A wedding is a ceremony where two people are united in marriage. Wedding traditions and customs vary greatly between cultures, ethnic groups, religions and social classes, most wedding ceremonies involve an exchange of marriage vows by the couple, presentation of a gift, and a public proclamation of marriage by an authority figure. Special wedding garments are worn, and the ceremony is sometimes followed by a wedding reception. Music, prayers or readings from religious texts or literature are commonly incorporated into the ceremony. Some cultures have adopted the traditional Western custom of the wedding, in which a bride wears a white wedding dress. This tradition was popularized through the marriage of Queen Victoria, some say Victorias choice of a white gown may have simply been a sign of extravagance, but may have been influenced by the values she held which emphasized sexual purity. Within the modern white wedding tradition, a dress and veil are unusual choices for a womans second or subsequent wedding.
The use of a ring has long been part of religious weddings in Europe and America. Historian Vicki Howard points out that the belief in the ancient quality of the practice is most likely a modern invention, double ring ceremonies are a modern practice, a grooms wedding band not appearing in the United States until the early 20th century. The kittel is worn only under the Chupah, and is removed before the reception, different wedding clothing around the world Music played at Western weddings includes a processional song for walking down the aisle either before or after the marriage service. An example of use is reported in the wedding of Nora Robinson. Selections by George Frideric Handel, perhaps most notably the Air from his Water Music as processional, the Bridal Chorus from Lohengrin by Richard Wagner, often used as the processional and commonly known as Here Comes the Bride. Richard Wagner is said to have been anti-Semitic, and as a result, johann Pachelbels Canon in D is an alternative processional.
The Wedding March from Felix Mendelssohns incidental music for the Shakespeare play, A Midsummer Nights Dream, the Toccata from Charles-Marie Widors Symphony for Organ No. Segments of the Ode to Joy, the movement of Ludwig van Beethovens Ninth Symphony. Other alternative considerations include various contemporary melodies like Bob Marleys One Love which is performed by a steel drum band. Most religions recognize a union with established ceremonies and rituals. Some religions permit polygamous marriages or same-sex marriages, many Christian faiths emphasize the raising of children as a priority in a marriage
SES Astra SA was a corporate subsidiary of SES, based in Betzdorf, in eastern Luxembourg, that maintained and operated the Astra series of geostationary communication satellites between 2001 and 2011. Formed in 1985 as Société Européenne des Satellites, it was Europes first private satellite operator, in November 2001, upon the purchase of GE Americom from General Electric, SES Global was formed as the parent company to SES Americom and SES Astra. SES Astra was formed at time as a subsidiary company to contain all of SESs existing European based satellite operations. In September 2011, SES Astra and sister subsidiary SES World Skies were merged back into SES S. A. to streamline operations under a management system. Subsidiaries of SES Astra, such as HD Plus and ASTRA Broadband Services became direct subsidiaries of SES. At the end of 2011, Astra satellite broadcasts were received in over 135 million households in Europe, another 67.8 million households received Astra services via a cable headend, and 9.8 million households received Astra services via an IPTV network.
The satellite constellation was broadcasting 200 high definition TV channels, sixteen million households watched high definition TV channels via Astra satellites. SES Astra was involved in the introduction of digital TV, HDTV, Europes first commercial 3D TV channel, Sky 3D launched from the Astra 28. 2°E position on 1 October 2010. ASTRA2Connect Astra Digital Radio ASTRA Platform Services HD+ High Above List of broadcast satellites SES S. A
Germany, officially the Federal Republic of Germany, is a federal parliamentary republic in central-western Europe. It includes 16 constituent states, covers an area of 357,021 square kilometres, with about 82 million inhabitants, Germany is the most populous member state of the European Union. After the United States, it is the second most popular destination in the world. Germanys capital and largest metropolis is Berlin, while its largest conurbation is the Ruhr, other major cities include Hamburg, Cologne, Stuttgart, Düsseldorf and Leipzig. Various Germanic tribes have inhabited the northern parts of modern Germany since classical antiquity, a region named Germania was documented before 100 AD. During the Migration Period the Germanic tribes expanded southward, beginning in the 10th century, German territories formed a central part of the Holy Roman Empire. During the 16th century, northern German regions became the centre of the Protestant Reformation, in 1871, Germany became a nation state when most of the German states unified into the Prussian-dominated German Empire.
After World War I and the German Revolution of 1918–1919, the Empire was replaced by the parliamentary Weimar Republic, the establishment of the national socialist dictatorship in 1933 led to World War II and the Holocaust. After a period of Allied occupation, two German states were founded, the Federal Republic of Germany and the German Democratic Republic, in 1990, the country was reunified. In the 21st century, Germany is a power and has the worlds fourth-largest economy by nominal GDP. As a global leader in industrial and technological sectors, it is both the worlds third-largest exporter and importer of goods. Germany is a country with a very high standard of living sustained by a skilled. It upholds a social security and universal health system, environmental protection. Germany was a member of the European Economic Community in 1957. It is part of the Schengen Area, and became a co-founder of the Eurozone in 1999, Germany is a member of the United Nations, NATO, the G8, the G20, and the OECD.
