Northern Ireland is a part of the United Kingdom in the north-east of the island of Ireland, variously described as a country, province or region. Northern Ireland shares a border to the west with the Republic of Ireland. In 2011, its population was 1,810,863, constituting about 30% of the island's total population and about 3% of the UK's population. Established by the Northern Ireland Act 1998 as part of the Good Friday Agreement, the Northern Ireland Assembly holds responsibility for a range of devolved policy matters, while other areas are reserved for the British government. Northern Ireland co-operates with the Republic of Ireland in some areas, the Agreement granted the Republic the ability to "put forward views and proposals" with "determined efforts to resolve disagreements between the two governments". Northern Ireland was created in 1921, when Ireland was partitioned between Northern Ireland and Southern Ireland by the Government of Ireland Act 1920. Unlike Southern Ireland, which would become the Irish Free State in 1922, the majority of Northern Ireland's population were unionists, who wanted to remain within the United Kingdom.
Most of these were the Protestant descendants of colonists from Great Britain. However, a significant minority Catholics, were nationalists who wanted a united Ireland independent of British rule. Today, the former see themselves as British and the latter see themselves as Irish, while a distinct Northern Irish or Ulster identity is claimed both by a large minority of Catholics and Protestants and by many of those who are non-aligned. For most of the 20th century, when it came into existence, Northern Ireland was marked by discrimination and hostility between these two sides in what First Minister of Northern Ireland, David Trimble, called a "cold house" for Catholics. In the late 1960s, conflict between state forces and chiefly Protestant unionists on the one hand, chiefly Catholic nationalists on the other, erupted into three decades of violence known as the Troubles, which claimed over 3,500 lives and caused over 50,000 casualties; the 1998 Good Friday Agreement was a major step in the peace process, including the decommissioning of weapons, although sectarianism and religious segregation still remain major social problems, sporadic violence has continued.
Northern Ireland has been the most industrialised region of Ireland. After declining as a result of the political and social turmoil of the Troubles, its economy has grown since the late 1990s; the initial growth came from the "peace dividend" and the links which increased trade with the Republic of Ireland, continuing with a significant increase in tourism and business from around the world. Unemployment in Northern Ireland peaked at 17.2% in 1986, dropping to 6.1% for June–August 2014 and down by 1.2 percentage points over the year, similar to the UK figure of 6.2%. 58.2% of those unemployed had been unemployed for over a year. Prominent artists and sportspeople from Northern Ireland include Van Morrison, Rory McIlroy, Joey Dunlop, Wayne McCullough and George Best; some people from Northern Ireland prefer to identify as Irish while others prefer to identify as British. Cultural links between Northern Ireland, the rest of Ireland, the rest of the UK are complex, with Northern Ireland sharing both the culture of Ireland and the culture of the United Kingdom.
In many sports, the island of Ireland fields a single team, a notable exception being association football. Northern Ireland competes separately at the Commonwealth Games, people from Northern Ireland may compete for either Great Britain or Ireland at the Olympic Games; the region, now Northern Ireland was the bedrock of the Irish war of resistance against English programmes of colonialism in the late 16th century. The English-controlled Kingdom of Ireland had been declared by the English king Henry VIII in 1542, but Irish resistance made English control fragmentary. Following Irish defeat at the Battle of Kinsale, the region's Gaelic, Roman Catholic aristocracy fled to continental Europe in 1607 and the region became subject to major programmes of colonialism by Protestant English and Scottish settlers. A rebellion in 1641 by Irish aristocrats against English rule resulted in a massacre of settlers in Ulster in the context of a war breaking out between England and Ireland fuelled by religious intolerance in government.
Victories by English forces in that war and further Protestant victories in the Williamite War in Ireland toward the close of the 17th century solidified Anglican rule in Ireland. In Northern Ireland, the victories of the Siege of Derry and the Battle of the Boyne in this latter war are still celebrated by some Protestants. Popes Innocent XI and Alexander VIII had supported William of Orange instead of his maternal uncle and father-in-law James II, despite William being Protestant and James a Catholic, due to William's participation in alliance with both Protesant and Catholic powers in Europe in wars against Louis XIV, the powerful King of France, in conflict with the papacy for decades. In 1693, Pope Innocent XII recognised James as continuing King of Great Britain and Ireland in place of William, after reconciliation with Louis. In 1695, contrary to the terms of the Treaty of Limerick, a series of penal laws were passed by the Anglican ruling class in Ireland in intense anger at the Pope's recognition of James over William, felt to be a betrayal.
