The RTÉ Guide is a television and radio listings magazine in Ireland published by RTÉ Commercial Enterprises Ltd, a subsidiary of Raidió Teilifís Éireann. The magazine offers detailed programme listings for RTÉ channels, as well as Virgin Media One, TG4, Virgin Media Two, BBC One, BBC Two, UTV, Channel 4, as well as less detailed listings for variations of BBC Wales, ITV Wales, S4C and a number of satellite and cable channels. RTÉ Radio programme listings are published. Lifestyle and celebrity articles are included in the magazine; the RTÉ Guide began publication on 1 December 1961 as the RTV Guide and changed its name to the current name in 1966. From 8 January 1977, the RTÉ Guide changed from tabloid format to a compact magazine size and changes from monochrome into colour, while early on listings were carried for the BBC but were dropped after a few years and only RTÉ programme listings were carried. Following the UK listings magazines such as Radio Times and TVTimes were deregulated from 1 March 1991, the magazine began carrying BBC, UTV/HTV Wales and Channel 4 listings from 13 April 1991.
A special Christmas double issue of RTÉ Guide is published every year to cover the Christmas period and the New Year. In April 2018 the RTÉ Guide got its first new look for some years; the Audit Bureau of Circulations circulation figures for the RTÉ Guide were: 130,327 for July 2002 to December 2002 118,263 for July 2003 to December 2003 61,881 for 2012 53,695 in 2014 51,413 for 2015 48,089 for 2016 45,861 for 2017 43,195 for 2018 Radio Times TVTimes RTÉ Guide Online
RTÉ Cór na nÓg
RTÉ Cór na nÓg is an Irish children's choir. In May 2004 Máire Mannion took up the position of choral director; the choir is part of RTÉ Performing Groups. The choir was founded in 1987, it has around 65 members. Choristers range from the ages of 9-14. Regular performances are made in other counties. Performances are made with the RTÉ National Symphony Orchestra and the RTÉ Concert Orchestra; the choir appears on RTÉ Television and Radio, most radio work is done on RTÉ lyric fm. The choir have done many religious programmes on RTÉ One. Recordings have included Gerard Victory's Ultima Rerum, the praised CD/Video Faith of our Fathers, Scenes of an Irish Christmas and a CD of Christmas produced for RTÉ lyric fm and the RTÉ Guide in 2005; the choir have performed at the Dublin International Organ Festival, various Opera Ireland productions, Opera Theatre Company's Cinderella and the Russian State Ballet's Nutcracker. In 2007, performances were made in Dublin Castle, for an EBU Radio Assembly and Gustav Mahler's Symphony of a Thousand at the National Basketball Arena.
Every year, there is a large Christmas schedule. There is at least one television appearance, as well as many concerts; the choir host a concert in St. Ann's Church in Dawson Street annually. In 2008 they were the closing act on the Late Late Toy Show; the choir have received positive reviews from various publications. The choir have rehearsals in the RTÉ Radio Centre every Saturday; the choir is part-funded through revenue derived from the licence fee paid by households with televisions in Ireland. RTÉ National Symphony Orchestra RTÉ Concert Orchestra RTÉ Philharmonic Choir RTÉ Vanbrugh Quartet Official Site
Cork is a city in south-west Ireland, in the province of Munster, which had a population of 125,657 in 2016. The city is on the River Lee which splits into two channels at the western end and divides the city centre into islands, they reconverge at the eastern end where the quays and docks along the river banks lead outwards towards Lough Mahon and Cork Harbour, one of the largest natural harbours in the world. A monastic settlement, Cork was expanded by Viking invaders around 915; the city's charter was granted by Prince John, as Lord of Ireland, in 1185. Cork city was once walled, the remnants of the old medieval town centre can be found around South and North Main streets; the third largest city by population on the island of Ireland, the city's cognomen of "the rebel city" originates in its support for the Yorkist cause in the Wars of the Roses. Corkonians refer to the city as "the real capital", a reference to its opposition to the Anglo-Irish Treaty in the Irish Civil War. Cork was a monastic settlement, reputedly founded by Saint Finbarr in the 6th century.
