Cobh, known from 1849 until 1920 as Queenstown, is a tourist seaport town on the south coast of County Cork, Ireland. Cobh is on the side of Great Island in Cork Harbour and is home to Irelands only dedicated cruise terminal. Tourism in the draws on the maritime and emigration legacy of the town - including its association with the RMS Titanic. Facing the town are Spike Island and Haulbowline Island, and on a point in the town stands St Colmans Cathedral, one of the tallest buildings in Ireland. The port, which has had several Irish-language names, was first called Cove in 1750 and it was renamed Queenstown in 1849 to commemorate a visit by Queen Victoria. This remained the name until 1920, when it was renamed Cobh by the new authorities of the Irish Free State. Cobh is a Gaelicisation of the English name Cove and it shares the same pronunciation but has no meaning in the Irish language, according to legend, one of the first colonists of Ireland was Neimheidh, who landed in Cork Harbour over 1000 years BC.
He and his followers were said to have wiped out in a plague. Later it became known as Crich Liathain because of the powerful Uí Liatháin kingdom who ruled in the area from Late Antiquity into the early 13th century, the island subsequently became known as Oilean Mor An Barra, after the Barry family who inherited it. The village on the island was known as Ballyvoloon, overlooking The Cove and in 1743 a fort, the settlement itself was first referred to as Cove village in 1750 by Smith the historian who said it was inhabited by seamen and revenue officials. The Cork directory of 1787 shows about thirty businesses in the town including one butcher, the Water Club established at Haulbowline in 1720 was the progenitor of the present Royal Cork Yacht Club and is the oldest yacht club in the world. The RCYC was based for years in Cobh and the present Sirius Arts Centre used to be a clubhouse of the RCYC organisation. In 1966 the RCYC merged with the Royal Munster Yacht Club, retaining the name of the RCYC, International upheaval led to Cobh experiencing rapid development in the early 19th century.
Today, the Irish Naval Service headquarters is based on Haulbowline island facing Cobh, the wars against the French led to the town becoming a British Naval port with its own admiral, and many of the present-day buildings date from this time. The eventual cessation of hostilities dented Cobhs prosperity for a while but it became known as a health resort. Notable amongst these people was Charles Wolfe who wrote The Burial of Sir John Moore After Corunna, Wolfe is buried in the Old Church Cemetery outside the town. One of the major transatlantic Irish ports, the former Queenstown was the point for 2.5 million of the six million Irish people who emigrated to North America between 1848 and 1950. On 11 April 1912, Queenstown was famously the final port of call for the RMS Titanic when she set out across the Atlantic on her maiden voyage
Horsepower is a unit of measurement of power. There are many different standards and types of horsepower, two common definitions being used today are the mechanical horsepower, which is approximately 746 watts, and the metric horsepower, which is approximately 735.5 watts. The term was adopted in the late 18th century by Scottish engineer James Watt to compare the output of engines with the power of draft horses. It was expanded to include the power of other types of piston engines, as well as turbines, electric motors. The definition of the unit varied among geographical regions, most countries now use the SI unit watt for measurement of power. With the implementation of the EU Directive 80/181/EEC on January 1,2010, units called horsepower have differing definitions, The mechanical horsepower, known as imperial horsepower equals approximately 745.7 watts. It was defined originally as exactly 550 foot-pounds per second [745.7 N. m/s), the metric horsepower equals approximately 735.5 watts. It was defined originally as 75 kgf-m per second is approximately equivalent to 735.5 watts, the Pferdestärke PS is a name for a group of similar power measurements used in Germany around the end of the 19th century, all of about one metric horsepower in size.
The boiler horsepower equals 9809.5 watts and it was used for rating steam boilers and is equivalent to 34.5 pounds of water evaporated per hour at 212 degrees Fahrenheit. One horsepower for rating electric motors is equal to 746 watts, one horsepower for rating Continental European electric motors is equal to 735 watts. Continental European electric motors used to have dual ratings, one British Royal Automobile Club horsepower can equal a range of values based on estimates of several engine dimensions. It is one of the tax horsepower systems adopted around Europe, the development of the steam engine provided a reason to compare the output of horses with that of the engines that could replace them. He had previously agreed to take royalties of one third of the savings in coal from the older Newcomen steam engines and this royalty scheme did not work with customers who did not have existing steam engines but used horses instead. Watt determined that a horse could turn a mill wheel 144 times in an hour, the wheel was 12 feet in radius, the horse travelled 2.4 × 2π ×12 feet in one minute.
