutch government and military; the South Moluccan rebels clung on to an early post-colonial treaty prescribing a federal form of statehood.
When that treaty, agreed between the Dutch government and the Indonesian government in December 1949, was broken, they unilaterally declared a independent Republic of South Maluku in April 1950. The South Moluccan leaders based their decision on the treaty, which stipulated autonomy for each of the states of the federation. After the defeat of the RMS on Ambon by Indonesian forces in November 1950, the self-declared government withdrew to Seram, where an armed struggle continued on until December 1963; the government in exile moved to the Netherlands in 1966, following resistance leader and president Chris Soumokil's capture and execution by Indonesian authorities. The exiled government continues to exist, with John Wattilete as its incumbent president since April 2010; the Maluku Islands were the only place in the world that grew the prized spices of clove and nutmeg, making it a prime destination for European traders during the Age of Exploration. At one point, cloves were worth their weight in gold and Portuguese, Spanish and Dutch traders all fought to control the profitable spice trade monopoly.
The traders of the Dutch East Indies Company emerged as the dominant merchant power in Maluku. Through an effective combination of force and diplomacy, the VOC achieved a structure of indirect rule in northern Maluku and direct rule in southern Maluku. Throughout much of the VOC era, the south Moluccans resisted Dutch dominance; the Banda Islands were only subdued after the indigenous power structure and organisation of trade and politics was destroyed with the extermination and eviction of the Bandanese population in 1621. To repress the autonomous traders of East Seram, the VOC organised ‘Hongi’ raiding expeditions with warrior bands from other south Maluku islands. During ‘Hongi’ raids and vessels were burnt, cash crops were uprooted and most wealth was looted by the ‘Hongi’ warriors. Survivors who escaped had to start from scratch and, during two centuries of resistance, the East Seramese suffered impoverishment. However, their independent trading network was never destroyed. From 1780 to 1802, the people of Seram joined an alliance of North Moluccan and British forces in a combined revolt.
Resistance leader prince Nuku established himself on Seram and aimed at uniting the North and South Moluccas under his leadership. His raiders targeted South Moluccan islands under the Dutch sphere of influence; when the British left the arena in 1802 his plans were foiled and the Dutch restored their dominance. Maluku islanders staged various rebellions during the Dutch colonisation of the Indonesian archipelago in the 19th century following the collapse of the VOC. In a famous revolt on the south Maluku island Saparua, the Dutch fort was taken by the rebel leader Pattimura, a former sergeant in the army of Britain, who had ruled the islands for a short time before returning them to the Dutch in 1816. After reinforcements were sent from the colonial capital Batavia, the insurgents were captured and Pattimura was executed in 1817. During the independence movement of Indonesia, Indonesian republicans included South Maluku as part of the independent Indonesia they declared in 1945. Indonesia's struggle to secure its independence lasted from 1945 until 1949.
After international pressure, the Dutch acknowledged a federal Indonesian republic on 27 December 1949. In the first instance, the Netherlands only acknowledged the independence of Indonesia as a federation of autonomous states, of which one was South Maluku. On 25 April 1950, demobilized ex-Royal Dutch East Indies Army soldiers and other South Moluccan men who remained loyal to the Dutch crown, staged a revolt and proclaimed an independent "Republic of South Maluku". On 17 August 1950, the Indonesian President, proclaimed the restoration of the unitary state of the Republic of Indonesia. Indonesia's liberal democratic system of government, whereby the cabinet would be accountable to the House of Representatives, was retained; this was a source of political instability in the young republic, with frequent changes in government until the rise of the New Order. A large number of the professional soldiers serving in the Royal Dutch East Indies Army were recruited among the population of Ambon and the surrounding South Moluccan islands.