Cork achieved an urban character at some point between 915 and 922 when Norseman settlers founded a trading port. It has been proposed that, like Dublin, Cork was an important trading centre in the global Scandinavian trade network; the ecclesiastical settlement continued alongside the Viking longphort, with the two developing a type of symbiotic relationship. The city's charter was granted by Prince John, as Lord of Ireland, in 1185; the city was once walled, some wall sections and gates remain today. For much of the Middle Ages, Cork city was an outpost of Old English culture in the midst of a predominantly hostile Gaelic countryside and cut off from the English government in the Pale around Dublin. Neighbouring Gaelic and Hiberno-Norman lords extorted "Black Rent" from the citizens to keep them from attacking the city; the present extent of the city has exceeded the medieval boundaries of the Barony of Cork City. Together, these baronies are located between the Barony of Barrymore to the east, Muskerry East to the west and Kerrycurrihy to the south.
The city's municipal government was dominated by about 12–15 merchant families, whose wealth came from overseas trade with continental Europe – in particular the export of wool and hides and the import of salt and wine. The medieval population of Cork was about 2,100 people, it suffered a severe blow in 1349 when half the townspeople died of plague when the Black Death arrived in the town. In 1491, Cork played a part in the English Wars of the Roses when Perkin Warbeck a pretender to the English throne, landed in the city and tried to recruit support for a plot to overthrow Henry VII of England; the mayor of Cork and several important citizens went with Warbeck to England but when the rebellion collapsed they were all captured and executed. The title of Mayor of Cork was established by royal charter in 1318, the title was changed to Lord Mayor in 1900 following the knighthood of the incumbent Mayor by Queen Victoria on her Royal visit to the city. Since the nineteenth century, Cork had been a Irish nationalist city, with widespread support for Irish Home Rule and the Irish Parliamentary Party, but from 1910 stood behind William O'Brien's dissident All-for-Ireland Party.
O'Brien published the Cork Free Press. In the War of Independence, the centre of Cork was burnt down by the British Black and Tans, in an event known as the "Burning of Cork". and saw fierce fighting between Irish guerrillas and UK forces. During the Irish Civil War, Cork was for a time held by anti-Treaty forces, until it was retaken by the pro-Treaty National Army in an attack from the sea; the climate of Cork, like the rest of Ireland, is mild oceanic and changeable with abundant rainfall and a lack of temperature extremes. Cork lies in plant Hardiness zone 9b. Met Éireann maintains a climatological weather station at Cork Airport, a few kilometres south of the city; the airport is at an altitude of 151 metres and temperatures can differ by a few degrees between the airport and the city itself. There are smaller synoptic weather stations at UCC and Clover Hill. Due to its position along the west coast, Cork city is subject to occasional flooding. Temperatures below 0 °C or above 25 °C are rare.
Cork Airport records an average of 1,227.9 millimetres of precipitation annually, most of, rain. The airport records sleet a year; the low altitude of the city, moderating influences of the harbour, mean that lying snow rarely occurs in the city itself. There are on average 204 "rainy" days a year, of which there are 73 days with "heavy rain". Cork is a foggy city, with an average of 97 days of fog a year, most common during mornings and during winter. Despite this, Cork is one of Ireland's sunniest cities, with an average of 3.9 hours of sunshine every day and only having 67 days where there is no "recordable sunshine" during and around winter. The Cork School of Music and the Crawford College of Art and Design provide a throughput of new blood, as do the active theatre components of several courses at University College Cork. Important elements in the cultural life of the city are: Corcadorca Theatre Company, of which Cillian Murphy was a troupe member prior to Hollywood fame.
Classical music is art music produced or rooted in the traditions of Western culture, including both liturgical and secular music. While a more precise term is used to refer to the period from 1750 to 1820, this article is about the broad span of time from before the 6th century AD to the present day, which includes the Classical period and various other periods; the central norms of this tradition became codified between 1550 and 1900, known as the common-practice period. The major time divisions of Western art music are as follows: the ancient music period, before 500 AD the early music period, which includes the Medieval including the ars antiqua the ars nova the ars subtilior the Renaissance eras. Baroque the galant music period the common-practice period, which includes Baroque the galant music period Classical Romantic eras the 20th and 21st centuries which includes: the modern that overlaps from the late-19th century, impressionism that overlaps from the late-19th century neoclassicism, predominantly in the inter-war period the high modern the postmodern eras the experimental contemporary European art music is distinguished from many other non-European classical and some popular musical forms by its system of staff notation, in use since about the 11th century.