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Republic of Ireland
Ireland known as the Republic of Ireland, is a country in north-western Europe occupying 26 of 32 counties of the island of Ireland. The capital and largest city is Dublin, located on the eastern part of the island, whose metropolitan area is home to around a third of the country's over 4.8 million inhabitants. The sovereign state shares its only land border with a part of the United Kingdom, it is otherwise surrounded by the Atlantic Ocean, with the Celtic Sea to the south, St George's Channel to the south-east, the Irish Sea to the east. It is a parliamentary republic; the legislature, the Oireachtas, consists of a lower house, Dáil Éireann, an upper house, Seanad Éireann, an elected President who serves as the ceremonial head of state, but with some important powers and duties. The head of government is the Taoiseach, elected by the Dáil and appointed by the President; the state was created as the Irish Free State in 1922 as a result of the Anglo-Irish Treaty. It had the status of Dominion until 1937 when a new constitution was adopted, in which the state was named "Ireland" and became a republic, with an elected non-executive president as head of state.
It was declared a republic in 1949, following the Republic of Ireland Act 1948. Ireland became a member of the United Nations in December 1955, it joined the European Economic Community, the predecessor of the European Union, in 1973. The state had no formal relations with Northern Ireland for most of the twentieth century, but during the 1980s and 1990s the British and Irish governments worked with the Northern Ireland parties towards a resolution to "the Troubles". Since the signing of the Good Friday Agreement in 1998, the Irish government and Northern Ireland Executive have co-operated on a number of policy areas under the North-South Ministerial Council created by the Agreement. Ireland ranks among the top twenty-five wealthiest countries in the world in terms of GDP per capita, as the tenth most prosperous country in the world according to The Legatum Prosperity Index 2015. After joining the EEC, Ireland enacted a series of liberal economic policies that resulted in rapid economic growth.
The country achieved considerable prosperity between the years of 1995 and 2007, which became known as the Celtic Tiger period. This was halted by an unprecedented financial crisis that began in 2008, in conjunction with the concurrent global economic crash. However, as the Irish economy was the fastest growing in the EU in 2015, Ireland is again ascending league tables comparing wealth and prosperity internationally. For example, in 2015, Ireland was ranked as the joint sixth most developed country in the world by the United Nations Human Development Index, it performs well in several national performance metrics, including freedom of the press, economic freedom and civil liberties. Ireland is a member of the European Union and is a founding member of the Council of Europe and the OECD; the Irish government has followed a policy of military neutrality through non-alignment since prior to World War II and the country is not a member of NATO, although it is a member of Partnership for Peace. The 1922 state, comprising 26 of the 32 counties of Ireland, was "styled and known as the Irish Free State".
The Constitution of Ireland, adopted in 1937, provides that "the name of the State is Éire, or, in the English language, Ireland". Section 2 of the Republic of Ireland Act 1948 states, "It is hereby declared that the description of the State shall be the Republic of Ireland." The 1948 Act does not name the state as "Republic of Ireland", because to have done so would have put it in conflict with the Constitution. The government of the United Kingdom used the name "Eire" and, from 1949, "Republic of Ireland", for the state; as well as "Ireland", "Éire" or "the Republic of Ireland", the state is referred to as "the Republic", "Southern Ireland" or "the South". In an Irish republican context it is referred to as "the Free State" or "the 26 Counties". From the Act of Union on 1 January 1801, until 6 December 1922, the island of Ireland was part of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland. During the Great Famine, from 1845 to 1849, the island's population of over 8 million fell by 30%. One million Irish died of starvation and/or disease and another 1.5 million emigrated to the United States.
