Ferrari 250 Testa Rossa
The Ferrari 250 Testa Rossa, or 250 TR, is a racing sports car built by Ferrari from 1957 to 1961. It was introduced at the end of the 1957 racing season in response to rule changes that enforced a maximum engine displacement of 3 liters for the 24 Hours of Le Mans and World Sports Car Championship races; the 250 TR was related to earlier Ferrari sports cars, sharing many key components with other 250 models and the 500 TR. The 250 TR achieved many racing successes, with variations winning 10 World Sports Car Championship races including the 24 Hours of Le Mans in 1958, 1960, 1961, the 12 Hours of Sebring in 1958, 1959 and 1961, the Targa Florio in 1958, the 1000 Km Buenos Aires in 1958 and 1960 and the Pescara 4 Hours in 1961; these results led to World Sports Car Championship constructor's titles for Ferrari in 1958, 1960 and 1961. The 250 Testa Rossa was developed to compete in the 1957 World Sports Car Championship racing season, in response to rule changes planned for the upcoming 1958 season that would enforce a maximum engine displacement of 3 liters.
The objective was to improve on the existing 4-cylinder 2.0L 500 TR/500 TRC Testa Rossa by integrating the more powerful Colombo-designed 3.0L V12 as used in 250 GT series. Along with the new engine, Ferrari improved bodywork; as with other Ferrari racing cars, Enzo Ferrari demanded absolute reliability from all components, resulting in a somewhat conservative design approach that aimed for endurance racing success through durability rather than overall speed. Carlo Chiti was the chief designer during 250 TR development and his continual experimentation counterbalanced Mr. Ferrari's conservatism and led to the many revisions that kept the car competitive through 1962. Other Ferrari engineers had major contributions to the 250 TR, notably Giotto Bizzarrini, who helped with aerodynamic improvements for the 1961 season, Andrea Fraschetti, who helped developed the first 250 TR prototype before his 1957 death during a test drive; the 250 TR was raced and continually developed by Scuderia Ferrari from 1957 through 1962.
In total, 33 250 TRs of all types were built between 1957 and 1962. Included in this total are 19 "customer versions" of the 250 TR sold to independent racing teams, replacing the 500 TRC for this market. All customer cars had left hand live rear axles, they did not benefit from the continual improvements to Scuderia Ferrari cars, although many independent teams modified their 250 TRs or purchased ex-Scuderia Ferrari cars in order to stay competitive. The 250 Testa Rossa engine was based on Colombo-designed 3.0L V12 used in 250 GT road and racing cars. Carlo Chiti and other Ferrari engineers made several modifications to increase the performance of this proven engine; the starting point was a 1953-style cylinder block with an overall capacity of 2953 cc, a 73mm bore and 58.8 mm stroke. Six two-barrel Weber 38 DCN carburetors fed the engine, increased from the 3 carburetors typical for 250 GT engines; the cylinder heads used single overhead cams, 2 valves per cylinder and helical double-coil valve springs.
The helical valve springs were much smaller than used torsion springs, allowing the cylinder heads to be strengthened and secured with 24 studs rather than 18 in previous 250 engines. This increased the overall reliability of the engine by improving head gasket sealing. One spark plug was used per cylinder and the position was changed from earlier 250 designs, now located outside the engine vee between exhaust ports; this allowed for a more efficient combustion. Piston connecting rods were now machined from steel billet, rather than forged, which resulted in more stress-resistance at higher RPMs; the cam covers were painted bright red, the source of the name "Testa Rossa". This tradition and name originated with the 500 TR; the resulting engine was generated 300 hp at 7000 rpm. The power/displacement ratio of 100 hp/liter was a particular point of pride for Ferrari, as it demonstrated how Ferrari's engineering prowess could create a competitive engine under rules restricting displacement; the engineering team improved a well understood, proven design by incorporating new technology and strengthening known weak points.