Catholic monks developed the first forms of modern European musical notation in order to standardize liturgy throughout the worldwide Church. Western staff notation is used by composers to indicate to the performer the pitches, tempo and rhythms for a piece of music; this can leave less room for practices such as improvisation and ad libitum ornamentation, which are heard in non-European art music and in popular-music styles such as jazz and blues. Another difference is that whereas most popular styles adopt the song form or a derivation of this form, classical music has been noted for its development of sophisticated forms of instrumental music such as the symphony, fugue and mixed vocal and instrumental styles such as opera and mass; the term "classical music" did not appear until the early 19th century, in an attempt to distinctly canonize the period from Johann Sebastian Bach to Ludwig van Beethoven as a golden age. The earliest reference to "classical music" recorded by the Oxford English Dictionary is from about 1829.
Given the wide range of styles in European classical music, from Medieval plainchant sung by monks to Classical and Romantic symphonies for orchestra from the 1700s and 1800s to avant-garde atonal compositions for solo piano from the 1900s, it is difficult to list characteristics that can be attributed to all works of that type. However, there are characteristics that classical music contains that few or no other genres of music contain, such as the use of music notation and the performance of complex forms of solo instrumental works. Furthermore, while the symphony did not exist prior to the late 18th century, the symphony ensemble—and the works written for it—have become a defining feature of classical music; the key characteristic of European classical music that distinguishes it from popular music and folk music is that the repertoire tends to be written down in musical notation, creating a musical part or score. This score determines details of rhythm, and, where two or more musicians are involved, how the various parts are coordinated.
The written quality of the music has enabled a high level of complexity within them: fugues, for instance, achieve a remarkable marriage of boldly distinctive melodic lines weaving in counterpoint yet creating a coherent harmonic logic that would be difficult to achieve in the heat of live improvisation. The use of written notation preserves a record of the works and enables Classical musicians to perform music from many centuries ago. Musical notation enables 2000s-era performers to sing a choral work from the 1300s Renaissance era or a 1700s Baroque concerto with many of the features of the music being reproduced; that said, the score does allow the interpreter to make choices on. For example, if the tempo is written with an Italian instruction, it is not known how fast the piece should be played; as well, in the Baroque era, many works that were designed for basso continuo accompaniment do not specify which instruments should play the accompaniment or how the chordal instrument should play the chords, which are not notated in the part.
The performer and the conductor have a range of options for musical expression and interpretation of a scored piece, including the phrasing of melodies, the time taken during fermatas or pauses, the use of effects such as vibrato or glissando. Although Classical music in the 2000s has lost most of its tradition for musical improvisation, from the Baroque era to the Romantic era, there are examples of performers who could improvise in the style of their era. In the Baroque era, organ performers would improvise preludes, keyboard performers playing harpsichord would improvise chords from the figured bass symbols beneath the bass notes of the basso continuo part and b
RTÉ News and Current Affairs
RTÉ News and Current Affairs, is a major division of Raidió Teilifís Éireann and provides a range of national and international news and current affairs programming for RTÉ television and online and for the independent Irish language broadcaster TG4. It is, by far, the largest and most popular news source in Ireland – with 77% of the Irish public regarding it as their main source of both Irish and international news, it broadcasts in English and Irish Sign Language. The organisation is a source of commentary on current affairs; the division is based at the RTÉ Television Centre in Donnybrook, however, the station operates regional bureaux across Ireland and the world. On 1 January 1926, 2RN started broadcasting, it was Ireland's first radio station. On 24 May 1926, there was the first advertised news bulletin on 2RN. On 26 February 1927, the first daily news report was broadcast on the station. During the Second World War, referred to in Ireland as The Emergency, because of the Emergency Powers Act 1939, media censorship of radio broadcasts affected news bulletins.
Before all news bulletins were broadcast, the scripts of the bulletins were read over the phone to Head of the Government Information Bureau, Frank Gallagher. Censorship brought in under the Act was lifted on 11 May 1945. On 31 December 1961 Ireland's first national television station, Telefís Éireann, was launched. A new Television Complex was built at Donnybrook in Dublin and the news service was the first to move in. On 1 January 1962 Charles Mitchel read the first television news bulletin at 6:00 pm. Andy O'Mahony was the station's other chief newsreader in the early days of the new service; the new studios were still being completed, so construction work was heard during news bulletins. On Telefís Éireann's first full day of broadcasting Broadsheet made its debut; this programme provided a more detailed analysis of current affairs. There was a mixture of incisive and light-hearted items, unscripted studio interviews and filmed reports. Presented by John O'Donoghue, Brian Cleeve and Brian Farrell, some of these men would continue broadcasting with the station until the new century.