This set the pattern of emigration for the century to come, resulting in constant population decline up to the 1960s. From 1874, under Charles Stewart Parnell from 1880, the Irish Parliamentary Party gained prominence; this was firstly through widespread agrarian agitation via the Irish Land League, that won land reforms for tenants in the form of the Irish Land Acts, secondly through its attempts to achieve Home Rule, via two unsuccessful bills which would have granted Ireland limited national autonomy. These led to "grass-roots" control of national affairs, under the Local Government Act 1898, in the hands of landlord-dominated grand juries of the Protestant Ascendancy. Home Rule seemed certain when the Parliament Act 1911 abolished the veto of the House of Lords, John Redmond secured the Third Home Rule Act in 1914. However, the Unionist movement had been growing since 1886 among Irish Protestants after the introduction of the first home rule bill, fearing discrimination and loss of economic and social privileges if Irish Catholics achieved real political power
Washington, D. C. formally the District of Columbia and referred to as Washington or D. C. is the capital of the United States. Founded after the American Revolution as the seat of government of the newly independent country, Washington was named after George Washington, first President of the United States and Founding Father; as the seat of the United States federal government and several international organizations, Washington is an important world political capital. The city is one of the most visited cities in the world, with more than 20 million tourists annually; the signing of the Residence Act on July 16, 1790, approved the creation of a capital district located along the Potomac River on the country's East Coast. The U. S. Constitution provided for a federal district under the exclusive jurisdiction of the U. S. Congress, the District is therefore not a part of any state; the states of Maryland and Virginia each donated land to form the federal district, which included the pre-existing settlements of Georgetown and Alexandria.
The City of Washington was founded in 1791 to serve as the new national capital. In 1846, Congress returned the land ceded by Virginia. Washington had an estimated population of 702,455 as of July 2018, making it the 20th most populous city in the United States. Commuters from the surrounding Maryland and Virginia suburbs raise the city's daytime population to more than one million during the workweek. Washington's metropolitan area, the country's sixth largest, had a 2017 estimated population of 6.2 million residents. All three branches of the U. S. federal government are centered in the District: Congress and the U. S. Supreme Court. Washington is home to many national monuments, museums situated on or around the National Mall; the city hosts 177 foreign embassies as well as the headquarters of many international organizations, trade unions, non-profit, lobbying groups, professional associations, including the World Bank Group, the International Monetary Fund, the Organization of American States, AARP, the National Geographic Society, the Human Rights Campaign, the International Finance Corporation, the American Red Cross.
A locally elected mayor and a 13‑member council have governed the District since 1973. However, Congress may overturn local laws. D. C. residents elect a non-voting, at-large congressional delegate to the House of Representatives, but the District has no representation in the Senate. The District receives three electoral votes in presidential elections as permitted by the Twenty-third Amendment to the United States Constitution, ratified in 1961. Various tribes of the Algonquian-speaking Piscataway people inhabited the lands around the Potomac River when Europeans first visited the area in the early 17th century. One group known as the Nacotchtank maintained settlements around the Anacostia River within the present-day District of Columbia. Conflicts with European colonists and neighboring tribes forced the relocation of the Piscataway people, some of whom established a new settlement in 1699 near Point of Rocks, Maryland. In his Federalist No. 43, published January 23, 1788, James Madison argued that the new federal government would need authority over a national capital to provide for its own maintenance and safety.
Five years earlier, a band of unpaid soldiers besieged Congress while its members were meeting in Philadelphia. Known as the Pennsylvania Mutiny of 1783, the event emphasized the need for the national government not to rely on any state for its own security. Article One, Section Eight, of the Constitution permits the establishment of a "District as may, by cession of particular states, the acceptance of Congress, become the seat of the government of the United States". However, the Constitution does not specify a location for the capital. In what is now known as the Compromise of 1790, Alexander Hamilton, Thomas Jefferson came to an agreement that the federal government would pay each state's remaining Revolutionary War debts in exchange for establishing the new national capital in the southern United States. On July 9, 1790, Congress passed the Residence Act, which approved the creation of a national capital on the Potomac River; the exact location was to be selected by President George Washington, who signed the bill into law on July 16.
Formed from land donated by the states of Maryland and Virginia, the initial shape of the federal district was a square measuring 10 miles on each side, totaling 100 square miles. Two pre-existing settlements were included in the territory: the port of Georgetown, founded in 1751, the city of Alexandria, founded in 1749. During 1791–92, Andrew Ellicott and several assistants, including a free African American astronomer named Benjamin Banneker, surveyed the borders of the federal district and placed boundary stones at every mile point. Many of the stones are still standing. A new federal city was constructed on the north bank of the Potomac, to the east of Georgetown. On September 9, 1791, the three commissioners overseeing the capital's construction named the city in honor of President Washington; the federal district was named Columbia, a poetic name for the United States in use at that time. Congress held its first session in Washington on November 17, 1800. Congress passed the District of Columbia Organic Act of 1801 that organized the District and placed the entire territory under the exclusive control of the federal
The Emergency (Ireland)
The Emergency was the state of emergency which existed in the state of Ireland during the Second World War. The state of Ireland remained neutral throughout the war. "The Emergency" has been used metonymically in historical and cultural commentary to refer to the state during the war. The state of emergency was proclaimed by Dáil Éireann on 2 September 1939, allowing the passage of the Emergency Powers Act 1939 by the Oireachtas the following day; this gave sweeping new powers to the government for the duration of the Emergency, including internment, censorship of the press and correspondence, government control of the economy. The Emergency Powers Act lapsed on 2 September 1946. Although the state of emergency itself was not rescinded until 1 September 1976, no emergency legislation was in force after 1946 to exploit this anomaly. On 6 December 1922, following the Anglo-Irish Treaty that ended the War of Independence, the island of Ireland became an autonomous dominion, known as the Irish Free State.