Watt judged that the horse could pull with a force of 180 pounds-force. So, P = W t = F d t =180 l b f ×2.4 ×2 π ×12 f t 1 m i n =32,572 f t ⋅ l b f m i n. Watt defined and calculated the horsepower as 32,572 ft·lbf/min, Watt determined that a pony could lift an average 220 lbf 100 ft per minute over a four-hour working shift. Watt judged a horse was 50% more powerful than a pony, engineering in History recounts that John Smeaton initially estimated that a horse could produce 22,916 foot-pounds per minute
Pounds per square inch
The pound per square inch or, more accurately, pound-force per square inch is a unit of pressure or of stress based on avoirdupois units. Now converting the psi to standard atmospheres,1 atm =101325 Pa =101325 Pa 6894.757293168 Pa / psi ≈14.70 psi Therefore,1 atmosphere is approximately 14.7 pounds per square inch. Pounds per square inch absolute is used to make it clear that the pressure is relative to a rather than the ambient atmospheric pressure. Since atmospheric pressure at sea level is around 14.7 psi, the converse is pounds per square inch gauge or pounds per square inch gage, indicating that the pressure is relative to atmospheric pressure. For example, a bicycle tire pumped up to 65 psi above atmospheric pressure. When gauge pressure is referenced to something other than ambient atmospheric pressure, the kilopound per square inch is a scaled unit derived from psi, equivalent to a thousand psi. Ksi are not widely used for gas pressures and they are mostly used in materials science, where the tensile strength of a material is measured as a large number of psi.
The conversion in SI Units is 1 ksi =6.895 MPa, the megapound per square inch is another multiple equal to a million psi. It is used in mechanics for the modulus of the materials. The conversion in SI Units is 1 Mpsi =6.895 GPa, inch of water,0.036 psid Blood pressure – clinically normal human blood pressure,2.32 psig/1.55 psig Natural gas residential piped in for consumer appliance, 4–6 psig. Boost pressure provided by a turbocharger, 6–15 psig NFL football,12. 5–13.5 psig Atmospheric pressure at sea level,14
A full-rigged ship or fully rigged ship is term of art denoting a sailing vessels sail plan with three or more masts, all of them square-rigged. A full-rigged ship is said to have a ship rig or be ship-rigged, the ship-rig sail plan, differs drastically from the large panoply of one and two masted vessels found as working and recreational sailboats. Alternatively, a ship may be referred to by its function instead, as in collier or frigate. In many languages the word frigate or frigate rig refers to a full-rigged ship, only one five-masted full-rigged ship had ever been built until recent years, when a few modern five-masted cruise sailing ships have been launched. Even a fourth mast is relatively rare for full-rigged ships, ships with five and more masts are not normally fully rigged and their masts may be numbered rather than named in extreme cases. If the masts are of wood, each mast is in three or more pieces and they are, The lowest piece is called the mast or the lower. Topmast Topgallant mast Royal mast, if fitted On steel-masted vessels, note that even a full-rigged ship did not usually have a lateral course on the mizzen mast below the mizzen topmast.
Instead, the lowest sail on the mizzen was usually a fore/aft sail—originally a lateen sail, the key distinction between a ship and barque is that a ship carries a square-rigged mizzen topsail whereas the mizzen mast of a barque has only fore-and-aft rigged sails. The cross-jack yard was the lowest yard on a ships mizzen mast, unlike the corresponding yards on the fore and main mast it did not usually have fittings to hang a sail from, its purpose was to control the lower edge of the topsail. In the rare case that the yard did carry a square sail. Above the course sail, in order, Topsail, or Lower topsail, Topgallant sail, or Lower topgallant sail, if fitted. The division of a sail into upper and lower sails was a matter of practicality, since undivided sails were larger and, larger sails necessitated hiring, and paying, a larger crew. Additionally, the size of some late-19th and 20th century vessels meant that their correspondingly large sails would have been impossible to handle had they not been divided.