Telefís Éireann's first full day saw the first broadcast of the Nine O'Clock News, a half-hour bulletin including news, newsview and sports results. Broadsheet was broadcast for the last time in 1964, it was replaced by Frank Hall's Newsbeat, a news and current affairs programme that focused more on the light-hearted stories from around the country. In 1966 Maurice O'Doherty joined the newsroom as a newsreader; that same year the station's new flagship news programme was broadcast for the first time. Seven Days had a production team with people such as Eoghan Harris, Brian Cleeve, Brian Farrell, John O'Donoghue. In 1967 the programme merged with another and became 7 days; when Radio Éireann and Telefís Éireann merged, RTÉ News was expanded, providing coverage to new stations RTÉ Raidió na Gaeltachta and RTÉ Radio 2. In the 1970s News moved from the original White picture format to color on television. In the early 1980s, in the space of two years, there were three general elections; this demanded a larger schedule of current affairs.
New programmes Morning Today Tonight were launched. The current set of TV News programmes began in 1988. Seán Duignan and Eileen Dunne were the first presenters of Six-One, which began in October 1988 In 1991, RTÉ News appointed its first legal affairs correspondent, Kieron Wood. In the 1990s, the first Washington DC correspondent Mark Little was appointed, Teilifís na Gaeilge, RTÉ lyric fm and RTÉ.ie were established. In 1992 RTÉ launched. Other notable current affairs programmes from the 1990s include The Week in Politics & Oireachtas Report Much of RTÉ's News output remained the same throughout the start of the 21st Century. In 2003 RTÉ's news department was merged with its Current Affairs department to form RTÉ News and Current Affairs. In September 2003, all RTÉ news reports in English on all networks were rebranded to RTÉ News, ending the separate branding of News 2 and 2FM News. In December 2008, RTÉ News moved out of their usual studio 3 in the Television Centre at Donnybrook and moved into a temporary studio while work was carried out in studio 3 for the relaunch.
The new look was unveiled at the One O'Clock news programme on Monday 9 February 2009. Due to RTÉ cutbacks, instead of using satellite, reporters on foreign assignments were asked to send reports by internet link. RTÉ's Beijing bureau was closed in June 2009. 2009 brought major changes the current affairs schedule with the axing of the long-running Questions and Answers, replaced by The Frontline. The 2010s opened with what has since been commemorated as "one of the most memorable moments of Irish television" being shown on RTÉ's televised news bulletins. On 24 October 2012, RTÉ News & Current Affairs announced some major changes to its output from 2013. Prime Time relaunched with additional presenters Claire Byrne and George Lee; the Frontline was brought under the Prime Time brand with the programme now airing 3 times a week. In 2012, RTÉ announced it was moving some of its regional newsrooms to local Institute of Technology as a cost saving arrangement; the affected areas are Sligo, Galway and Waterford.
RTÉ will retain the Limerick bureaux. In January 2013, RTÉ launched a new morning news programme Morning Edition which airs weekdays between 09:00–11:00 on RTÉ One and RTÉ Ne
Raidió Teilifís Éireann
Raidió Teilifís Éireann is a semi-state company and the national public service media of Ireland. It both produces programmes and broadcasts them on television and the Internet; the radio service began on 1 January 1926, while regular television broadcasts began on 31 December 1961, making it one of the oldest continuously operating public service broadcasters in the world. RTÉ publishes a weekly lifestyle magazine called the RTÉ Guide. RTÉ is financed through advertising; some RTÉ services are only funded by advertising, while other RTÉ services are only funded by the licence fee. RTÉ is a statutory body, run by a board appointed by the Government of Ireland. General management of the organisation is in the hands of the Executive Board headed by the Director-General. RTÉ is regulated by the Broadcasting Authority of Ireland. Radio Éireann, RTÉ's predecessor and at the time a section of the Department of Posts and Telegraphs, was one of 23 founding organisations of the European Broadcasting Union in 1950.
