Jean-Pierre Van Rossem
Jean-Pierre Van Rossem was a Belgian criminal, stock market guru, econometrician, philosopher, public figure and member of the Belgian and Flemish Parliaments. Van Rossem studied economics at the University of Gent in 1963-67. With his final term paper'De omloopsnelheid van het geld: theoretische begripsbenadering en praktische toepassing in België' he won the International Scholarship of Flanders-prize and was able to study two years of econometrics under Nobel Prize winner Lawrence Klein at the Wharton School of the University of Pennsylvania. Van Rossem became famous as a stock market guru with'Moneytron', an investment company that could offer endless returns, his customers included the moneyed of Europe, including the Belgian Royal Family. Van Rossem claimed that he had developed a model that could predict the stock market and beat the capitalist system, his sympathies for the theories of Karl Marx did not stop him investing for the wealthy and accumulating 860 million dollars for himself.
At his most successful, Van Rossem owned a yacht, The Destiny, 108 Ferraris and two Falcon 900 aircraft. Everything was sold to pay debts, he printed false shares. In 1991, he was sentenced to five years in prison for fraud. In prison, he wrote a personal diary, published. Van Rossem sponsored a Formula One team in Moneytron Onyx, which placed 10th of the 21 teams; the biggest success he got with his team was 3rd place at the Grand Prix of Portugal with driver Stefan Johansson in 1989. In 1991, Van Rossem founded his own libertarian protest party ROSSEM, according to many, to gain political immunity, because of his problems with the Belgian Courts; the name of the party stood for ‘Radicale Omvormers en Sociale Strijders voor een Eerlijker Maatschappij’. Under the slogans ‘Geen gezwijn, stem libertijn’ &'Geen gezeik iedereen Rijk', ROSSEM got 3.2% of the votes, or 3 seats in the Belgian Federal Parliament in the Parliamentary elections of 24 November 1991. Rossem himself had a seat in the Belgian Chamber of Representatives from November 1991 to May 1995 and the Flemish Parliament from January 1992 to May 1995.
In 2014 he went back to the elections with his party ROSSEM but lost with only 0.3% of the votes for the Belgian Federal Parliament and 0.2% for the Flemish Parliament. At the coronation ceremony of King Albert II of Belgium, he shouted'Vive la république d'Europe, vive Lahaut', as a reference to Julien Lahaut, who had shouted'Vive la république' in 1950 at the coronation of Baudouin of Belgium. Van Rossem was against the Belgian monarchy. In 2004 Van Rossem was a guest on the Dutch television show Het Grote Complot – De Wereld Verklaard and offended the Dutch Prime Minister Balkenende by calling him a "dick." Jean-Pierre Van Rossem had cameo roles in the comics series The Adventures of Nero by Marc Sleen, more the albums Nerorock and De Man van Europa. Around the same time he was featured in his own celebrity comics series, scripted by himself and drawn by Erik Meynen. Van Rossem claimed to have met Osama Bin Laden in 1988 at the "Baharain Middle East Bank" in Saudi Arabia. In 2002 the Extreme Right Politician Wim Verreycken compared Rossem, along with the murder of Dutch politician Pim Fortuyn, as political stunts during a meeting of the Belgian Senate.
Van Rossem used the services of a cryogenics company to get his first wife, dying of cancer, cryogenized so she might be revived at a time when the cure would be found. After a few years however, due to financial problems he was unable to pay the costs anymore so he "pulled the plug". Slot Car Racing and JP Van Rossem: Van Rossem put an extraordinary amount of time into slot car racing, including hosting major races in Europe and the United States, where he covered all costs of flying top-rated racers to his races, he bought a raceway in Chicago where he put on races called "The Worlds" in 1988 and 1989. Thousands of dollars were given in prizes, including two Pontiac Fieros. Hoe genezen we onze zieke ekonomie? Moneytron: How the system works Is Outperformance of Security Markets Possible with Modern Econometrics? Staat in staat van ontbinding Proces in duplo Mister Junkie & Sister Morphine Sonate voor een blauwe vuurtoren Libertijns Manifest Libertijnse Breekpunten: wat willen Libertijnen Een dode zwaan in Tann De schat van de Arme Klavers Hoe word ik stinkend rijk?: Van Rossems beleggings- en belastinggids editie 1993 Wie vermoordde André Cools?