On 7 December 1922, the parliament of the six north-eastern counties known as Northern Ireland, voted to opt out of the Irish Free State and rejoin the United Kingdom. This Treaty settlement was followed by the bitter Irish Civil War between the pro-Treaty and anti-Treaty factions of the Irish Republican Army. After 1932, the governing party of the new state was the republican Fianna Fáil, led by Éamon de Valera. In 1937, de Valera introduced a new constitution, which had distanced the state further from the United Kingdom, which changed its name to "Ireland". In 1932–38 he had conducted the Anglo-Irish Trade War. De Valera had good relations with Neville Chamberlain, he resolved the two countries' economic differences, negotiated the return of the Treaty Ports—Berehaven and Lough Swilly—which had remained under British jurisdiction under the Anglo-Irish Treaty of 1921. The major remaining disagreement between the countries was the status of Northern Ireland; the Irish saw it as rightfully Irish territory.
Within Ireland itself, armed opposition to the treaty settlement took the name of the anti-treaty IRA, seeing itself as the "true" government of Ireland. This IRA mounted armed attacks both in Great Ireland. On 1 September 1939, German troops invaded Poland, precipitating war with the UK and France, their allies. On 2 September, de Valera told the Dáil Éireann. In this he was universally supported by the Dáil and the country at large; the 1937 constitution was amended to allow the Government to take emergency powers, the Emergency Powers Act 1939 was passed that included censorship of the press and mail correspondence. The government was able to take control of the economic life of the country under the new Minister of Supply Seán Lemass. Liberal use was made of all of these powers. Internment of those who had committed a crime or were about to commit one would be used extensively against the IRA. Censorship was under the charge of the Minister for the Co-ordination of Defensive Measures, Frank Aiken.
It was necessary to prevent publication of matter that might undermine the neutrality of the State and to prevent it becoming a clearing house for foreign intelligence, though over the period of the Emergency, the Act started to be used for more party political purposes such as preventing the publication of the numbers of Irish soldiers serving in the United Kingdom armed forces or industrial disputes within the state. In addition, the information made available to Irish people was carefully controlled. De Valera performed the duties of Minister of External Affairs, though the secretary for the Department of External Affairs, Joseph Walshe, was influential. On the declaration of the emergency, Walshe asked for assurances from the German minister in Dublin, Eduard Hempel that Germany would not use its legation for espionage nor attack Irish trade with Great Britain, he travelled to London on 6 September where he met the Dominions Secretary, Anthony Eden, conciliatory and defended Irish neutrality in subsequent Cabinet meetings.
In addition, the appointment of Sir John Maffey as a British representative in Dublin was agreed. For the Irish government, neutrality meant not displaying alignment with either side. On one hand, that meant the open announcement of military activity such as the sighting of submarines or the arrival of parachutists, the suppression of any foreign intelligence activity. Ireland's geographic position meant. For example, British airmen who crash-landed in the State were allowed to go free if they could claim not to have been on a combat mission. Many chose to escape to Great Britain via Northern Ireland. Allied mechanics were allowed to retrieve crash-landed Allied aircraft. There was extensive co-operation between British and Irish intelligence and the exchange of information such as detailed weather reports of the Atlantic Ocean. On the other hand, in the first few years of the war, the government did not show any overt preference for either side; this is because de Valera had to keep national unity, which meant accommodating the large swathe of Irish society that rejected anything to do with the British, some of w
RTÉ News Now
RTÉ News Now is an Irish free-to-air news television network operated by Irish State-broadcaster RTÉ. The channel launched as RTÉ News Now available online on 12 June 2008; the channel began broadcasting as a free-to-air channel on 29 October 2010 on Saorview. The channel broadcasts commercial-free, it is available in Ireland and globally online, on mobile phones and an iPhone/iPad application is widely available free. It is operated by RTÉ's department RTÉ News and Current Affairs and broadcasts in the Irish, English and ISL languages. RTÉ News Now was available only to online users of the RTÉ website and on mobile phones when the channel launched on 12 June 2008. Availability of the channel improved during test trials of Saorview in December 2009; the channel has been made available since May 2010 on train services within Dublin city and surrounding regions under a special agreement between CIÉ and RTÉ. Sky News provided such a service. Since October 29, 2010 the channel is available free-to-air to 98% of homes throughout the Republic of Ireland through Saorview.