This section deals with the history of RTÉ as an organisation. For details on this history of the various services see the separate articles on those services. For history of the broadcasting service prior to 1960, see Minister for Posts and Telegraphs and RTÉ Radio 1. Broadcasting in Ireland began in 1926 with 2RN in Dublin. From that date until June 1960 the broadcasting service operated as a section of the Department of Posts and Telegraphs, those working for the service were directly employed by the Irish Government and regarded as civil servants. RTÉ was established on 1 June 1960 under the Broadcasting Authority Act 1960, the principal legislation under which it operates; the existing Radio Éireann service was transferred to the new authority, made responsible for the new television service. The television service started broadcasting on 31 December 1961, from the Kippure transmitter site near Dublin. Eamonn Andrews was the first Chairman of Radio Éireann, the first director general was Edward Roth.
The name of the authority was changed, at the suggestion of Áine Ní Cheanainn, to Radio Telefís Éireann by the Broadcasting Authority Act 1966, both the radio and television services became known as RTÉ in that year. The Broadcasting Act 2009 changed the name of the organisation from "Radio Telefís Éireann" to "Raidió Teilifís Éireann", to reflect the proper spelling of the name in Irish. However, the station retains "Radio Telefís Éireann" carved in stone at the entrance to its Donnybrook headquarters in Dublin. Under Section 31 of the Broadcasting Authority Act, 1960 the Minister for Posts and Telegraphs of the day could direct RTÉ "not to broadcast any matter, or any matter of any particular class". In 1971 the first such directive was issued by Gerry Collins, directing RTÉ not to broadcast "any matter that could be calculated to promote the aims or activities of any organisation which engages in, encourages or advocates the attaining of any particular objective by violent means". A year Collins dismissed the entire RTÉ Authority over a report of an interview with Seán Mac Stíofáin, the chief of staff of the Provisional IRA.
RTÉ reporter Kevin O'Kelly, who reported the Mac Stiofáin interview, was jailed for contempt in a court case arising out of the interview. Kelly refused to identify Mac Stiofáin's as the voice on a tape seized from his house by the Garda Síochána. In 1976 Conor Cruise O'Brien, Minister for Posts and Telegraphs, amended Section 31 and thereafter issued a new annually-based directive to the RTÉ authority. RTÉ was now explicitly banned from broadcasting interviews or reports of interviews with spokespersons for Sinn Féin, the Provisional IRA, or any organisation banned in Northern Ireland under the UK's Northern Ireland Act 1973; these directives were reissued on an annual basis until the final one appeared in January 1993. During the late 1970s RTÉ was accused of extending the censorship rules into a system of self-censorship. A small minority of programme makers emerged who approved of Section 31 supporters of the Workers' Party, including Eoghan Harris, Gerry Gregg who opposed that party's official policy.
Opponents of censorship were portrayed as secret IRA sympathizers. The effect of this ban was greater than and similar to, though less harsh than, the censorship provision introduced in 1988 in the United Kingdom; the UK ban did not prevent reports of interviews with spokespersons. This allowed interviews using actors' voices dubbing the direct speech of censored persons; this was not permissible on RTÉ. In 1992–93, in O'Toole vs RTÉ, RTÉ was found by the High Court and Supreme Court to have illegally and unconstitutionally extended the censorship ban to Sinn Féin members who were not speaking on behalf of the party; the RTÉ ban did not affect UK stations broadcasting in the Republic of Ireland as, until 1988 at least, viewers in the Republic were still able to hear the voices of Sinn Féin representatives. The following figures were issued by RTÉ as part of their annual report in 2012. In 2012 RTÉ received in total €180,894,000 in public funding from the licence fee, it received €127,100,000 in commercial revenue.
RTÉ total expenditure in 2012 was €327,023,000. They had restructuring costs of €46,161,000 in 2012. Losses for the year came to €65,147,000. Profit and Loss across radio and online services. RTÉ receives income from two main sources: The television licence fee. Within the State, it is necessary to pay a fee of €160 per annum to possess any piece of
Euronews is a European pay television news network, headquartered in Lyon, France. The network began broadcasting on 1 January 1993, aimed to cover world news from a pan-European perspective, it is jointly owned by several European and North African state broadcasting organisations, since 2015 majority owned by Media Globe Networks led by Egyptian billionaire Naguib Sawiris, chairman of the supervisory board. In 1992, following the Persian Gulf War, during which CNN's position as the preeminent source of 24-hour news programming was cemented, the European Broadcasting Union decided to establish Euronews to present information from a European perspective; the channel's first broadcast was on 1 January 1993 from Lyon. An additional broadcast studio was set up in London in 1996, it was founded by a group of ten European public broadcasters: CyBC, Cyprus France Télévisions, France RAI, Italy RTBF, Belgium RTP, Portugal RTVE, Spain TMC, Monaco YLE, Finland ERTU, EgyptIn 1997, the British news broadcaster ITN purchased a 49 percent share of Euronews for £5.1 million from Alcatel-Alsthom.