Hoe kom ik van de grond?: Van Rossems Sex- en Bordelengids De nacht van Christus-Koning Gevangenisdagboek De dag van de nachtschade Brigitte, of Het hart van de engel De maquette: verslag De onkuise kuisheid van de Boccaccio: studie van het postmoderne nachtleven Crisis: Hoe lossen we het op? De engel in de duivel Belgisch uranium voor de eerste Amerikaanse en Russische atoombommen Official website
Libertarianism is a collection of political philosophies and movements that uphold liberty as a core principle. Libertarians seek to maximize political freedom and autonomy, emphasizing freedom of choice, voluntary association and individual judgment. Libertarians share a skepticism of authority and state power, but they diverge on the scope of their opposition to existing political and economic systems. Various schools of libertarian thought offer a range of views regarding the legitimate functions of state and private power calling for the restriction or dissolution of coercive social institutions. Traditionally, libertarianism was a term for a form of left-wing politics; such left-libertarian ideologies seek to abolish capitalism and private ownership of the means of production, or else to restrict their purview or effects, in favor of common or cooperative ownership and management, viewing private property as a barrier to freedom and liberty. Classical libertarian ideologies include—but are not limited to—anarcho-communism, anarcho-syndicalism and egoism, alongside many other anti-paternalist, New Left schools of thought centered around economic egalitarianism.
Modern right-libertarian ideologies, such as minarchism and anarcho-capitalism, co-opted the term in the mid-20th century to instead advocate laissez-faire capitalism and strong private property rights such as in land and natural resources. The first recorded use of the term libertarian was in 1789, when William Belsham wrote about libertarianism in the context of metaphysics; as early as 1796, the word libertarian came to mean an advocate or defender of liberty in the political and social spheres, when the London Packet printed on 12 February the following: "Lately marched out of the Prison at Bristol, 450 of the French Libertarians". The word was again used in a political sense in 1802 in a short piece critiquing a poem by "the author of Gebir" and has since been used with this meaning; the use of the word libertarian to describe a new set of political positions has been traced to the French cognate libertaire, coined in a letter French libertarian communist Joseph Déjacque wrote to mutualist Pierre-Joseph Proudhon in 1857.
Déjacque used the term for his anarchist publication Le Libertaire, Journal du mouvement social, printed from 9 June 1858 to 4 February 1861 in New York City. Sébastien Faure, another French libertarian communist, began publishing a new Le Libertaire in the mid-1890s while France's Third Republic enacted the so-called villainous laws which banned anarchist publications in France. Thus, libertarianism has been used as a synonym for anarchism and libertarian socialism since this time; the term libertarianism was first used in the United States as a synonym for classical liberalism in May 1955 by writer Dean Russell, a colleague of Leonard Read and a classical liberal himself. Russell justified the choice of the word as follows: "Many of us call ourselves'liberals.' And it is true that the word'liberal' once described persons who respected the individual and feared the use of mass compulsions. But the leftists have now corrupted that once-proud term to identify themselves and their program of more government ownership of property and more controls over persons.
As a result, those of us who believe in freedom must explain that when we call ourselves liberals, we mean liberals in the uncorrupted classical sense. At best, this is subject to misunderstanding. Here is a suggestion: Let those of us who love liberty trade-mark and reserve for our own use the good and honorable word'libertarian'". Subsequently, a growing number of Americans with classical liberal beliefs began to describe themselves as libertarian. One person responsible for popularizing the term libertarian in this sense was Murray Rothbard, who started publishing libertarian works in the 1960s. Rothbard describes this modern use of the words overtly as a "capture" from his enemies, saying that "for the first time in my memory, we,'our side,' had captured a crucial word from the enemy.'Libertarians' had long been a polite word for left-wing anarchists, for anti-private property anarchists, either of the communist or syndicalist variety. But now we had taken it over". Robert Nozick was responsible for popularizing this usage of the term in philosophical circles and Europe instead.
According to common meanings of conservative and liberal, libertarianism in the United States has been described as conservative on economic issues and liberal on personal freedom and it is often associated with a foreign policy of non-interventionism. All libertarians begin with a conception of personal autonomy from which they argue in favor of civil liberties and a reduction or elimination of the state. Left-libertarianism encompasses those libertarian beliefs that claim the Earth's natural resources belong to everyone in an egalitarian manner, either unowned or owned collectively. Contemporary left-libertarians such as Hillel Steiner, Peter Vallentyne, Philippe Van Parijs, Michael Otsuka and David Ellerman believe the appropriation of land must leave "enough and as good" for others or be taxed by society to compensate for the exclusionary effects of private property. Libertarian socialists promote usufruct and socialist economic theories, including communism, collectivism and mutualism.
