A bullet is a kinetic projectile and the component of firearm ammunition, expelled from the gun barrel during shooting. The term is from Middle French and originated as the diminutive of the word boulle, which means "small ball". Bullets are made of a variety of materials such as copper, steel, polymer and wax, they are available either singly as in muzzleloading and cap and ball firearms or as a component of paper cartridges, but much more in the form of metallic cartridges. Bullets are made in a large number of shapes and constructions depending on the intended applications, including specialized functions such as hunting, target shooting and combat. Though the word "bullet" is used incorrectly in colloquial language to refer to a cartridge round, a bullet is not a cartridge but rather a component of one. A round of ammunition cartridge is a combination package of the bullet, the case, the propellant and the primer; this use of the term "bullet" when intending to describe a cartridge leads to confusion when the components of a cartridge are referred to.
Bullet sizes are expressed by their weights and diameters in both imperial and metric measurement systems. For example: 55 grain.223 caliber bullets are of the same weight and caliber as 3.56 gram 5.56mm caliber bullets. The bullets used in many cartridges are fired at muzzle velocities faster than the speed of sound — about 343 metres per second in dry air at 20 °C — and thus can travel a substantial distance to a target before a nearby observer hears the sound of the shot; the sound of gunfire is accompanied with a loud bullwhip-like crack as the supersonic bullet pierces through the air creating a sonic boom. Bullet speeds at various stages of flight depend on intrinsic factors such as its sectional density, aerodynamic profile and ballistic coefficient, extrinsic factors such as barometric pressure, air temperature and wind speed. Subsonic cartridges fire bullets slower than the speed of sound; this means that a subsonic cartridge, such as.45 ACP, can be quieter than a supersonic cartridge such as the.223 Remington without the use of a suppressor.
Bullets do not contain explosives, but damage the intended target by transferring kinetic energy upon impact and penetration. The first use of gunpowder in Europe was recorded in 1247, it had been used in China for hundreds of years. The cannon appeared in 1327. In 1364, the hand cannon appeared. Early projectiles were made of stone. Stone was used in hand cannon. In cannon it was found that stone would not penetrate stone fortifications which gave rise to the use of heavier metals for the round projectiles. Hand cannon projectiles developed in a similar fashion following the failure of stone from siege cannon; the first recorded instance of a metal ball from a hand cannon penetrating armor occurred in 1425. In this photograph of shot retrieved from the wreck of the Mary Rose, sunk in 1545 and raised in 1982; the round shot are of different sizes and some are stone while others are cast iron. The development of the hand culverin and matchlock arquebus brought about the use of cast lead balls as projectiles.
"Bullet" is derived from the French word boulette, which means "little ball". The original round musket ball was smaller than the bore of the barrel, it was loaded into the barrel first, just resting upon the powder, using some sort of material as a wadding, between the ball and the powder as well as over the ball to keep it in place, it held the bullet in the barrel and against the powder. The loading of muskets was, easy with the old smooth-bore Brown Bess and similar military muskets; the original muzzle-loading rifle, was loaded with a piece of leather or cloth wrapped around the ball, to allow the ball to engage the grooves in the barrel. Loading was a bit more difficult when the bore of the barrel was fouled from previous firings. For this reason, because rifles were not fitted for a bayonet, early rifles were not used for military purposes; the first half of the nineteenth century saw a distinct change in the shape and function of the bullet. In 1826, Henri-Gustave Delvigne, a French infantry officer, invented a breech with abrupt shoulders on which a spherical bullet was rammed down until it caught the rifling grooves.