They created a massive benefit in endurance racing. Other Ferrari racing cars achieved racing success with the same basic engine well into the 1960s, years after the 250 TR chassis was obsolete. 1957-1958 250 TRs used a 4-speed transmission, followed by a 5-speed transmission in 1959. Customer cars were equipped with a 250 GT-style transmission positioned directly behind the engine, while Scuderia Ferrari team cars sometimes used rear-mounted transaxles for better weight distribution; the 250 Testa Rossa used a tubular steel spaceframe chassis, similar to that used in the 500 TR. Compared to the 500 TR, the wheelbase was extended by 10 cm to 2.35 meters. The chassis gained a reputation for durability, as it was designed according to Enzo Ferrari's desire for absolute reliability at the expense of excess weight. All 250 TRs used independent front suspension with coil springs. All customer cars had live rear axles. Pre-1960 factory team cars used either live or de Dion rear axles while the 1960 250 TRI60 and 1961 250 TRI61 used independent rear suspension.1957 and 1958 250 TRs were equipped with drum brakes on all four wheels.
Enzo Ferrari insisted on the use of drum brakes in the early 250 TRs as he believed they were more reliable and predictable in how they faded compared to more powerful but new disc brakes. Drum brakes were unpopular with drivers as they required tremendous physical exertion to operate, due to
Germany the Federal Republic of Germany, is a country in Central and Western Europe, lying between the Baltic and North Seas to the north, the Alps to the south. It borders Denmark to the north and the Czech Republic to the east and Switzerland to the south, France to the southwest, Luxembourg and the Netherlands to the west. Germany includes 16 constituent states, covers an area of 357,386 square kilometres, has a temperate seasonal climate. With 83 million inhabitants, it is the second most populous state of Europe after Russia, the most populous state lying in Europe, as well as the most populous member state of the European Union. Germany is a decentralized country, its capital and largest metropolis is Berlin, while Frankfurt serves as its financial capital and has the country's busiest airport. Germany's largest urban area is the Ruhr, with its main centres of Essen; the country's other major cities are Hamburg, Cologne, Stuttgart, Düsseldorf, Dresden, Bremen and Nuremberg. Various Germanic tribes have inhabited the northern parts of modern Germany since classical antiquity.
A region named Germania was documented before 100 AD. During the Migration Period, the Germanic tribes expanded southward. Beginning in the 10th century, German territories formed a central part of the Holy Roman Empire. During the 16th century, northern German regions became the centre of the Protestant Reformation. After the collapse of the Holy Roman Empire, the German Confederation was formed in 1815; the German revolutions of 1848–49 resulted in the Frankfurt Parliament establishing major democratic rights. In 1871, Germany became a nation state when most of the German states unified into the Prussian-dominated German Empire. After World War I and the revolution of 1918–19, the Empire was replaced by the parliamentary Weimar Republic; the Nazi seizure of power in 1933 led to the establishment of a dictatorship, the annexation of Austria, World War II, the Holocaust. After the end of World War II in Europe and a period of Allied occupation, Austria was re-established as an independent country and two new German states were founded: West Germany, formed from the American and French occupation zones, East Germany, formed from the Soviet occupation zone.
Following the Revolutions of 1989 that ended communist rule in Central and Eastern Europe, the country was reunified on 3 October 1990. Today, the sovereign state of Germany is a federal parliamentary republic led by a chancellor, it is a great power with a strong economy. As a global leader in several industrial and technological sectors, it is both the world's third-largest exporter and importer of goods; as a developed country with a high standard of living, it upholds a social security and universal health care system, environmental protection, a tuition-free university education. The Federal Republic of Germany was a founding member of the European Economic Community in 1957 and the European Union in 1993, it is part of the Schengen Area and became a co-founder of the Eurozone in 1999. Germany is a member of the United Nations, NATO, the G7, the G20, the OECD. Known for its rich cultural history, Germany has been continuously the home of influential and successful artists, musicians, film people, entrepreneurs, scientists and inventors.