They criticize the state for being the defender of private property and believe capitalism entails wage slavery. Right-libertarianism developed in the United States in the mid-20th century from the works of Euro
Belgium the Kingdom of Belgium, is a country in Western Europe. It is bordered by the Netherlands to the north, Germany to the east, Luxembourg to the southeast, France to the southwest, the North Sea to the northwest, it has a population of more than 11.4 million. The capital and largest city is Brussels; the sovereign state is a federal constitutional monarchy with a parliamentary system. Its institutional organisation is structured on both regional and linguistic grounds, it is divided into three autonomous regions: Flanders in the north, Wallonia in the south, the Brussels-Capital Region. Brussels is the smallest and most densely populated region, as well as the richest region in terms of GDP per capita. Belgium is home to two main linguistic groups or Communities: the Dutch-speaking Flemish Community, which constitutes about 59 percent of the population, the French-speaking Community, which comprises about 40 percent of all Belgians. A small German-speaking Community, numbering around one percent, exists in the East Cantons.
The Brussels-Capital Region is bilingual, although French is the dominant language. Belgium's linguistic diversity and related political conflicts are reflected in its political history and complex system of governance, made up of six different governments. Belgium was part of an area known as the Low Countries, a somewhat larger region than the current Benelux group of states that included parts of northern France and western Germany, its name is derived after the Roman province of Gallia Belgica. From the end of the Middle Ages until the 17th century, the area of Belgium was a prosperous and cosmopolitan centre of commerce and culture. Between the 16th and early 19th centuries, Belgium served as the battleground between many European powers, earning the moniker the "Battlefield of Europe", a reputation strengthened by both world wars; the country emerged in 1830 following the Belgian Revolution. Belgium participated in the Industrial Revolution and, during the course of the 20th century, possessed a number of colonies in Africa.
The second half of the 20th century was marked by rising tensions between the Dutch-speaking and the French-speaking citizens fueled by differences in language and culture and the unequal economic development of Flanders and Wallonia. This continuing antagonism has led to several far-reaching reforms, resulting in a transition from a unitary to a federal arrangement during the period from 1970 to 1993. Despite the reforms, tensions between the groups have remained, if not increased. Unemployment in Wallonia is more than double that of Flanders. Belgium is one of the six founding countries of the European Union and hosts the official seats of the European Commission, the Council of the European Union, the European Council, as well as a seat of the European Parliament in the country's capital, Brussels. Belgium is a founding member of the Eurozone, NATO, OECD, WTO, a part of the trilateral Benelux Union and the Schengen Area. Brussels hosts several of the EU's official seats as well as the headquarters of many major international organizations such as NATO.
Belgium is a developed country, with an advanced high-income economy. It has high standards of living, quality of life, education, is categorized as "very high" in the Human Development Index, it ranks as one of the safest or most peaceful countries in the world. The name "Belgium" is derived from Gallia Belgica, a Roman province in the northernmost part of Gaul that before Roman invasion in 100 BC, was inhabited by the Belgae, a mix of Celtic and Germanic peoples. A gradual immigration by Germanic Frankish tribes during the 5th century brought the area under the rule of the Merovingian kings. A gradual shift of power during the 8th century led the kingdom of the Franks to evolve into the Carolingian Empire; the Treaty of Verdun in 843 divided the region into Middle and West Francia and therefore into a set of more or less independent fiefdoms which, during the Middle Ages, were vassals either of the King of France or of the Holy Roman Emperor. Many of these fiefdoms were united in the Burgundian Netherlands of the 15th centuries.