Delvigne's method, deformed the bullet and was inaccurate. Square bullets have origins that pre-date civilization and were used by slingers in slings, they were made out of copper or lead. The most notable use of square bullet designs was done by, James Puckle and Kyle Tunis who patented them, where they were used in one version of the Puckle gun; the early use of these in the black-powder era was soon discontinued due to irregular and unpredictable flight patterns. Delvigne continued to develop bullet design and by 1830 had started to develop cylindro-conical bullets, his bullet designs were improved by Francois Tamisier with the addition of "ball grooves" which are known as "cannelures", these moved the resistance of air behind the center of gravity of the bullet. Tamisier developed progressive rifling; the rifle grooves were deeper toward the breech, becoming shallower as they progressed toward the muzzle. This causes the bullet to be progressively molded into the grooves which incre
ABC Radio National, known on-air as RN, is an Australia-wide Public Service Broadcasting radio network run by the Australian Broadcasting Corporation. Radio National broadcasts national programming in subjects that include news and current affairs, the arts, social issues, science and comedy; some programs are relayed on Radio Australia, the ABC's international international broadcasting service, transmitted on shortwave until January 2017. Radio National has 327 transmitter sites and covers over 98% of the permanently inhabited areas of Australia. Remote areas are served by satellite service. All radio programs are available for live streaming over the Internet, most as audio-on-demand, or for download as MP3s for at least four weeks after broadcast; some programs are available as MP3s going back to 2005. From 1928, the National Broadcasting Service, as part of the federal Postmaster-General's Department took over responsibility for all the existing stations that were sponsored by public licence fees.
The outsourced Australian Broadcasting Company supplied programs from 1929. In 1932 a commission was established, merging the original ABC company and the National Broadcasting Service, it is from this time that Radio National dates as a distinct network within the ABC, in which a system of program relays was developed during the subsequent decades to link stations spread across the nation. Radio National's Sydney station 2FC first test broadcast on 5 December 1923 and went to air on 9 January 1924. 2FC stood for the original owner of the station before the ABC took it over. The origins of the other stations in the network were: 3AR Melbourne – 26 January 1924 "Associated Radio Company of Australia", organized by Esmond Laurence Kiernan and others. 5CL Adelaide – 20 November 1924 "Central Broadcasters Ltd" 7ZL Hobart – 17 December 1924 4QG Brisbane – 27 July 1925 "Queensland Government" 6WN Perth – 5 October 1938 "Wanneroo" 2CY Canberra – 23 December 1938 2NA Newcastle – 20 December 1943The first transmitters for 2FC, 5CL and 4QG were made by AWA with power of 5 kW.
They used a MT7A valve for a MT7B for the modulator. The power supply was 12,000 volts from three phase power rectified by MR7 valves. Note that 4QG commenced with a 500 Watt transmitter which continued for about 6 months until the 5 kW unit was commissioned; the radio transmitters for 3AR and 2FC were upgraded to 10 kW in a contract let in 1938 to STC. The transmitters were designed by Charles Strong in London, were notable in using negative feedback to ensure a high quality flat frequency response. From 1947 until the mid-1980s, "Radio 2" was broadcast to the major metropolitan centres, with a large broadcast footprint in adjacent areas due to the powerful AM transmitters in use, it contained most of the ABC's national programming. The power level of 2FC and 3AR was upgraded to 50 kW in the early 1950s; the transmitters for these were housed in the same building as the radio 1 network. They were manufactured by STC; the final stage contained three parallel 3J/261E air cooled triodes running in class C amplifier at 90% efficiency.
These were driven by a class B push-pull modulator with the same type of valves. That of 5CL had to wait until late 1961. In the 1970s, the network's program format began to take on a more serious tone, a style which continues to this day. Art critic Peter Timm remarked that the network is "virtually the only non-print media forum for art in this country."In the early 1980s the broadcast footprint was extended with the construction of the first of over 300 regional FM transmitters. In 1985, the ABC renamed "Radio 2" as "Radio National". Since 1990, all Radio National stations have had the same callsign format, Radio National preceded by the appropriate number for the state or territory, sometimes followed by the locality; as a result of cuts in the 1996–97 budget, Radio National was hit with a reduction of a million dollars in its funding, with a significant impact on programming. In January 2012 Radio National was rebranded as RN in recognition of the stations growing digital audience. RN has been used as shorthand for the station's name by many presenters going back several years.