Jibs are carried forward of the foremast, are tacked down on the bowsprit or jib-boom and have varying naming conventions, staysails may be carried between any other mast and the one in front of it or from the foremast to the bowsprit. In light winds studding sails may be carried on either side of any or all of the square rigged sails except royals and skysails and they are named after the adjacent sail and the side of the vessel on which they are set, for example main topgallant starboard stunsail. One or more spritsails may be set on booms set athwart, one or two spankers are carried aft of the aftmost mast, if two they are called the upper spanker and lower spanker. A fore-and-aft topsail may be carried above the upper or only spanker, to stop a full-rigged ship except when running directly down wind, the sails of the foremast are oriented in the direction perpendicular to those of the mainmast. Thus, the masts cancel out of their push on the ship and this allows the crew to stop and quickly restart the ship without retracting and lowering the sails, and to dynamically compensate for the push of the wind on the masts themselves and the yards
Around the World in Seventy-Two Days
Around the World in Seventy-Two Days is a book by journalist Elizabeth Jane Cochrane, writing under her pseudonym, Nellie Bly. The chronicle details her 72-day trip around the world, which was inspired by the book and she carried out the journey for Joseph Pulitzers tabloid newspaper, the New York World. In 1888, Bly suggested to her editor at the New York World that she take a trip around the world, attempting to turn the fictional Around the World in Eighty Days into fact for the first time. A year later, at 9,40 a. m. on November 14,1889, she boarded the Augusta Victoria, a steamer of the Hamburg America Line, and began her 24, 899-mile journey. She brought with her the dress she was wearing, an overcoat, several changes of underwear. She carried most of her money in a bag tied around her neck, the New York newspaper Cosmopolitan sponsored its own reporter, Elizabeth Bisland, to beat the time of both Phileas Fogg and Bly. Bisland would travel the opposite way around the world, on her travels around the world, Bly went through England, Brindisi, the Suez Canal, the Straits Settlements of Penang and Singapore, Hong Kong, and Japan.
Bly travelled using steamships and the railroad systems, which caused occasional setbacks. During these stops, she visited a colony in China. As a result of weather on her Pacific crossing, she arrived in San Francisco on the White Star liner Oceanic on January 21. At the time, Bisland was still going around the world, like Bly, she had missed a connection and had to board a slow, old ship in the place of a fast ship. Blys journey, at the time, was a record, though it was bettered a few months by George Francis Train. By 1913, Andre Jaeger-Schmidt, Henry Frederick and John Henry Mears had improved on the record, in season five, episode seven of Boardwalk Empire the character Gillian Darmody reads aloud from this book, the only one she owns. Marshall Goldberg, The New Colossus, Diversion Books,2014 Nellie Blys Book, Around the World in Seventy-Two Days, by Nellie Bly
The River Thames is a river that flows through southern England, most notably through London. At 215 miles, it is the longest river entirely in England and it flows through Oxford, Henley-on-Thames and Windsor. The lower reaches of the river are called the Tideway, derived from its tidal reach up to Teddington Lock. It rises at Thames Head in Gloucestershire, and flows into the North Sea via the Thames Estuary, the Thames drains the whole of Greater London. Its tidal section, reaching up to Teddington Lock, includes most of its London stretch and has a rise, in Scotland, the Tay achieves more than double the average discharge from a drainage basin that is 60% smaller. Along its course are 45 navigation locks with accompanying weirs and its catchment area covers a large part of South Eastern and a small part of Western England and the river is fed by 38 named tributaries. The river contains over 80 islands, in 2010, the Thames won the largest environmental award in the world – the $350,000 International Riverprize.