Upon the announcement in February 2011 that RTÉ News Now would become a permanent fixture to the Saorview line-up a number of media organizations criticized such a move claiming RTÉ would continue to have a monopoly over news output within Ireland. In 2017 Head of News and Current Affairs at RTÉ Jon Williams has suggested he could discontinue RTÉ News Now to save money. RTÉ News Now is one of only two RTÉ channels that does not carry advertising; the other being RTÉjr. In January 2015 it was reported that RTÉ intend to ask the Minister for Communications to allow them carry advertising on RTÉ News Now as part of an overhaul of the service; the broadcaster has put forward a proposal to add advertising to the channel in the near future, such a proposal needs government sanction. The channel simulcasts live news bulletins and current affairs programmes as they are broadcast on RTÉ One and/or RTÉ Two; the remaining programming on the channel serves as a replay service of the most recent news and weather bulletins, the streaming of raw feeds of breaking news stories and'filler' programmes such as'news headlines'.
The channel air the latest breaking news stories in Ireland and around the world. The channel airs live news programmes such as Six One, as they are broadcast on other RTÉ channels, along with weather forecasts. During other periods, live current affairs programmes such as Prime Time are shown. Outside of these hours the most recent show is repeated, unless interrupted by live feeds of breaking news stories. Up-to-the-minute financial data and weather are broadcast on-air; as with many other stations, a live ticker is provided, across the bottom of the screen, providing headlines sourced from content on the broadcaster's website. RTÉ have a number of bulletins on the channel that do not air on RTÉ Two, they provide special reports from different news and current affairs programming, this is identified as RTÉ News Now Highlights. News2Day appears on the channel. RTÉ have proposed some other changes to the RTÉ News Now schedule: Television news bulletins at 08:00 and 09:00 during Morning Ireland Sporting events that RTÉ have rights to but cannot provide coverage due to scheduling conflicts Extra sporting analysis that runs on RTÉ's live Internet service The channel broadcasts a mix of news and current affairs shows.
The channel airs the following RTÉ news programmes live: Morning Ireland RTÉ News: One O'Clock RTÉ News: Six One RTÉ News: Nine O'Clock RTÉ News @ 10:00, 11:00, 12:00, 15.00, 16.00 & 23:00 Nuacht RTÉ at 17.00 and at 17.40 News2day Regular news bulletins and weather forecasts shown on RTÉ One and Two throughout the day are simulcast on RTÉ News Now. Euronews programme Raw Politics broadcasts on the channel since November 2018 airing separate to the Euronews channel. RTÉ News Now provides detailed analysis of breaking news stories domestically and internationally. RTÉ News Now simulcasts Euronews from 23:00 to 7:00 every day. RTÉ News Now weather is provided by RTÉ Two, it is a re-transmission of both services, however unlike RTÉ One and Two the channel does not carry sponsorship. RTÉ TEN provides viewers with up-to-the minute showbiz news from music reviews, film premieres and more; the show hosts a weekly round-up show each weekend. It broadcasts these current affairs shows
RTÉ Television Centre
The RTÉ Television Centre is a television studio complex, owned by Raidió Teilifís Éireann and has been home to Ireland's national public service broadcaster since 1961. It is situated at Donnybrook, Dublin 4; the building houses the main production studios for RTÉ Television, the control rooms for all RTÉ's TV channels, RTÉ's main newsroom. When plans for an Irish national television station were developed in the late 1950s attention turned to a suitable location for the new television studios and adjoining offices. By September 1959 a 25-acre area of land on the Stillorgan road in Donnybrook became the favoured site for the new television production centre. On 3 October 1960 the new Radio Éireann Authority signed a £500,000 contract for the construction of the television centre and offices at the proposed location. A few hours after this the contractors began to move in; the contract was awarded to Messrs. E. Stone & Sons Ltd. from Thorncastle street in Dublin, one of four firms invited to tender.