ITN supplies the content of the channel along with the remaining shareholders, which are represented by the SOCEMIE consortium. Euronews SA is the operating company that holds the broadcasting licence, it is co-owned by the ten founders and: VGTRK, Russia TRT, Turkey ČT, Czech Republic PBS, Malta SNRT, Morocco RTVSLO, Slovenia RTÉ, Ireland UA:PBC, Ukraine SRG-SSR, Switzerland TVR, Romania SVT/MTG, Sweden ERTT, Tunisia ENTV, AlgeriaThe broadcast switched from analogue to digital transmission in 1999. In the same year, the Portuguese audio track was added; the Russian audio track appeared in 2001. In 2003, ITN sold its stake in Euronews as part of its drive to streamline operations and focus on news-gathering rather than channel management. On 6 February 2006, Ukrainian public broadcaster Natsionalna Telekompanya Ukraïny purchased a one percent interest in SOCEMIE. On 27 May 2008, Spanish public broadcaster RTVE decided to leave Euronews to promote its international channel TVE Internacional, it cited legal requirements to maintain low debt levels through careful spending as a factor influencing its decision to leave.
In February 2009, the Turkish public broadcaster TRT became a shareholder in the channel, joined its supervisory board. TRT purchased 15.70% of the channel's shares and became the fourth main partner after France Télévisions, RAI, VGTRK. In February 2015, the channel's executive board approved a bid by Media Globe Networks, owned by Egyptian telecom magnate Naguib Sawiris, to acquire a 53% controlling stake in the media outlet; the deal raised questions over Euronews's future editorial independence. In 2 October 2012, Euronews launched Euronews Radio; the service was designed for viewers for whom "watching news is not an option" by providing a direct simulcast to the TV channel, with "No Comment" segment being replaced by music. The music of the bulletin openings are transmitted on Euronews Radio. Weather reports are read by a female announcer. On 20 April 2016, the French subsidiary of Euronews launched an African version of their news service called Africanews in French and English. In November 2016, the channel's executive board was in talks with NBCUniversal, parent company of NBC News, for a "strategic partnership".
NBCU would acquire 15 to 30% ownership of the Euronews network, would contribute to Euronews content, facilitate NBC News' expanded operations in Europe. After successful negotiations with the European Commission, who feared that the partnership would result on an Americanization of Euronews, the NBCUniversal News Group purchased a 25% stake in Euronews in February 2017 for $30 million. NBC News president Deborah Turness was appointed to head up international operations, incumbent Euronews CEO Michael Peters, which has led it since 2004, became CEO of the new partnership. Both report directly to NBC News chairman Andy Lack; the resulting partnership became known as Euronews NBC. Although Sawiris and NBC News have the largest stakes in Euronews, editorial control by SOCEMIE members has been assured, with the broadcasters having seven slots in the editorial board, as opposed to Sawiris' company and NBC News, which only has one, thereby reducing rumours of an Americanization of Euronews' values.
Editorial control is handled by Euronews' teams, with NBC only focusing on planning and coordinating tasks. After the formation of the partnership, video reports from NBC News' properties began to appear on the TV channel and reports from NBCNews.com began to be distributed on its digital platforms. On 9 May 2017, Euronews split its service into 12 language-specific editions, of which nine have a linear TV channel with its own language voiceover, but now including contents, on-air graphics and its lower-third news ticker in the language; the glocal strategy allows the language editorial teams to personalise the content and presentation of their channel, not only by sharing own-produced content with other languages, but by producing content, relevant to local audiences, allowing local reporters and presenters to appear on camera in all its language editions. The splitting process finished on 24 May 2017. Alongside the major language split, satellite distribution for the German, Spanish and Turkish channels was discontinued, now being only available via fibre-optic IP uplink.
However, the discontinuation of the German-language channel from satellite distribution generated outcry from many German satellite TV owners, resulting on the restoration