The Thames, from Middle English Temese, is derived from the Brittonic Celtic name for the river, recorded in Latin as Tamesis and yielding modern Welsh Tafwys Thames. It has suggested that it is not of Celtic origin. A place by the river, rather than the river itself, indirect evidence for the antiquity of the name Thames is provided by a Roman potsherd found at Oxford, bearing the inscription Tamesubugus fecit. It is believed that Tamesubugus name was derived from that of the river, tamese was referred to as a place, not a river in the Ravenna Cosmography. The rivers name has always pronounced with a simple t /t/, the Middle English spelling was typically Temese. A similar spelling from 1210, Tamisiam, is found in the Magna Carta, the Thames through Oxford is sometimes called the Isis. Ordnance Survey maps still label the Thames as River Thames or Isis down to Dorchester, richard Coates suggests that while the river was as a whole called the Thames, part of it, where it was too wide to ford, was called *lowonida.
An alternative, and simpler proposal, is that London may be a Germanic word, for merchant seamen, the Thames has long been just the London River. Londoners often refer to it simply as the river in such as south of the river. Thames Valley Police is a body that takes its name from the river. The marks of human activity, in cases dating back to Pre-Roman Britain, are visible at various points along the river
RMS Tayleur was a full rigged iron clipper ship chartered by the White Star Line. She was large and technically advanced and she ran aground and sank on her maiden voyage in 1854. Of more than 650 aboard, only 280 survived and she has been described as the first Titanic. Tayleur was designed by William Rennie of Liverpool and built at the Charles Tayleur foundry at Warrington for owners Charles Moore & Company of Mooresfort lattin and she was launched in Warrington on the River Mersey on 4 October 1853 - it had taken just six months to build her. She was 230 feet in length with a 40-foot beam and displaced 1,750 tons and she was named after Charles Tayleur, founder of the Vulcan Engineering Works, Bank Quay, Warrington. The new ship was chartered by White Star to serve the booming Australian trade routes, as transport to, Tayleur left Liverpool on 19 January 1854, on her maiden voyage, for Melbourne, with a complement of 652 passengers and crew. She was mastered by 29-year-old Captain John Noble, during the inquiry, it was determined that her crew of 71 had only 37 trained seamen amongst them, and of these, ten could not speak English.
It was reported in newspaper accounts that many of the crew were seeking free passage to Australia, most of the crew were able to survive. Her compasses did not work properly because of the iron hull, the crew believed that they were sailing south through the Irish Sea, but were actually travelling west towards Ireland. On 21 January 1854, within 48 hours of sailing, Tayleur found herself in a fog, the rudder was undersized for her tonnage, so that she was unable to tack around the island. The rigging was faulty, the ropes had not been stretched, so that they became slack. Despite dropping both anchors as soon as rocks were sighted, she ran aground on the east coast of Lambay Island, attempts were made to lower the ships lifeboats, but when the first one was smashed on the rocks, launching further boats was deemed unsafe. Tayleur was so close to land that the crew was able to collapse a mast onto the shore, some that reached shore had carried ropes from the ship, allowing others to pull themselves to safety on the ropes.
Captain Noble waited on board Tayleur until the last minute, jumped towards shore, with the storm and high seas continuing, the ship was washed into deeper water. She sank to the bottom with only the tops of her masts showing, a surviving passenger alerted the coastguard station on the island. This passenger and four coast guards launched the coastguard galley, when they reached the wreck they found the last survivor, William Vivers, who had climbed to the tops of the rigging, and had spent 14 hours there. He was rescued by the coastguards, on 2 March 1854, George Finlay, the chief boatman, was awarded a silver medal for this rescue. The Board of Trade, did fault the captain for not taking soundings, the causes of the wreck were complex and included, Compass problems due to the placing of an iron river steamer on the deck after the compasses had been swung
Elizabeth Cochran Seaman, known by her pen name Nellie Bly, was an American journalist. She was a pioneer in her field, and launched a new kind of investigative journalism, at birth she was named Elizabeth Jane Cochran. She was born in Cochrans Mills, today part of the Pittsburgh suburb of Burrell Township, Armstrong County and her father, Michael Cochran, was a laborer and mill worker who married Mary Jane. His father had immigrated from County Londonderry, Ireland in the 1790s, Cochran taught his young children a cogent lesson about the virtues of hard work and determination, buying the local mill and most of the land surrounding his family farmhouse. As a young girl Elizabeth often was called Pinky because she so frequently wore that color, as she became a teenager she wanted to portray herself as more sophisticated, and so dropped the nickname and changed her surname to Cochrane. She attended boarding school for one term, but was forced to drop out due to lack of funds, in 1880 Cochrane and her family moved to Pittsburgh.