The stations tagline, which has changed over the years, was changed to "Your World Unfolding" to mesh with the station's new logo and visual identity. In January 2017 the schedule has been reduced in scope due to loss of staff and programmes; the times shown relate to Radio National's schedules in the eastern states of Australia. Pre-recorded shows are broadcast on time delay in the west. Full program guides for all regions are published on the RN website. AM, The World Today, PM: in-depth news and analysis Correspondents Report: in-depth news and analysis Asia Pacific: current regional affairs in the Asia Pacific region, from ABC Radio Australia Breakfast: "comprehensive coverage and analysis of national and international events - serious, fun and diverse" hosted by Fran Kelly RN Drive: "With fresh p
National Movement (Poland)
National Movement, abbreviated to RN, is a political party, first formed as an electoral alliance of far-right and right-wing populist political movements in Poland, which have signed an ideological agreement, including movements National Radical Camp and the All-Polish Youth, conservative-liberal Real Politics Union, the only political party taking part in the agreement. The party was formed after the Polish Independence March in 2012; the First Congress of the National Movement took place on June 2013 in Warsaw. Guest of honor at the congress was Rafał Ziemkiewicz. Representatives of the groups co-create the movement signed the declaration of ideological National Movement; the Second Congress of the National Movement took place May 2014 in Warsaw. Honorary guests of the congress were Leszek Zebrowski, Stanislaw Michalkiewicz and Márton Gyöngyösi of the Hungarian Jobbik; the guest list included the party's other international allies: Roberto Fiore of Forza Nuova', the leaders of the Spanish Democracia Nacional.
The congress passed the following demands of the program: combination of income tax and social insurance contributions elimination of Social Security "Citizen Retirement Programme" tax-free sum granted for each child in the family reduction of income tax levied on micro and medium-sized businesses restoration of turnover tax in lieu of corporate income tax the establishment of a constitutional debt which limits public finances full transparency of public finances re-equip the Polish Army the introduction of a universal territorial defense unit and a watchtower in every borough widen the access to weapons ensure the constitution guarantees national ownership of Polish land denunciation of the Treaty of Lisbon and replace it with a "Sovereignty Treaty" termination of the energy-climate agreements and the European Fiscal Compact promotion of Polish history in the world public combat of the so-called "ideology of gender" striving for energy independence As adopted in the January 2013 declaration of ideology, the decision-making council of the National Movement has indicated its three main components: identity and freedom.
National Movement advocates fight for the sovereignty of the country, to repair the political and economic state and defending the freedom of its citizens, as well as the realisation in the sphere of culture and politics of traditional values. The purpose of the Movement is a fundamental social change - the so-called. "Overthrow of the republic of the Round Table". Declares itself as a social movement, a network of community initiatives for state sovereignty and national identity. In the absence of hierarchical and organisational dependencies, the movement will be guided by the common symbols, the demands of the electorate. One of the symbols is the image of the nationalist right, which formed in the struggle for Polish independence. For most of the activists of the Movement such symbols are soldiers of the army of the underground National Armed Forces, who fought during World War II and after the war against the German and Soviet occupation. National Armed Forces, founded by the military part of the underground organisation nationalist camp in 1942 declared obedience to submit to the Army.
Among the soldiers of the National Armed Forces of the Supervisory Board sees its historical similarity and should continue to operate. Fundamental important dates to the Movement is the day commemorating the creation of the National Armed Forces attributable to 22 September, the anniversary of Captain Witold Pilecki's death sentence and 1 March - National Day of Remembrance "Soldiers accursed" and attributable to the November 11 march Independence. National Movement is trying to commemorate the anniversary of the imposition of martial law and the 1981 workers' uprising in Poznań in 1956. National Movement, a coalition of independent groups, presents a conservative position on social issues. According to the program, decided at the second congress of 2014 the movement traditional ally of the Catholic Church and will strive to uphold traditional Christian values; the movement refers to the tradition and heritage of ancient Rome. The progress of civilisation, to take place in Poland thanks to EU funds, is treated as a partial compensation for the losses that Poland suffered in connection with the unilateral opening of the market in the pre-accession period, while Polish banking sector depends on foreign capital.