The building when completed in 1962 contained the first purpose-built television studios in Ireland, as existing studios in Belfast had been set up in converted buildings. At the beginning of "The Troubles" in Northern Ireland a bomb damaged the front of the building early on the morning of 5 August 1969; the Ulster Volunteer Force claimed responsibility, this being the first bomb that they had planted in the Republic of Ireland. The bombing took place during the protest campaign by the Northern Ireland Civil Rights Association but before the 1969 riots; the Television Centre, designed by the Scott-Tallon-Walker firm of architects in Dublin, is 30 feet high with the tops of the main studios rising a further 15 feet above the roof line. In all there are eight television studios in four main production studios. There were only three studios in the original building completed in 1962, since a number of new studios and sound stages have been added to the existing complex. From the early 1970s all the studios were converted to colour operation starting with Studio 3, the news studio, finishing with Studio 1 in 1976.
Since January 2019 all of the studios have been upgraded to High Definition standard. In the late 1970s RTÉ's schedule was increasing and expanding with the launch of Ireland's second channel RTÉ 2 in November 1978. There was a growing need for a new larger television studio, as Studio 1 was seen as being too small for many productions. Studios 4 and 5 were constructed towards the end of the 1970s. Studio 4 measures 6,525 sq ft. From the early 1980s onwards it would be home to the majority of RTÉ's large audience based shows. In 1995 Studio 4 was redeveloped to better cater for audiences, a new permanent seating rostra was built into it that can accommodate audiences of up to 250. Today Studio 4 is one of the busiest studios in the Television Centre, accommodating The Late Late Show, The Ray D'Arcy Show and Prime Time all in one week; as well as the studios the building houses the control rooms for the various channels, MCR, technical areas for video playout, edit suites, graphics area, scene dock, dressing rooms, green rooms, makeup area, wardrobe, a radio news studio, RTÉ's main newsroom and the RTE Canteen.
In an adjoining building there are two sound stages which are used for dramas, soaps etc. such as RTÉ's flagship soap Fair City, the award winning drama Love/Hate. The sound stages are named A and B and both measure 5,865 sq ft. 4,180 sq ft Completed in 1962, Studio 1 was the largest studio in the television centre and was designed for variety shows and musicals. The studio can comfortably accommodate an audience of 120, it is home to many of RTÉ's game shows, including Winning Streak and Know The Score. Former programmes recorded or transmitted included: 1,980 sq ft Studio 2, the second of the original studios, was designed for interviews, panel games and current affairs programmes. Programmes recorded or transmitted included: 728 sq ft The original studio was extended and equipped with unmanned robotic cameras in 2009. During December 2018 and January 2019 the studio was refurbished and upgraded to High Definition working to coincide with a relaunch of RTE News presentation on Monday 28 January 2019.
The refurbishment of the studio and news presentation was part of a € 1.7 million revamp. 6,525 sq ft The largest studio in the television centre, it can accommodate audiences of up to 250. This studio is home to programmes such as The Late Late Show, The Ray D'Arcy Show, The Tommy Tiernan Show, The Imelda May Show, Claire Byrne Live and Prime Time. 2,415 sq ft Built in the late 1970s, Studio 5 was the first studio in the television centre to be upgraded to High Definition. As home to RTÉ Sport, programmes broadcast from the studio include The Sunday Game, Soccer Republic, Against the Head, as well as RTÉ's coverage of the FIFA World Cup, UEFA Champions League and Six Nations Championship. 540 sq ft 400 sq ft 400 sq ft In 2009 RTÉ announced its long-term plans for the redevelopment of the entire Donnybrook site including the Television Centre and the Radio Centre. The project envisages the gradual replacement over a 10- to 15-year period of most of the current 1960 and 1970s buildings on the Donnybrook site with a purpose-built modern building complex designed for the digital and high-definition age
RTÉ Raidió na Gaeltachta
RTÉ Raidió na Gaeltachta, abbreviated RnaG, is the Irish-language radio service of the public-service broadcaster Raidió Teilifís Éireann. The station is available via satellite and on the Internet, it celebrated 40 years on air on 2 April 2012. The station's main-headquarters are in Casla, County Galway with major studios in Gweedore, County Donegal and Dingle, County Kerry. After the Irish Free State was formed and the Irish Civil War was concluded, the new state set up a single radio channel named 2RN in 1926, launched by Douglas Hyde; this was was not a private enterprise. The radio program, operating out of Dublin served the Anglophone population and at best reached as far as County Tipperary; those involved in setting up 2RN and J. J. Walsh discussed the possibility of setting up an Irish-language radio service for the Gaeltacht community and more were sympathetic to Irish culture which included language revival, but the project was frustrated due to economic reasons and came to little.