Germany has a large number of World Heritage sites and is among the top tourism destinations in the world. The English word Germany derives from the Latin Germania, which came into use after Julius Caesar adopted it for the peoples east of the Rhine; the German term Deutschland diutisciu land is derived from deutsch, descended from Old High German diutisc "popular" used to distinguish the language of the common people from Latin and its Romance descendants. This in turn descends from Proto-Germanic *þiudiskaz "popular", derived from *þeudō, descended from Proto-Indo-European *tewtéh₂- "people", from which the word Teutons originates; the discovery of the Mauer 1 mandible shows that ancient humans were present in Germany at least 600,000 years ago. The oldest complete hunting weapons found anywhere in the world were discovered in a coal mine in Schöningen between 1994 and 1998 where eight 380,000-year-old wooden javelins of 1.82 to 2.25 m length were unearthed. The Neander Valley was the location where the first non-modern human fossil was discovered.
The Neanderthal 1 fossils are known to be 40,000 years old. Evidence of modern humans dated, has been found in caves in the Swabian Jura near Ulm; the finds included 42,000-year-old bird bone and mammoth ivory flutes which are the oldest musical instruments found, the 40,000-year-old Ice Age Lion Man, the oldest uncontested figurative art discovered, the 35,000-year-old Venus of Hohle Fels, the oldest uncontested human figurative art discovered. The Nebra sky disk is a bronze artefact created during the European Bronze Age attributed to a site near Nebra, Saxony-Anhalt, it is part of UNESCO's Memory of the World Programme. The Germanic tribes are thought to date from the Pre-Roman Iron Age. From southern Scandinavia and north Germany, they expanded south and west from the 1st century BC, coming into contact with the Celtic tribes of Gaul as well
The United Kingdom the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, sometimes referred to as Britain, is a sovereign country located off the north-western coast of the European mainland. The United Kingdom includes the island of Great Britain, the north-eastern part of the island of Ireland, many smaller islands. Northern Ireland is the only part of the United Kingdom that shares a land border with another sovereign state, the Republic of Ireland. Apart from this land border, the United Kingdom is surrounded by the Atlantic Ocean, with the North Sea to the east, the English Channel to the south and the Celtic Sea to the south-west, giving it the 12th-longest coastline in the world; the Irish Sea lies between Great Ireland. With an area of 242,500 square kilometres, the United Kingdom is the 78th-largest sovereign state in the world, it is the 22nd-most populous country, with an estimated 66.0 million inhabitants in 2017. The UK is constitutional monarchy; the current monarch is Queen Elizabeth II, who has reigned since 1952, making her the longest-serving current head of state.
The United Kingdom's capital and largest city is London, a global city and financial centre with an urban area population of 10.3 million. Other major urban areas in the UK include Greater Manchester, the West Midlands and West Yorkshire conurbations, Greater Glasgow and the Liverpool Built-up Area; the United Kingdom consists of four constituent countries: England, Scotland and Northern Ireland. Their capitals are London, Edinburgh and Belfast, respectively. Apart from England, the countries have their own devolved governments, each with varying powers, but such power is delegated by the Parliament of the United Kingdom, which may enact laws unilaterally altering or abolishing devolution; the nearby Isle of Man, Bailiwick of Guernsey and Bailiwick of Jersey are not part of the UK, being Crown dependencies with the British Government responsible for defence and international representation. The medieval conquest and subsequent annexation of Wales by the Kingdom of England, followed by the union between England and Scotland in 1707 to form the Kingdom of Great Britain, the union in 1801 of Great Britain with the Kingdom of Ireland created the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland.
Five-sixths of Ireland seceded from the UK in 1922, leaving the present formulation of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland. There are fourteen British Overseas Territories, the remnants of the British Empire which, at its height in the 1920s, encompassed a quarter of the world's land mass and was the largest empire in history. British influence can be observed in the language and political systems of many of its former colonies; the United Kingdom is a developed country and has the world's fifth-largest economy by nominal GDP and ninth-largest economy by purchasing power parity. It has a high-income economy and has a high Human Development Index rating, ranking 14th in the world, it was the world's first industrialised country and the world's foremost power during the 19th and early 20th centuries. The UK remains a great power, with considerable economic, military and political influence internationally, it is sixth in military expenditure in the world. It has been a permanent member of the United Nations Security Council since its first session in 1946.