The outline of the economic program was presented by Krzysztof Bosak during the second congress of the Movement. According to the RN, it is possible to combine a wide range of economic freedoms with constructive approach to the state, furnished on the basis of the principles of thrift and subsidiarity; the establishment of the Institute for National Strategy, will bring together experts and work out a modern program for the National Movement. The movement is opposed to the introduction of the euro in Poland; the National Movement is assumed to be a eurosceptic grouping. In a joint statement with the Hungarian Jobbik on the situation in Ukraine, they have indicated a desire to deepen cooperation betwe
Kirundi known as Rundi, is a Bantu language spoken by 9 million people in Burundi and adjacent parts of Tanzania and the Democratic Republic of the Congo, as well as in Uganda. It is the official language of Burundi. Kirundi is mutually intelligible with Kinyarwanda, an official language of Rwanda, the two form part of the wider dialect continuum known as Rwanda-Rundi; the inhabitants of Rwanda and Burundi belong to several different ethnic groups: Hutu, including Bakiga and other related ethnicities. Kirundi is natively spoken by the Hutu, although the other ethnic groups present in the country such as Tutsi and Hima among others have adopted the language. Neighbouring dialects of Kirundi are mutually intelligible with Ha, a language spoken in western Tanzania. Kirundi is one of the languages where Meeussen's rule, a rule describing a certain pattern of tonal change in Bantu languages, is active. Although the literature on Rundi agrees on 5 vowels, the number of consonants can vary anywhere from 19 to 26 consonants.
The table below is compiled from a survey of academic acceptance of Rundi consonants. The table below gives the vowel sounds of Rundi. All five vowels occur in short forms; the distinction is phonemic. Rundi is a tonal language. There are two essential tones in Rundi: low. Since Rundi has phonemic distinction on vowel length, when a long vowel changes from a low tone to a high tone it is marked as a rising tone; when a long vowel changes from a high tone to a low tone, it is marked as a falling tone. Rundi is used in phonology to illustrate examples of Meeussen's rule In addition, it has been proposed that tones can shift by a metrical or rhythmic structure; some authors have expanded these more complex features of the tonal system noting that such properties are unusual for a tone system. Syllable structure in Rundi is considered to be CV, having no clusters, no coda consonants, no complex vowel nuclei, it has been proposed that sequences that are CVV in the surface realization are CV in the underlying deep structure, with the consonant coalescing with the first vowel.
Rundi has been shown to have properties of consonant harmony when it comes to sibilants. Meeussen described this harmony in his essay and it is investigated further by others. One example of this harmony is triggered by /ʃ/ and /ʒ/ and targets the set of /s/ and /z/ in preceding adjacent stem syllables. Broselow, E. & Niyondagara, A. "Feature geometry of Kirundi palatalization". Studies in the Linguistic Sciences 20: 71-88. De Samie. Dictionnaire Francais-Kirundi. L'Harmattan. Paris. Goldsmith, J. & Sabimana, F. The Kirundi Verb. Modèles en tonologie. Editions du CNRS. Paris. Meeussen, A. E. Essai de grammaire Rundi. Annales du Musée Royal du Congo Belge, Série Sciences Humaines – Linguistique, vol. 24. Tervuren. Myers, S. Tone and the structure of words in Shona. PhD dissertation, University of Massachusetts, Amherst. Garland Press. New York. Ntihirageza, J. Kirundi Palatization and Sibilant Harmony: Implications for Feature Geometry. Master thesis, Southern Illinois University, Illinois. Philippson, G. Tone reduction vs. metrical attraction in the evolution of Eastern Bantu tone systems.
INALCO. Paris. Sagey, E; the Representation of Features and Relations in Non-Linear Phonology. Doctoral dissertation, MIT, Mass. Zorc, R. D. & Nibagwire, L. Kinyarwanda and Kirundi Comparative Grammar. Dunwoody Press. Hyattsville. Online English-Kirundi Dictionary with Sound and Images Free English-Kirundi Dictionary Free Kirundi-English Dictionary PanAfrican L10n page on Kirundi... Learning Kirundi Online Kirundi/English dictionary USA Foreign Service Institute Kirundi basic course
Richard Milhous Nixon was an American politician who served as the 37th president of the United States from 1969 to 1974. He had served as the 36th vice president of the United States from 1953 to 1961, prior to that as both a U. S. representative and senator from California. Nixon was born in California. After completing his undergraduate studies at Whittier College, he graduated from Duke University School of Law in 1937 and returned to California to practice law, he and his wife Pat moved to Washington in 1942 to work for the federal government. He subsequently served on active duty in the U. S. Navy Reserve during World War II. Nixon was elected to the House of Representatives in 1946 and to the Senate in 1950, his pursuit of the Hiss Case established his reputation as a leading anti-communist and elevated him to national prominence. He was the running mate of Dwight D. Eisenhower, the Republican Party presidential nominee in the 1952 election. Nixon served for eight years as Vice President, becoming the second-youngest vice president in history at age 40.