If we do not revive and develop Irish, we must be assimilated by one of these two communities, or by the combined power by which they must form and in that case our name and tradition and history will vanish out of human ken and our national individuality will be lost. As the Irish language was valued as part of Irish national identity and a marker of the young state's independence, there were some broadcasts in the language such as Nuacht and Tréimhseachán Teann, the latter written by Séamus Ó Néill and Ciarán Ó Nualláin; these featured alongside focus on Gaelic games, Irish traditional music and Catholic religious programming as part of a general nation-building content focus. In the 1940s, there were shows which sought to proactively teach the language such as Is Your Irish Rusty? and Listen and Learn. Irish-language programming suffered for audience figures. In 1943, Taoiseach Éamon de Valera – whose wife Sinéad Ní Fhlannagáin was a keen Conradh na Gaeilge activist – promoted the idea of a Gaeltacht station again, but there was no breakthrough.
By this time, 2RN had become Radio Éireann and still only had one channel, with limited broadcasting hours in competition for listeners with BBC Radio and Radio Luxembourg. In the 1950s, a general liberalisation and commercialisation, indeed Americanisation began to occur in Ireland, as a push was made to move Ireland from a rural-agrarian society with a protectionist cultural policy, towards a market economy basis, with supply and demand the basis of public communications; this brought Ireland into line culturally with the Western powers and paved the way for its entrance into the European Economic Community. In 1960, RTÉ was established and direct control of communications moved from a government ministry position to a non-governmental RTÉ Director-General position, first filled by the American, Edward Roth. Previous cultural policies, including broadcasting in Irish, reduced in percentage, as ratings and profit became key. In the late 1960s, a civil rights movement in the Gaeltacht Conamara emerged, seeking development and services for Irish-speakers, including a radio service.
Out of the Gluaiseacht Chearta Siabhialta na Gaeltachta's advocacy came the pirate radio station Saor Raidió Chonamara in 1970. This set the subsequent discourse for Irish-language and Gaeltacht issues as a civil rights and minority rights imperative. Gerry Collins, the Minister for Posts and Telegraphs, announced in the Dáil in February 1971 that a new radio station for the Gaeltacht would be created. Raidió na Gaeltachta began broadcasting at 3pm on 2 April 1972 as part of an Easter Sunday programming. During the first broadcast, the main station at Casla, County Galway was not yet finished and the studios in County Kerry and County Donegal were still in construction, so it was broadcast from Galway; the first Ceannaire Pádraic Ó Raghallaigh opened the show, followed by a recording from President Éamon de Valera. A recording of Seán Ó Riada's Irish-language Mass, Ceol an Aifrinn from the Seipéal Mhic Dara at Carraroe was played. At foundation, the station began with a staff of seven, including six former teachers and a businessman: Ó Raghallaigh, Breandán Feiritéar, Timlín Ó Cearnaigh, Máirtín Ó Fátharta, Seán Ó Tuairisg, Maidhc P. Ó Conaola, Mícheál Ó Sé and Feardorcha Ó Colla.
Raidió na Gaeltachta broadcast for only two hours a day and was only available in or near the three largest Gaeltacht districts. The local studio at Derrybeg in Gweedore, County Donegal, under the direction of Ulstermen, Ó Cearnaigh and Ó Colla, aided the native Irish music scene there. In the 1970s, Raidió na Gaeltachta gave early coverage to Mairéad Ní Mhaonaigh; these groups would gain popularity not only in Ireland, but on the international stage, selling millions of records during the 1980s especially. The station was dedicated to bringing the listener general news, both national and international, as well as Gaelic sports coverage and more localised affairs of significance to the community in the Gaeltacht. Following the putting in place of a fourth RTÉ national radio transmitter network (used for RTÉ lyric f