It has been a leading member state of the European Union and its predecessor, the European Economic Community, since 1973. The United Kingdom is a member of the Commonwealth of Nations, the Council of Europe, the G7, the G20, NATO, the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development and the World Trade Organization; the 1707 Acts of Union declared that the kingdoms of England and Scotland were "United into One Kingdom by the Name of Great Britain". The term "United Kingdom" has been used as a description for the former kingdom of Great Britain, although its official name from 1707 to 1800 was "Great Britain"; the Acts of Union 1800 united the kingdom of Great Britain and the kingdom of Ireland in 1801, forming the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland. Following the partition of Ireland and the independence of the Irish Free State in 1922, which left Northern Ireland as the only part of the island of Ireland within the United Kingdom, the name was changed to the "United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland".
Although the United Kingdom is a sovereign country, Scotland and Northern Ireland are widely referred to as countries. The UK Prime Minister's website has used the phrase "countries within a country" to describe the United Kingdom; some statistical summaries, such as those for the twelve NUTS 1 regions of the United Kingdom refer to Scotland and Northern Ireland as "regions". Northern Ireland is referred to as a "province". With regard to Northern Ireland, the descriptive name used "can be controversial, with the choice revealing one's political preferences"; the term "Great Britain" conventionally refers to the island of Great Britain, or politically to England and Wales in combination. However, it is sometimes used as a loose synonym for the United Kingdom as a whole; the term "Britain" is used both as a synonym for Great Britain, as a synonym for the United Kingdom. Usage is mixed, with the BBC preferring to use Britain as shorthand only for Great Britain and the UK Government, while accepting that both terms refer to the United K
The chairman is the highest officer of an organized group such as a board, a committee, or a deliberative assembly. The person holding the office is elected or appointed by the members of the group, the chairman presides over meetings of the assembled group and conducts its business in an orderly fashion. In some organizations, the chairman position is called president, in others, where a board appoints a president, the two different terms are used for distinctly different positions. Other terms sometimes used for the office and its holder include chair, chairwoman, presiding officer, moderator and convenor; the chairman of a parliamentary chamber is called the speaker. The term chair is sometimes used in lieu of chairman, in response to criticisms that using chairman is sexist, it is used today, has been used as a substitute for chairman since the middle of the 17th century, with its earliest citation in the Oxford English Dictionary dated 1658–1659, only four years after the first citation for chairman.
Major dictionaries state that the word derives from a person. A 1994 Canadian study found the Toronto Star newspaper referring to most presiding men as "chairman", to most presiding women as "chairperson" or as "chairwoman"; the Chronicle of Higher Education uses "chairman" for men and "chairperson" for women. An analysis of the British National Corpus found chairman used 1,142 times, chairperson 130 times and chairwoman 68 times; the National Association of Parliamentarians adopted a resolution in 1975 discouraging the use of “chairperson” and rescinded it in 2017. The Wall Street Journal, The New York Times and United Press International all use "chairwoman" or "chairman" when referring to women, forbid use of "chair" or of "chairperson" except in direct quotations. In World Schools Style debating, male chairs are called "Mr. Chairman" and female chairs are called "Madame Chair"; the FranklinCovey Style Guide for Business and Technical Communication, as well as the American Psychological Association style guide, advocate using "chair" or "chairperson", rather than "chairman".
The Oxford Dictionary of American Usage and Style suggests that the gender-neutral forms are gaining ground. It advocates using "chair" to refer both to women; the Telegraph style guide bans the use of both "Chair" and "Chairperson" on the basis that "Chairman" is correct English. The word chair can refer to the place from which the holder of the office presides, whether on a chair, at a lectern, or elsewhere. During meetings, the person presiding is said to be "in the chair" and is referred to as "the chair". Parliamentary procedure requires that members address the "chair" as "Mr. Chairman" rather than using a name – one of many customs intended to maintain the presiding officer's impartiality and to ensure an objective and impersonal approach. In the United States, the presiding officer of the lower house of a legislative body, such as the House of Representatives, is titled the Speaker, while the upper house, such as the Senate, is chaired by a President. In his 1992 State of the Union address, then-U.