He waged an unsuccessful presidential campaign in 1960, narrowly losing to John F. Kennedy, lost a race for governor of California to Pat Brown in 1962. In 1968, he ran for the presidency again and was elected, defeating incumbent Vice President Hubert Humphrey. Nixon ended American involvement in the war in Vietnam in 1973 and brought the American POWs home, ended the military draft. Nixon's visit to China in 1972 led to diplomatic relations between the two nations and he initiated détente and the Anti-Ballistic Missile Treaty with the Soviet Union the same year, his administration transferred power from Washington D. C. to the states. He imposed wage and price controls for ninety days, enforced desegregation of Southern schools, established the Environmental Protection Agency and began the War on Cancer. Nixon presided over the Apollo 11 moon landing, which signaled the end of the moon race, he was reelected in one of the largest electoral landslides in U. S. history in 1972 when he defeated George McGovern.
In his second term, Nixon ordered an airlift to resupply Israeli losses in the Yom Kippur War, resulting in the restart of the Middle East peace process and an oil crisis at home. The Nixon administration supported a coup in Chile that ousted the government of Salvador Allende and propelled Augusto Pinochet to power. By late 1973, the Watergate scandal escalated. On August 9, 1974, he resigned in the face of certain impeachment and removal from office—the only time a U. S. president has done so. After his resignation, he was issued a controversial pardon by Gerald Ford. In 20 years of retirement, Nixon wrote nine books and undertook many foreign trips, helping to rehabilitate his image into that of an elder statesman, he suffered a debilitating stroke on April 18, 1994 and died four days at the age of 81. Richard Milhous Nixon was born on January 9, 1913 in Yorba Linda, California, in a house, built by his father, his parents were Francis A. Nixon, his mother was a Quaker, his father converted from Methodism to the Quaker faith.
Nixon was a descendant of the early American settler, Thomas Cornell, an ancestor of Ezra Cornell, the founder of Cornell University, as well as of Jimmy Carter and Bill Gates. Nixon's upbringing was marked by evangelical Quaker observances of the time, such as refraining from alcohol and swearing. Nixon had four brothers: Harold, Donald and Edward. Four of the five Nixon boys were named after kings who had ruled in legendary Britain. Nixon's early life was marked by hardship, he quoted a saying of Eisenhower to describe his boyhood: "We were poor, but the glory of it was we didn't know it"; the Nixon family ranch failed in 1922, the family moved to Whittier, California. In an area with many Quakers, Frank Nixon opened a grocery gas station. Richard's younger brother. At the age of twelve, a spot was found on Richard's lung, with a family history of tuberculosis, he was forbidden to play sports; the spot was found to be scar tissue from an early bout of pneumonia. Young Richard attended East Whittier Elementary School, where he was president of his eighth-grade class.
His parents believed that attending Whittier High School had caused Richard's older brother Harold to live a dissolute lifestyle before he fell ill of tuberculosis, so they sent Richard to the larger Fullerton Union High School. He had to ride a school bus for an hour each way during his freshman year, he received excellent grades, he lived with an aunt in Fullerton during the week. He played junior varsity football, missed a practice though he was used in games, he had greater success as a debater, winning a number of championships and taking his only formal tutelage in public speaking from Fullerton's Head of English, H. Lynn Sheller. Nixon remembered Sheller's words, "Remember, speaking is conversation... don't shout at people. Talk to them. Converse with them." Nixon stated. At the start of his junior year beginning in September 1928, Richard's parents permitted him to transfer to Whittier High School. At Whittier High, Nixon suffered his first electoral defeat, for student body president, he rose at 4 a.m. to drive the family truck into Los Angeles and purchase vegetables at the market.