An aggressively misogynistic column entitled What Girls Are Good For in the Pittsburgh Dispatch prompted her to write a rebuttal to the editor under the pseudonym Lonely Orphan Girl. The editor, George Madden, was impressed with her passion, when Cochrane introduced herself to the editor, he offered her the opportunity to write a piece for the newspaper, again under the pseudonym Lonely Orphan Girl. After her first article for the Dispatch, entitled The Girl Puzzle, Madden was impressed again, Women who were newspaper writers at that time customarily used pen names. The editor chose Nellie Bly, adopted from the character in the popular song Nelly Bly by Stephen Foster. Cochrane originally intended that her pseudonym be Nelly Bly, but her editor wrote Nellie by mistake, dissatisfied with these duties, she took the initiative and traveled to Mexico to serve as a foreign correspondent. Still only 21, she spent nearly half a year reporting the lives and customs of the Mexican people, in one report, she protested the imprisonment of a local journalist for criticizing the Mexican government, a dictatorship under Porfirio Díaz.
When Mexican authorities learned of Blys report, they threatened her with arrest, safely home, she denounced Díaz as a tyrannical czar suppressing the Mexican people and controlling the press. Burdened again with theater and arts reporting, Bly left the Pittsburgh Dispatch in 1887 for New York City, after a night of practicing deranged expressions in front of a mirror, she checked into a boardinghouse. She refused to go to bed, telling the boarders that she was afraid of them and they soon decided that she was crazy, and the next morning summoned the police. Taken to a courtroom, she pretended to have amnesia, the judge concluded she had been drugged. Several doctors examined her, all declared her insane, positively demented, said one, I consider it a hopeless case. She needs to be put where someone will take care of her, the head of the insane pavilion at Bellevue Hospital pronounced her undoubtedly insane
Liverpool is a major city and metropolitan borough in North West England.24 million people in 2011. Liverpool historically lay within the ancient hundred of West Derby in the south west of the county of Lancashire and it became a borough from 1207 and a city from 1880. In 1889 it became a county borough independent of Lancashire, Liverpool sits on the eastern side of the Mersey Estuary and its growth as a major port is paralleled by the expansion of the city throughout the Industrial Revolution. Along with general cargo, raw materials such as coal and cotton, the city was directly involved in the Atlantic slave trade. Liverpool was home to both the Cunard and White Star Line, and was the port of registry of the ocean liner RMS Titanic and others such as the RMS Lusitania, Queen Mary, and Olympic. The city celebrated its 800th anniversary in 2007, and it held the European Capital of Culture title together with Stavanger, several areas of Liverpool city centre were granted World Heritage Site status by UNESCO in 2004.
The Liverpool Maritime Mercantile City includes the Pier Head, Albert Dock, tourism forms a significant part of the citys economy. Liverpool is the home of two Premier League football clubs and Everton, matches between the two being known as the Merseyside derby, the world-famous Grand National horse race takes place annually at Aintree Racecourse on the outskirts of the city. The city is home to the oldest Black African community in the country. Natives of Liverpool are referred to as Liverpudlians and colloquially as Scousers, a reference to scouse, the word Scouse has become synonymous with the Liverpool accent and dialect. Pool is a place name element in England from the Brythonic word for a pond, inlet, or pit, cognate with the modern Welsh. The derivation of the first element remains uncertain, with the Welsh word Llif as the most plausible relative and this etymology is supported by its similarity to that of the archaic Welsh name for Liverpool Llynlleifiad. Other origins of the name have suggested, including elverpool.