S. President George H. W. Bush used "chairman" for men and "chair" for women. In the British music hall tradition, the Chairman was the master of ceremonies who announced the performances and was responsible for controlling any rowdy elements in the audience; the role was popularised on British TV in the 1960s and 1970s by Leonard Sachs, the Chairman on the variety show The Good Old Days."Chairman" as a quasi-title gained particular resonance when socialist states from 1917 onward shunned more traditional leadership labels and stressed the collective control of soviets by beginning to refer to executive figureheads as "Chairman of the X Committee". Vladimir Lenin, for example functioned as the head of Soviet Russia not as tsar or as president but in roles such as "Chairman of the Council of People's Commissars of the Russian SFSR". Note in particular the popular standard method for referring to Mao Zedong: "Chairman Mao". In addition to the administrative or executive duties in organizations, the chairman has the duties of presiding over meetings.
Such duties at meetings include: Calling the meeting to order Determining if a quorum is present Announcing the items on the order of business or agenda as they come up Recognition of members to have the floor Enforcing the rules of the group Putting questions to a vote Adjourning the meetingWhile presiding, the chairman should remain impartial and not interrupt a speaker if the speaker has the floor and is following the rules of the group. In committees or small boards, the chairman votes along with the other members. However, in assemblies or larger boards, the chairman should vote only when it can affect the result. At a meeting, the chairman only has one vote; the powers of the chairman vary across organizations. In some organizations the chairman has the authority to hire staff and make financial decisions, while in others the chairman only makes recommendations to a board of directors, still others the chairman has no executive powers and is a spokesman for the organization; the amount of power given to the chairman depends on the type of organization, its structure, the rules it has created for itself.
If the chairman exceeds the given authority, engages in misconduct, or fails to perform t
A classic car is an older automobile. The common theme is of an older car with enough historical interest to be collectable and worth preserving or restoring rather than scrapping. Cars 20 years and older fall into the classic class. Organizations such as the Classic Car Club of America and the Antique Automobile Club of America maintain a list of eligible unmodified cars that are called "classic"; these are described as "fine" or "distinctive" automobile, either American or foreign built, produced between 1915 and 1948. Post–World War II "classic cars" are not defined and the term is applied to any older vehicle. Cars 100 years and older fall into the antique class and this includes the "Brass Era car" that are defined by the Horseless Carriage Club of America as "any pioneer gas and electric motor vehicle built or manufactured prior to January 1, 1916."The "classic" term is applied loosely by owners to any car. Most states have time-based rules for the definition of "historic" or "classic" for purposes such as antique vehicle registration.
For example, Maryland defines historic vehicles as 20 calendar years old or older and they "must not have been altered, remodeled or remanufactured from the manufacturers original design" while West Virginia defines motor vehicles manufactured at least 25 years prior to the current year as eligible for "classic" car license plates. Despite this, at many American classic car shows, automobiles range from the 1920s to the 1970s. Many 1980s and early 1990s cars are considered being "classic automobiles". Examples of cars at such shows include the Chevrolet Bel-Air, Ford Model T, Dodge Charger, Ford Deuce Coupe, 1949 Ford. Meanwhile, the Concours d'Elegance car shows feature prestigious automobiles such as the Cadillac V16 or pre-1940 Rolls-Royce models. There are terms as "modern customs", "exotics", or "collectibles" that cover cars such as the AMC Gremlin or Ford Pinto. There are differences in the exact identification of a "classic car". Division by separate eras include: horseless carriages, antique cars, classic cars.
Some include muscle cars, with the 1974 model year as the cutoff. The Classic Car Club of America describes a CCCA Classic as a "fine" or "distinctive" automobile, either American or foreign built, produced between 1915 and 1948; the CCCA is dedicated to the preservation and enjoyment of select cars that "are distinguished by their respective fine design, high engineering standards and superior workmanship." Other differentiating factors - including engine displacement, custom coachwork, luxury accessories such as power brakes, power clutch, "one-shot" or automatic lubrication systems - help determine whether a car is considered a CCCA Classic. The cars on their list "represent the pinnacle of engineering and design for their era."Any CCCA member may petition for a vehicle to join the list. Such applications are scrutinized, but is a new vehicle type admitted. Moreover, no commercial vehicles such as hearses, ambulances, or race cars are accepted as a Full Classic; the CCCA maintains this definition of "classic car" and uses terms such as CCCA Classic or the trademarked Full Classic.