He drove to the store to wash and display them, befo
National Rally (France)
The National Rally, until June 2018 known as the National Front, is a right-wing populist and nationalist political party in France. Most political commentators place the RN on the far-right, but other sources suggest that the party's position on the political spectrum has become more difficult to define clearly. Owing to the French electoral system, the party's representation in public office has been limited despite its significant share of the vote, its major policies include opposition to French membership in NATO, European Union, the Schengen Area, the Eurozone. As an anti-European Union party, the National Rally has opposed the European Union since its creation; the party supports greater government intervention in the economy, protectionism, a zero tolerance approach to law and order, significant cuts to legal immigration. The party was founded in 1972 to unify a variety of French nationalist movements of the time. Jean-Marie Le Pen was the party's first leader and the undisputed centre of the party from its start until his resignation in 2011.
While the party struggled as a marginal force for its first ten years, since 1984 it has been the major force of French nationalism. The 2002 presidential election was the first in France to include a National Front candidate in the run-off after Jean-Marie Le Pen beat the Socialist candidate in the first round. In the run-off, he finished a distant second to Jacques Chirac, his daughter Marine Le Pen was elected to succeed him. In April 2017, she temporarily stepped down in order to concentrate on being the presidential candidate and to unite voters. While her father was nicknamed the "Devil of the Republic" by mainstream media, Marine Le Pen pursued a policy of "de-demonisation" of the party by softening its image, she endeavoured to extract it from its far-right cultural roots, to normalise it by giving it a culture of government, censuring controversial members like her father, suspended, expelled from the party in 2015. Since her election as the leader of the party in 2011, the popularity of the FN continued to grow apace as the party won several municipalities at the 2014 municipal elections.
The party once again came in first place in the 2015 regional elections with a historic result of just under 28% of the vote. By 2015, the FN had established itself as one of the largest political forces in France, unusually being both most popular and most controversial political party. At the party congress on 11 March 2018, Marine Le Pen proposed renaming the party to Rassemblement national, pending approval by a vote of party members. On 1 June 2018, she announced the renaming of the party after its approval by 80.81% of the party's adherents. The party maintains. One of the primary progenitors of the party was the Action Française, founded at the end of the 19th century, its descendants in the Restauration Nationale, a pro-monarchy group that supports the claim of the Count of Paris to the French throne. More the party drew from the Poujadism of the 1950s, which started out as an anti-tax movement without relations to the right-wing, but included among its parliamentary deputies "proto-nationalists" such as Jean-Marie Le Pen.
Another conflict, part of the party's background was the Algerian War, the right-wing dismay over the decision by French President Charles de Gaulle to abandon his promise of holding on to French Algeria. In the 1965 presidential election, Le Pen unsuccessfully attempted to consolidate the right-wing vote around the right-wing presidential candidate Jean-Louis Tixier-Vignancour. During the late 1960s and early 1970s, the French far-right consisted of small extreme movements such as Occident, Groupe Union Défense, the Ordre Nouveau. While the ON had competed in some local elections since 1970, at its second congress in June 1972 it decided to establish a new political party to contest the 1973 legislative elections; the party was launched on 5 October 1972 under the name National Front for French Unity, or Front National. In order to create a broad movement, the ON sought to model the new party on the more established Italian Social Movement, which at the time appeared to establish a broad coalition for the Italian right.