The South Moluccan islands were among the first to come under European influence in the 16th century. The Protestant mission had been more successful there than elsewhere in the East Indies; as early as 1605 armed Dutch merchantmen of the VOC captured the Portuguese fort a
Royal Mail Ship
Royal Mail Ship seen in its abbreviated form RMS, is the ship prefix used for seagoing vessels that carry mail under contract to the British Royal Mail. The designation dates back to 1840. Any vessel designated as "RMS" has the right to fly both the pennant of the Royal Mail when sailing and to include the Royal Mail "crown" insignia with any identifying device and/or design for the ship, it was used by many shipping lines, but is associated in particular with the White Star Line, Cunard Line, Royal Mail Lines and Union-Castle Line, which held a number of high-profile mail contracts, traditionally prefixed the names of many of their ships with the initials "RMS". While some lines in the past the Royal Mail Lines, called all their ships "RMS", technically a ship would use the prefix only while contracted to carry mail, would revert at other times to a standard designation such as "SS"; the Admiralty operated these ships. The designation "RMS" has been used since 1840. In 1850 contracts were awarded to private companies.
Having the title "RMS" was seen as a mark of quality and a competitive advantage, because the mail had to be on time. The most valuable route, with the highest volume, was between Kingstown, in Ireland, Holyhead in Wales; the City of Dublin Steam Packet Company won the contract. They bought RMS St RMS Llewellyn from the Admiralty to supplement their Prince Arthur. In the CDSPCo contract, in 1860, there was a penalty clause of £ 1 1s 4d for every minute's delay; the Canadian Pacific Railway's trans-Pacific Royal Mail contract required the building of the first three of a fleet of steamships: the RMS Empress of China, RMS Empress of India and RMS Empress of Japan which sailed between Vancouver and Asia beginning in 1891. The RMS designation was used on the ships White Star Line, P&O and the Cunard lines of the 19th and 20th century. In recent years the shift to air transport for mail has left only three ships with the right to the prefix or its variations: RMS Segwun, which serves as a passenger vessel in Gravenhurst, Canada.
QM2 was conferred "RMS" by Royal Mail when she entered service in 2004 on the Southampton to New York route as a gesture to Cunard's history. The Royal Mail continues a form of this tradition on modern day airliners; the UK's flag carrier airline, British Airways, is contracted to carry mail on some of its scheduled long-distance routes. Aircraft operating these routes with the facilities to carry mail are allowed to display the Royal Mail's logo and crest on their fuselage alongside their registration markings; the less-common designations RMMV for Royal Mail Motor Vessel and RMMS for Royal Mail Motor Ship, were used for a period when RMS was restricted to steam-ships. Motor Vessel and Motor Ship indicated; the RMV Scillonian III carries the designation RMV for Royal Mail Vessel and is the only active RMV. Those highlighted are still in service with the status of Royal Mail Ship. Union-Castle Line Mail steamer Steamboat Kennedy, John.. The History of Steam Navigation. Liverpool: C. Birchall, 1903.
OCLC 3553860 RMS Caronia "Green Goddess" Time-Line Titanic Archive
Richard Matthew Stallman known by his initials, RMS, is an American free software movement activist and programmer. He campaigns for software to be distributed in a manner such that its users receive the freedoms to use, study and modify that software. Software that ensures these freedoms is termed free software. Stallman launched the GNU Project, founded the Free Software Foundation, developed the GNU Compiler Collection and GNU Emacs, wrote the GNU General Public License. Stallman launched the GNU Project in September 1983 to create a Unix-like computer operating system composed of free software. With this, he launched the free software movement, he has been the GNU project's lead architect and organizer, developed a number of pieces of used GNU software including, among others, the GNU Compiler Collection, the GNU Debugger and the GNU Emacs text editor. In October 1985 he founded the Free Software Foundation. Stallman pioneered the concept of copyleft, which uses the principles of copyright law to preserve the right to use and distribute free software, is the main author of free software licenses which describe those terms, most notably the GNU General Public License, the most used free software license.