The CCCA has estimated. The Antique Automobile Club of America recognizes "motorized vehicles 25 years old or older, which were built in factories and designed and manufactured for transportation use on public roadways and highways." Judging by the AACA evaluates such vehicles to be in historic or that have "been restored to the same state as the dealer could have prepared the vehicle for delivery to the customer." Specified AACA classic vehicles include "fine or unusual domestic or foreign automobiles built between and including the years 1925 and 1942." There is no fixed definition of a classic car. Two taxation issues do impact however. All cars built over 40 years ago are exempted from paying the annual road tax vehicle excise duty. HM Revenue and Customs define a classic car for company taxation purposes as being over 15 years old and having a value in excess of £15,000. Additionally, popular acclaim through classic car magazines can play an important role in whether a car comes to be regarded as a classic but the definition remains subjective and a matter of opinion.
The elimination of depreciation can be a reason for buying a classic car and picking'future classics' that are current'bangers' can result in a profit for the buyer as well as providing transport. An immaculate well cared for prestige model with high running costs that impacts its value, but is not yet old enough to be regarded as a classic, could be a good buy, for example. Classic cars are subject to various types of fraud, most notably provenance fraud, where owners falsify documentation and serial numbers in order to make a car's history seem more colorful and historic. Fraud assumes the form of knowingly inflating a car's estimated resale value, as was referenced in court proceedings relating to JD Classics, hitherto one of the UK's largest and best-known classic car dealers prior to its collapse in 2018. There was a worldwide change in styling trends in the immediate years after the end of World War II; the 1946 Crosley and Kaiser-Frazer, for example, changed the traditional discrete replaceable-fender treatment.
From this point on, automobiles of all kinds became envelope bodies in basic plan. The CCCA term, "antique car" has been confined to "the functionally traditional desig
Ferrari is an Italian luxury sports car manufacturer based in Maranello. Founded by Enzo Ferrari in 1939 out of Alfa Romeo's race division as Auto Avio Costruzioni, the company built its first car in 1940. However, the company's inception as an auto manufacturer is recognized in 1947, when the first Ferrari-badged car was completed. In 2014, Ferrari was rated the world's most powerful brand by Brand Finance. In June 2018, the 1964 250 GTO became the most expensive car in history, setting an all-time record selling price of $70 million. Fiat S.p. A. acquired 50% of Ferrari in 1969 and expanded its stake to 90% in 1988. In October 2014 Fiat Chrysler Automobiles N. V. announced its intentions to separate Ferrari S.p. A. from FCA. The separation began in October 2015 with a restructuring that established Ferrari N. V. as the new holding company of the Ferrari group and the subsequent sale by FCA of 10% of the shares in an IPO and concurrent listing of common shares on the New York Stock Exchange. Through the remaining steps of the separation, FCA's interest in Ferrari's business was distributed to shareholders of FCA, with 10% continuing to be owned by Piero Ferrari.
The spin-off was completed on 3 January 2016. Throughout its history, the company has been noted for its continued participation in racing in Formula One, where it is the oldest and most successful racing team, holding the most constructors championships and having produced the highest number of drivers' championship wins. Ferrari road cars are seen as a symbol of speed and wealth. Enzo Ferrari was not interested in the idea of producing road cars when he formed Scuderia Ferrari in 1929, with headquarters in Modena. Scuderia Ferrari means "Ferrari Stable" and is used to mean "Team Ferrari." Ferrari bought and fielded Alfa Romeo racing cars for gentleman drivers, functioning as the racing division of Alfa Romeo. In 1933, Alfa Romeo withdrew its in-house racing team and Scuderia Ferrari took over as its works team: the Scuderia received Alfa's Grand Prix cars of the latest specifications and fielded many famous drivers such as Tazio Nuvolari and Achille Varzi. In 1938, Alfa Romeo brought its racing operation again in-house, forming Alfa Corse in Milan and hired Enzo Ferrari as manager of the new racing department.