The FN adopted a French version of the MSI tricolour flame as its logo. It wanted to unite the various French far-right currents, brought together Le Pen's nationalist group, Roger Holeindre's Party of French Unity, Georges Bidault's Justice and Liberty movement, former Poujadists, Algerian War veterans, some monarchists, among others. Le Pen was chosen to be the first president of the party, as he was untainted with the militant public image of the ON and was a moderate figure on the far-right; the National Front fared poorly in the 1973 legislative elections, receiving 0.5% of the national vote. In 1973 the party created a youth movement, the Front national de la jeunesse; the rhetoric used in the campaign stressed old far-right themes and was uninspiring to the electorate at the time. Otherwise, its official program at this point was moderate, differing little from
Newline is a control character or sequence of control characters in a character encoding specification, used to signify the end of a line of text and the start of a new one. Text editors set this special character; when displaying a text file, this control character causes the text editor to show the following characters in a new line. In the mid-1800s, long before the advent of teleprinters and teletype machines, Morse code operators or telegraphists invented and used Morse code prosigns to encode white space text formatting in formal written text messages. In particular the Morse prosign represented by the concatenation of two literal textual Morse code "A" characters sent without the normal inter-character spacing is used in Morse code to encode and indicate a new line in a formal text message. In the age of modern teleprinters standardized character set control codes were developed to aid in white space text formatting. ASCII was developed by the International Organization for Standardization and the American Standards Association, the latter being the predecessor organization to American National Standards Institute.
During the period of 1963 to 1968, the ISO draft standards supported the use of either CR+LF or LF alone as a newline, while the ASA drafts supported only CR+LF. The sequence CR+LF was used on many early computer systems that had adopted Teletype machines—typically a Teletype Model 33 ASR—as a console device, because this sequence was required to position those printers at the start of a new line; the separation of newline into two functions concealed the fact that the print head could not return from the far right to the beginning of the next line in time to print the next character. Any character printed after a CR would print as a smudge in the middle of the page while the print head was still moving the carriage back to the first position. "The solution was to make the newline two characters: CR to move the carriage to column one, LF to move the paper up." In fact, it was necessary to send extra characters—extraneous CRs or NULs—which are ignored but give the print head time to move to the left margin.
Many early video displays required multiple character times to scroll the display. On such systems, applications had to talk directly to the Teletype machine and follow its conventions since the concept of device drivers hiding such hardware details from the application was not yet well developed. Therefore, text was composed to satisfy the needs of Teletype machines. Most minicomputer systems from DEC used this convention. CP/M used it in order to print on the same terminals that minicomputers used. From there MS-DOS adopted CP/M's CR+LF in order to be compatible, this convention was inherited by Microsoft's Windows operating system; the Multics operating system used LF alone as its newline. Multics used a device driver to translate this character to whatever sequence a printer needed, the single byte was more convenient for programming. What seems like a more obvious choice—CR—was not used, as CR provided the useful function of overprinting one line with another to create boldface and strikethrough effects.
More the use of LF alone as a line terminator had been incorporated into drafts of the eventual ISO/IEC 646 standard. Unix followed the Multics practice, Unix-like systems followed Unix; the concepts of line feed and carriage return are associated, can be considered either separately or together. In the physical media of typewriters and printers, two axes of motion, "down" and "across", are needed to create a new line on the page. Although the design of a machine must consider them separately, the abstract logic of software can combine them together as one event; this is why a newline in character encoding can be defined as CR combined into one. Some character sets provide a separate newline character code. EBCDIC, for example, provides an NL character code in addition to the LF codes. Unicode, in addition to providing the ASCII CR and LF control codes provides a "next line" control code, as well as control codes for "line separator" and "paragraph separator" markers. Software applications and operating systems represent a newline with one or two control characters: EBCDIC systems—mainly IBM mainframe systems, including z/OS and i5/OS —use NL as the character combining the functions of line-feed and carriage-return.
The equivalent UNICODE character is called NEL. EBCDIC has control characters called CR and LF, but the numerical value of LF differs from the one used by ASCII. Additionally, some EBCDIC variants use NL but assign a different numeric code to the character. However, those operating systems use a record-based file system, which stores text files as one record per line. In most file formats, no line terminators are stored. Operating systems for the CDC 6000 series defined a newline as two or more zero-valued six-bit characters at the end of a 60-bit word; some configurations defined a zero-valued character as a colon character, with the result that multiple colons could be interpreted as a newline depending on position. RSX-11 and OpenVMS use a record-based file system, which stores text files as one record per line. In most file formats, no line terminators are stored, but the Record Management Services facility can transparently add a terminator to each line when it is retrieved by