The name appeared in 1190 as Liuerpul, and it may be that the place appearing as Leyrpole, in a record of 1418. King Johns letters patent of 1207 announced the foundation of the borough of Liverpool, the original street plan of Liverpool is said to have been designed by King John near the same time it was granted a royal charter, making it a borough. The original seven streets were laid out in an H shape, Bank Street, Castle Street, Chapel Street, Dale Street, Juggler Street, Moor Street, in the 17th century there was slow progress in trade and population growth. Battles for the town were waged during the English Civil War, in 1699 Liverpool was made a parish by Act of Parliament, that same year its first slave ship, Liverpool Merchant, set sail for Africa. Since Roman times, the city of Chester on the River Dee had been the regions principal port on the Irish Sea
A bearing is a machine element that constrains relative motion to only the desired motion, and reduces friction between moving parts. Most bearings facilitate the desired motion by minimizing friction, Bearings are classified broadly according to the type of operation, the motions allowed, or to the directions of the loads applied to the parts. Rotary bearings hold rotating components such as shafts or axles within mechanical systems, the simplest form of bearing, the plain bearing, consists of a shaft rotating in a hole. Lubrication is often used to reduce friction, a wide variety of bearing designs exists to allow the demands of the application to be correctly met for maximum efficiency, reliability and performance. The term bearing is derived from the verb to bear, a bearing being an element that allows one part to bear another. The simplest bearings are bearing surfaces, cut or formed into a part, with varying degrees of control over the form, roughness, other bearings are separate devices installed into a machine or machine part.
The most sophisticated bearings for the most demanding applications are very precise devices, the invention of the rolling bearing, in the form of wooden rollers supporting, or bearing, an object being moved is of great antiquity, and may predate the invention of the wheel. Though it is claimed that the Egyptians used roller bearings in the form of tree trunks under sleds. They are depicted in their own drawings in the tomb of Djehutihotep as moving massive stone blocks on sledges with liquid-lubricated runners which would constitute a plain bearing, there are Egyptian drawings of bearings used with hand drills. The earliest recovered example of a rolling element bearing is a ball bearing supporting a rotating table from the remains of the Roman Nemi ships in Lake Nemi. The wrecks were dated to 40 BC, leonardo da Vinci incorporated drawings of ball bearings in his design for a helicopter around the year 1500. This is the first recorded use of bearings in an aerospace design, Agostino Ramelli is the first to have published sketches of roller and thrust bearings.
An issue with ball and roller bearings is that the balls or rollers rub against each other causing additional friction which can be reduced by enclosing the balls or rollers within a cage, the captured, or caged, ball bearing was originally described by Galileo in the 17th century. The first practical caged-roller bearing was invented in the mid-1740s by horologist John Harrison for his H3 marine timekeeper and this uses the bearing for a very limited oscillating motion but Harrison used a similar bearing in a truly rotary application in a contemporaneous regulator clock. The first modern recorded patent on ball bearings was awarded to Philip Vaughan and his was the first modern ball-bearing design, with the ball running along a groove in the axle assembly. Bearings played a role in the nascent Industrial Revolution, allowing the new industrial machinery to operate efficiently. For example, they saw use for holding wheel and axle to greatly reduce friction over that of dragging an object by making the act over a shorter distance as the wheel turned.
The first plain and rolling-element bearings were wood closely followed by bronze, over their history bearings have been made of many materials including ceramic, glass, bronze, other metals and plastic which are all used today
SS Nomadic (1911)
SS Nomadic is a former tender of the White Star Line, launched on 25 April 1911 in Belfast now on display in Belfasts Titanic Quarter. She was built to transfer passengers and mail to and from RMS Olympic and RMS Titanic, and is the only White Star Line vessel in existence today. Nomadic was one of two commissioned by the White Star Line in 1910 to tender for their new ocean liners RMS Olympic and RMS Titanic. She and her running mate SS Traffic ferried passengers, their baggage and ships supplies to, the keel of Nomadic was laid down in the Harland and Wolff shipyards, Belfast in 1910. She was built on slipway No.1 alongside RMS Olympic and RMS Titanic and she was launched on 25 April 1911 and delivered to the White Star Line on the 27 May, following sea trials. The ship is 230 feet long overall and 37 feet wide, propulsion was provided by two single-ended coal-fired boilers and two compound steam engines, each driving two triple bladed propellers of 7 feet in diameter, which gave a service speed of 12 knots.