In September 1939, Ferrari left Alfa Romeo under the provision he would not use the Ferrari name in association with races or racing cars for at least four years. A few days he founded Auto Avio Costruzioni, headquartered in the facilities of the old Scuderia Ferrari; the new company ostensibly produced machine tools and aircraft accessories. In 1940, Ferrari produced a race car – the Tipo 815, based on a Fiat platform, it was the first Ferrari car and debuted at the 1940 Mille Miglia, but due to World War II it saw little competition. In 1943, the Ferrari factory moved to Maranello, where it has remained since; the factory was bombed by the Allies and subsequently rebuilt including a works for road car production. The first Ferrari-badged car was the 1947 125 S, powered by a 1.5 L V12 engine. The Scuderia Ferrari name was resurrected to denote the factory racing cars and distinguish them from those fielded by customer teams. In 1960 the company was restructured as a public corporation under the name SEFAC S.p.
A.. Early in 1969, Fiat took a 50% stake in Ferrari. An immediate result was an increase in available investment funds, work started at once on a factory extension intended to transfer production from Fiat's Turin plant of the Ferrari engined Fiat Dino. New model investment further up in the Ferrari range received a boost. In 1988, Enzo Ferrari oversaw the launch of the Ferrari F40, the last new Ferrari launched before his death that year. In 1989, the company was renamed Ferrari S.p. A. From 2002 to 2004, Ferrari produced the Enzo, their fastest model at the time, introduced and named in honor of the company's founder, Enzo Ferrari, it was to be called the F60, continuing on from the F40 and F50, but Ferrari was so pleased with it, they called it the Enzo instead. It was offered to loyal and recurring customers, each of the 399 made had a price tag of $650,000 apiece. On 15 September 2012, 964 Ferrari cars attended the Ferrari Driving Days event at Silverstone Circuit and paraded round the Silverstone Circuit setting a world record.
Ferrari's former CEO and Chairman, Luca di Montezemolo, resigned from the company after 23 years, succeeded by Amedeo Felisa and on 3 May 2016 Amedeo resigned and was succeeded by Sergio Marchionne, CEO and Chairman of Fiat Chrysler Automobiles, Ferrari's parent company. In July 2018, Marchionne was replaced by board member Louis Camilleri as CEO and by John Elkann as chairman. On 29 October 2014, the FCA group, resulting from the merger between manufacturers Fiat and Chrysler, announced the split of its luxury brand, Ferrari; the aim is to turn Ferrari into an independent brand which 10% of stake will be sold in an IPO in 2015. Ferrari priced its initial public offering at $52 a share after the market close on 20 October 2015. Since the company's beginnings, Ferrari has been involved in motorsport, competing in a range of categories including Formula One and sports car racing through its Scuderia Ferrari sporting division as well as supplying cars and engines to other t
Ferrari 250 GTO
The Ferrari 250 GTO is a GT car produced by Ferrari from 1962 to 1964 for homologation into the FIA's Group 3 Grand Touring Car category. It was powered by Ferrari's Tipo 168/62 Colombo V12 engine; the "250" in its name denotes the displacement in cubic centimeters of each of its cylinders. Just 36 of the 250 GTOs were manufactured between 1962 and 1964; this includes 33 cars with 1962-63 bodywork and three with 1964 bodywork similar to the Ferrari 250 LM. Four of the older 1962-1963 cars were updated in 1964 with Series II bodies; when new, the GTO cost $18,000 in the United States, with buyers approved by Enzo Ferrari and his dealer for North America, Luigi Chinetti. In October 2013, Connecticut-based collector Paul Pappalardo sold chassis number 5111GT to an unnamed buyer for a new record of around $52 million. In June 2018, the 1963 250 GTO set an all-time record selling price of $70 million. In 2004, Sports Car International placed the 250 GTO eighth on a list of Top Sports Cars of the 1960s, nominated it the top sports car of all time.