In 1989, he co-founded the League for Programming Freedom. Since the mid-1990s, Stallman had spent most of his time advocating for free software, as well as campaigning against software patents, digital rights management, other legal and technical systems which he sees as taking away users' freedoms; this has included software license agreements, non-disclosure agreements, activation keys, copy restriction, proprietary formats and binary executables without source code. Stallman was born March 16, 1953 in New York City, to a family of Jewish heritage, though Stallman is an atheist, his parents are Alice Lippman, a school teacher, Daniel Stallman, a printing press broker. Stallman had a difficult relationship with his parents, as his father had a drinking habit and verbally abused his stepmother, he came to describe his parents as "tyrants". He was interested in computers at a young age. From 1967 to 1969, Stallman attended a Columbia University Saturday program for high school students. Stallman was a volunteer laboratory assistant in the biology department at Rockefeller University.
Although he was interested in mathematics and physics, his teaching professor at Rockefeller thought he showed promise as a biologist. His first experience with actual computers was at the IBM New York Scientific Center when he was in high school, he was hired for the summer in 1970, following his senior year of high school, to write a numerical analysis program in Fortran. He completed the task after a couple of weeks and spent the rest of the summer writing a text editor in APL and a preprocessor for the PL/I programming language on the IBM System/360; as a first-year student at Harvard University in fall 1970, Stallman was known for his strong performance in Math 55. He was happy: "For the first time in my life, I felt I had found a home at Harvard."In 1971, near the end of his first year at Harvard, he became a programmer at the MIT Artificial Intelligence Laboratory, became a regular in the hacker community, where he was known by his initials, RMS. Stallman received a bachelor's degree in physics from Harvard in 1974.
Stallman considered staying on at Harvard, but instead he decided to enroll as a graduate student at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology. He pursued a doctorate in physics for one year, but left that program to focus on his programming at the MIT AI Laboratory. While working as a research assistant at MIT under Gerry Sussman, Stallman published a paper in 1977 on an AI truth maintenance system, called dependency-directed backtracking; this paper was an early work on the problem of intelligent backtracking in constraint satisfaction problems. As of 2009, the technique Stallman and Sussman introduced is still the most general and powerful form of intelligent backtracking; the technique of constraint recording, wherein partial results of a search are recorded for reuse, was introduced in this paper. As a hacker in MIT's AI laboratory, Stallman worked on software projects such as TECO, Emacs for ITS, the Lisp machine operating system, he would become an ardent critic of restricted computer access in the lab, which at that time was funded by the Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency.
When MIT's Laboratory for Computer Science installed a password control system in 1977, Stallman found a way to decrypt the passwords and sent users messages containing their decoded password, with a suggestion to change it to the empty string instead, to re-enable anonymous access to the systems. Around 20 percent of the users followed his advice at the time, although passwords prevailed. Stallman boasted of the success of his campaign for many years afterward. In the late 1970s and early 1980s, the hacker culture that Stallman thrived on began to fragment. To prevent software from being used on their competitors' computers, most manufacturers stopped distributing source code and began using copyright and restrictive software licenses to limit or prohibit copying and redistribution. Such
Romulus Community School District
Romulus Community School District referred to as Romulus Community Schools, is a public school district in Romulus, Michigan in Metro Detroit. The district's Administration Offices & Transportation Department is located at 36540 Grant Road; the current acting Superintendent of Schools is Flinnoia Hall III as the district searches for a full-time successor. The previous superintendent, Marjie McAnally, was placed on administrative leave in February 2019 for a "break down in relations " which has effected the growth of positive change for better education for students during most of her tenure. An investigation for possible termination is ongoing; as of Summer 2013, the Inkster Public Schools District was dissolved. The Romulus school district absorbed some of the Inkster boundary. Students south of west of Middlebelt were rezoned to Romulus; the district serves a portion of Westland. The following are the schools in the school district as of July 1, 2010: Romulus Community High/Middle School L. G. Burton Center Cory GSRP Center Beverly Elementary Cory Elementary Gordonier Elementary Harrison Elementary Hayti-Beverly Elementary Merriman Elementary Mt. Pleasant Elementary Romulus Elementary Texas Elementary North Middle South Middle Romulus Community School District Romulus Community School District School district map from the Michigan Department of Information Technology Center for Geographic Information - See 2008 map