Nomadic is of steel construction, with frames, bulkheads. She had four working decks with various hold spaces beneath and she could carry up to 1,000 passengers when fully loaded. Passenger accommodation consisted of lower and upper deck passenger lounges and open areas on the bridge. The vessel was divided into first and second class passenger areas, a small area in the aft end of the lower deck was assigned for overspill of third-class passengers from SS Traffic. Internally, Nomadic was fitted out to a standard as the liners Olympic and Titanic. As such, she had more luxuries than most tenders of her day, with cushioned benches, porcelain water fountains, gender-specific bathrooms and she contained ornate decorative joinery and plasterwork, particularly in the first class lounges of the ship. Nomadic arrived in Cherbourg on 3 June 1911 to begin her duties for the White Star Line. After the war, she returned to her duties, but in 1927 she was sold. Following the 1934 merger of White Star and Cunard Line and the opening of the port at Cherbourg.
She was sold to the Société Cherbourgeoise de Sauvetage et de Remorquage, during World War II, Nomadic again saw service, on 18 June 1940 she took part in the evacuation of Cherbourg. She was subsequently requisitioned by the Royal Navy and based in Portsmouth harbour, she operated as a ship, coastal patrol vessel. During the war, Cherbourg port was damaged, so large ocean liners could no longer dock there
San Francisco, officially the City and County of San Francisco, is the cultural and financial center of Northern California. It is the birthplace of the United Nations, the California Gold Rush of 1849 brought rapid growth, making it the largest city on the West Coast at the time. San Francisco became a consolidated city-county in 1856, after three-quarters of the city was destroyed by the 1906 earthquake and fire, San Francisco was quickly rebuilt, hosting the Panama-Pacific International Exposition nine years later. In World War II, San Francisco was a port of embarkation for service members shipping out to the Pacific Theater. Politically, the city votes strongly along liberal Democratic Party lines, San Francisco is the headquarters of five major banking institutions and various other companies such as Levi Strauss & Co. Dolby, Weebly, Pacific Gas and Electric Company, Pinterest, Uber, Mozilla, Wikimedia Foundation, as of 2016, San Francisco is ranked high on world liveability rankings.
The earliest archaeological evidence of habitation of the territory of the city of San Francisco dates to 3000 BC. Upon independence from Spain in 1821, the became part of Mexico. Under Mexican rule, the system gradually ended, and its lands became privatized. In 1835, Englishman William Richardson erected the first independent homestead, together with Alcalde Francisco de Haro, he laid out a street plan for the expanded settlement, and the town, named Yerba Buena, began to attract American settlers. Commodore John D. Sloat claimed California for the United States on July 7,1846, during the Mexican–American War, montgomery arrived to claim Yerba Buena two days later. Yerba Buena was renamed San Francisco on January 30 of the next year, despite its attractive location as a port and naval base, San Francisco was still a small settlement with inhospitable geography. The California Gold Rush brought a flood of treasure seekers, with their sourdough bread in tow, prospectors accumulated in San Francisco over rival Benicia, raising the population from 1,000 in 1848 to 25,000 by December 1849.
The promise of fabulous riches was so strong that crews on arriving vessels deserted and rushed off to the gold fields, leaving behind a forest of masts in San Francisco harbor. Some of these approximately 500 abandoned ships were used at times as storeships and hotels, many were left to rot, by 1851 the harbor was extended out into the bay by wharves while buildings were erected on piles among the ships. By 1870 Yerba Buena Cove had been filled to create new land, buried ships are occasionally exposed when foundations are dug for new buildings. California was quickly granted statehood in 1850 and the U. S. military built Fort Point at the Golden Gate, silver discoveries, including the Comstock Lode in Nevada in 1859, further drove rapid population growth. With hordes of fortune seekers streaming through the city, lawlessness was common, and the Barbary Coast section of town gained notoriety as a haven for criminals, entrepreneurs sought to capitalize on the wealth generated by the Gold Rush