Motor Trend Classic placed the 250 GTO first on a list of the "Greatest Ferraris of All Time." Popular Mechanics named it the "Hottest Car of All Time." The 250 GTO was designed to compete in Group 3 GT racing, where its rivals would include the Shelby Cobra, Jaguar E-Type and Aston Martin DP214. The development of the 250 GTO was headed by chief engineer Giotto Bizzarrini. Although Bizzarrini is credited as the designer of the 250 GTO, he and most other Ferrari engineers were fired in 1962 due to a dispute with Enzo Ferrari. Further development of the 250 GTO was overseen by new engineer Mauro Forghieri, who worked with Scaglietti to continue development of the body; the design of the car can not be ascribed to a single person. The mechanical aspects of 250 GTO were conservative at the time of its introduction, using engine and chassis components that were proven in earlier competition cars; the chassis of the car was based on that of the 250 GT SWB, with minor differences in frame structure and geometry to reduce weight and lower the chassis.
The car was built around a hand-welded oval tube frame, incorporating A-arm front suspension, rear live-axle with Watt's linkage, disc brakes, Borrani wire wheels. The engine was the race-proven Tipo 168/62 Comp. 3.0 L V12 as used in the 250 Testa Rossa Le Mans winner. An all-alloy design utilizing a dry sump and six 38DCN Weber carburetors, it produced 300 PS at 7500 rpm and 294 N⋅m; the gearbox was a new 5-speed unit with Porsche-type synchromesh. Bizzarrini focused his design effort on the car's aerodynamics in an attempt to improve top speed and stability; the body design was informed by wind tunnel testing at Pisa University as well as road and track testing with several prototypes. The resulting all-aluminium bodywork had a long, low nose, small radiator inlet, distinctive air intakes on the nose with removable covers. Early testing resulted in the addition of a rear spoiler; the underside of the car was covered by a belly pan and had an additional spoiler underneath formed by the fuel tank cover.
The aerodynamic design of the 250 GTO was a major technical innovation compared to previous Ferrari GT cars, in line with contemporary developments by manufacturers such as Lotus. The bodies were constructed by Scaglietti, with the exception of early prototypes with bodies constructed in-house by Ferrari or by Pininfarina. Cars were produced in many colours, with the most famous being the bright red "Rosso Cina"; the minimalist interior of a 250 GTO reflects the car's racing intentions. There is no speedometer, seats are cloth-upholstered, neither carpeting nor a headliner was installed. Cockpit ventilation is via exterior air inlets; the exposed metal gate defining the shift pattern became a Ferrari tradition maintained in production models until replaced by steering column-mounted paddle shifters in the 2000s. Handbuild production and repairs throughout each car's competition history result in differences both visible and invisible between individual 250 GTOs. Variance in air intake/vent configuration is common among cars.
Modifications to the original bodywork were performed by the factory, Scaglietti, or other body shops after crashes or according to a racing team's wishes. In 1964, Ferrari tasked Mauro Forghieri and Mike Parkes with redesigning the 250 GTO's bodywork, resulting in what became known as the GTO'64. Three new cars were produced to the 1964 specification, four earlier 250 GTOs were retrofitted to it by the factory; this redesign was intended to maintain the GTO's competitiveness for one more year, as the FIA decided to not approve the 250 LM for GT-class racing during the 1964 season. The Ferrari engineers incorporated many of the 250LM's aerodynamic features into the 1964 GTO; this resulted in a visual similarity between the two models though the GTO does not share the 250LM's mid engine rear wheel drive layout. The factory made minor modifications to the engine, chassis and interior. Despite these changes, the overall performance improvement was slight; the GTO'64 still saw some racing success with factory and privateer teams, including an overall win at Daytona in 1964 by Phil Hill and Pedro Rodriguez driving for NART.
Three 330 GTO specials were made using the 250 GTO chassis and body fitted with 400 Superamerica 4.0L motors. Distinguished by a larger bonnet bulge, these cars were used for racing and testing by Scuderia Ferrari before being sold to private customers; the 330 LMB is s