Emperor Charles V extended the personal union of the Seventeen Provinces in the 1540s, making it far more than a personal union by the Pragmatic Sanction of 1549 and increased his influence over the Prince-Bishopric of Liège. The Eighty Years' War divided the Low Countries into the northern United Provinces and the Southern Netherlands; the latter were ruled successively by the Spanish and the Austrian Habsburgs and comprised most of modern Belgium. This was the theatre of most Franco-Spanish and Franco-Austrian wars during the 17th and 18th centuries. Following the campaigns of 1794 in the French Revolutionary Wars, the Low Countries—including territories that were never nominally under Habsburg rule, such as the Prince-Bishopric of Liège—were annexed by the French First Republic, ending Austrian rule in the region; the reunification of the Low Countries as the United Kingdom of the Netherlands occurred at the dissolution of the First French Empire in 1815, after the defeat of Napo
In law, fraud is intentional deception to secure unfair or unlawful gain, or to deprive a victim of a legal right. Fraud can violate civil law, a criminal law, or it may cause no loss of money, property or legal right but still be an element of another civil or criminal wrong; the purpose of fraud may be monetary gain or other benefits, such as obtaining a passport or travel document, driver's license. Examples include mortgage fraud, where the perpetrator may attempt to qualify for a mortgage by way of false statements. A hoax is a distinct concept that involves deliberate deception without the intention of gain or of materially damaging or depriving a victim. In common law jurisdictions, as a civil wrong, fraud is a tort. While the precise definitions and requirements of proof vary among jurisdictions, the requisite elements of fraud as a tort are the intentional misrepresentation or concealment of an important fact upon which the victim is meant to rely, in fact does rely, to the harm of the victim.
Proving fraud in a court of law is said to be difficult. That difficulty is found, for instance, in that each and every one of the elements of fraud must be proven, that the elements include proving the states of mind of the perpetrator and the victim, that some jurisdictions require the victim to prove fraud by clear and convincing evidence; the remedies for fraud may include rescission of a fraudulently obtained agreement or transaction, the recovery of a monetary award to compensate for the harm caused, punitive damages to punish or deter the misconduct, others. In cases of a fraudulently induced contract, fraud may serve as a defense in a civil action for breach of contract or specific performance of contract. Fraud may serve as a basis for a court to invoke its equitable jurisdiction. In common law jurisdictions, as a criminal offence, fraud takes many different forms, some general and some specific to particular categories of victims or misconduct; the elements of fraud as a crime vary.
The requisite elements of the most general form of criminal fraud, theft by false pretense, are the intentional deception of a victim by false representation or pretense with the intent of persuading the victim to part with property and with the victim parting with property in reliance on the representation or pretense and with the perpetrator intending to keep the property from the victim. Section 380 of the Criminal Code provides the general definition for fraud in Canada: 380; every one who, by deceit, falsehood or other fraudulent means, whether or not it is a false pretence within the meaning of this Act, defrauds the public or any person, whether ascertained or not, of any property, money or valuable security or any service, is guilty of an indictable offence and liable to a term of imprisonment not exceeding fourteen years, where the subject-matter of the offence is a testamentary instrument or the value of the subject-matter of the offence exceeds five thousand dollars. In addition to the penalties outlined above, the court can issue a prohibition order under s. 380.2.
It can make a restitution order under s. 380.3. The Canadian courts have held that the offence consists of two distinct elements: A prohibited act of deceit, falsehood or other fraudulent means. In the absence of deceit or falsehood, the courts will look objectively for a "dishonest act"; the Supreme Court of Canada has held that deprivation is satisfied on proof of detriment, prejudice or risk of prejudice. Deprivation of confidential information, in the nature of a trade secret or copyrighted material that has commercial value, has been held to fall within the scope of the offence; the proof requirements for criminal fraud charges in the United States are the same as the requirements for other crimes: guilt must be proved beyond a reasonable doubt. Throughout the United States fraud charges can be misdemeanors or felonies depending on the amount of loss involved. High value frauds can include additional penalties. For example, in California losses of $500,000 or more will result in an extra two, three, or five years in prison in addition to the regular penalty for the fraud.
The U. S. government's 2006 fraud review concluded that fraud is a under-reported crime, while various agencies and organizations were attempting to tackle the issue, greater co-operation was needed to achieve a real impact in the public sector. The scale of the problem pointed to the need for a small but high-powered body to bring together the numerous counter-fraud initiatives that existed. Although elements may vary by jurisdiction and the specific allegations made by a plaintiff who files a lawsuit that alleged fraud, typical elements of a fraud case in the United States are that: Somebody misrepresents a material fact in order to obtain action or forbearance by another person.
Albert II of Belgium
Albert II reigned as the King of the Belgians from 1993 until his abdication in 2013. King Albert II is the son of born princess of Sweden, he is the younger brother of Grand Duchess Joséphine-Charlotte of Luxembourg and King Baudouin, whom he succeeded upon Baudouin's death in 1993. He is the last living child of Leopold III and Astrid, he married Donna Paola Ruffo di Calabria. Albert's elder son, Philippe, is the current King of the Belgians. On 3 July 2013, King Albert II attended a midday session of the Belgian cabinet, he announced that, on 21 July, Belgian National Day, he would abdicate the throne for health reasons. He was succeeded by his son Philippe on 21 July 2013. Albert II was the fourth monarch to abdicate in 2013, following Pope Benedict XVI, Queen Beatrix of the Netherlands, Emir Hamad bin Khalifa of Qatar. In so doing, he was the second Belgian monarch to abdicate, following his father Leopold III who abdicated in 1951, albeit under different circumstances. Prince Albert was born in Stuyvenberg Castle, Brussels, as the second son and youngest child of King Leopold III and his first wife, Princess Astrid of Sweden.
He was second in line to the throne at birth, was given the title Prince of Liège. Queen Astrid died in a car accident on 29 August 1935, in which King Leopold was injured but survived; the King remarried to Mary Lilian Baels in 1941, a union that produced three more children: Prince Alexandre, Princess Marie-Christine and Princess Marie-Esméralda. During World War II, on 10 May 1940, at the time when Belgium was being invaded, Prince Albert, his elder sister Princess Joséphine-Charlotte and his elder brother Prince Baudouin, left the country for France and Spain; the Prince and the Princess returned to Belgium on 2 August 1940. They continued their studies until 1944, either at Laeken, or at the Castle of Ciergnon in the Ardennes. In June 1944, at the time of the Allied landings, King Leopold, his wife Princess Lilian and the royal children were deported by the Germans to Hirschstein, to Strobl, where they were liberated by the American Army on 7 May 1945. Owing to the political situation in Belgium, King Leopold and his family moved to the villa "Le Reposoir" in Pregny, when they left Austria in October 1945 and stayed until July 1950.
During that time, Prince Albert would continue his education in a secondary school in Geneva. King Leopold III, accompanied by Prince Baudouin and Prince Albert, returned to Belgium on 22 July 1950. In 1958, Albert went to the Vatican to witness the coronation of Pope John XXIII. At a reception at the Belgian Embassy, he met Italian Donna Paola Ruffo di Calabria. Prince Albert proposed marriage to which she accepted. Two months after their meeting, the prince introduced his future wife to his family, four months to the press; the couple married on 2 July 1959 and have three children, two sons and a daughter, twelve grandchildren and one great-grandchild: King Philippe of the Belgians. On 4 December 1999, the Duke of Brabant married Jonkvrouwe Mathilde d'Udekem d'Acoz, created Princess Mathilde of Belgium a day before their marriage, she is a daughter of the late Count Patrick d'Udekem d'Acoz and his wife, Countess Anna Maria Komorowska. The current King and Queen have four children, two sons and two daughters: The Duchess of Brabant, heiress apparent Prince Gabriel of Belgium Prince Emmanuel of Belgium Princess Eléonore of Belgium Princess Astrid of Belgium.
On 22 September 1984, she married Archduke Lorenz of Austria-Este, Archduke of Austria, Prince Royal of Hungary and Bohemia, created a Prince of Belgium in 1995. They have five children, two sons and three daughters: Prince Amedeo of Belgium, Archduke of Austria-Este married on 5 July 2014 to Elisabetta Rosboch von Wolkenstein. On May 17, 2016 Albert became a great-grandfather to Archduchess Anna Astrid, the daughter of his eldest grandchild Prince Amedeo of Belgium, Archduke of Austria-Este. Princess Maria Laura of Belgium, Archduchess of Austria-Este Prince Joachim of Belgium, Archduke of Austria-Este Princess Luisa Maria of Belgium, Archduchess of Austria-Este Princess Laetitia Maria of Belgium, Archduchess of Austria-Este Prince Laurent of Belgium. On 12 April 2003, he married an Anglo-Belgian former real-estate agent, she was created Princess Claire of Belgium 11 days before their marriage. They have three children, twin sons and one daughter: Princess Louise of Belgium Prince Nicolas of Belgium Prince Aymeric of Belgium Since 1999, the media have claimed that the Belgian sculptor Delphine Boël is King Albert II's extramarital daughter.
In June 2013, Boël summoned the King, the Duke of Brabant and the Archduchess of Austria-Este to appear in court. She hoped to use DNA tests to prove that she is the King's daughter