The national military expenditure is the 9th highest in the world, the English word Germany derives from the Latin Germania, which came into use after Julius Caesar adopted it for the peoples east of the Rhine. This in turn descends from Proto-Germanic *þiudiskaz popular, derived from *þeudō, descended from Proto-Indo-European *tewtéh₂- people, the discovery of the Mauer 1 mandible shows that ancient humans were present in Germany at least 600,000 years ago. The oldest complete hunting weapons found anywhere in the world were discovered in a mine in Schöningen where three 380, 000-year-old wooden javelins were unearthed
Inside the Actors Studio
Inside the Actors Studio is an American television show on the Bravo cable television channel, hosted by James Lipton. It is produced and directed by Jeff Wurtz, the producer is James Lipton. The program, which premiered in 1994, is distributed internationally by CABLEready and is broadcast in 125 countries around the world reaching 89 million homes and it is currently taped at the Michael Schimmel Center for the Arts at Pace Universitys New York City campus. The program is presented as a seminar to students of the Actors Studio Drama School at Pace University, the result, as a New York Times article put it, In Mr. Liptons guest chair, actors cease being stars for a while and become artists and teachers. Though sometimes, some interviews go longer, Steven Spielbergs 1999 visit, for example, stretched to four hours, the interviews are guided by Liptons trademark index-card questions, which sometimes reveal his well-researched knowledge of guests lives, often startling some. On one such occasion, Billy Crystal told Lipton, You know youre scary, on another occasion, Martin Sheen asked Lipton, How do you know all this.
And Sir Anthony Hopkins, upon learning that Lipton knew the address where the former had been born and raised in Wales, turned to the audience and remarked, Hes a detective. In May 2005, the contract between the Actors Studio and New School University was not renewed, beginning with the 12th season, in the fall of 2005, the program has been taped at the Michael Schimmel Center for the Arts at Pace Universitys New York City campus. The show now has a new set with a gritty backstage feel, designed by Will Rothfuss for Blair Broadcast Designs, since its premiere, Inside the Actors Studio has had over 200 guests, with Lipton himself being the 200th. The first episodes guest was Paul Newman, the guests have included 74 Academy Award winners, eight directors, four screenwriters,61 actors and actresses, and three composers. For its 200th show, Lipton became the guest subject of the show and he was questioned by Dave Chappelle, whom he picked personally. The show ended with the Pace University provost announcing that the college is sponsoring a scholarship in Chappelles name to his high school alma mater, based on the show, James Lipton published a book titled Inside Inside in 2007.
In his review of the program, The Sunday Times critic A. A, gill wrote, The format is simple and idiotically inspired. The Actors Studio is the New York drama school made famous by Stanislavsky and these shows are thinly set-up masterclasses for students. The cleverness is in the vanity it allows the guests, who are the very greatest and most self-regarding performers and creators of theatre, people who are too grand to talk to anyone will talk to Inside the Actors Studio. They believe theyre giving something back, offering precious pearls of insight to a new generation, and who doesnt look good passing it on to adoring students. In truth, its just a show on satellite, but the veil of education and posterity is held decorously high, so everybody turns up. While most of the show is an interview conducted by Lipton
Around the World in Eighty Days
Around the World in Eighty Days is a classic adventure novel by the French writer Jules Verne, published in 1873. In the story, Phileas Fogg of London and his newly employed French valet Passepartout attempt to circumnavigate the world in 80 days on a £20,000 wager set by his friends at the Reform Club and it is one of Vernes most acclaimed works. The story starts in London on Tuesday,1 October,1872, Phileas Fogg is a rich British gentleman living in solitude. Despite his wealth, Fogg lives a modest life with habits carried out with mathematical precision, very little can be said about his social life other than that he is a member of the Reform Club. Having dismissed his valet, James Forster, for bringing him shaving water at 84 °F instead of 86 °F. He accepts a wager for £20,000 from his club members to complete such a journey within this time period. Fogg and Passepartout reach Suez in time, while disembarking in Egypt, they are watched by a Scotland Yard detective, one Fix, who has been dispatched from London in search of a bank robber.
Because Fogg answers the vague description Scotland Yard was given of the robber, since he cannot secure a warrant in time, Fix boards the steamer conveying the travellers to Bombay. Fix becomes acquainted with Passepartout without revealing his purpose, Fogg promises the steamer engineer a large reward if he gets them to Bombay early. They dock two days ahead of schedule, after reaching India they take a train from Bombay to Calcutta. Fogg learns that the Daily Telegraph article was wrong--the railroad actually ends at Kholby and starts again,50 miles further on, Fogg buys an elephant, hires a guide, and starts toward Allahabad. They come across a procession in which a young Indian woman, since the young woman is drugged with opium and hemp and is obviously not going voluntarily, the travellers decide to rescue her. They follow the procession to the site, where Passepartout takes the place of Aoudas deceased husband on the pyre on which she is to be burned. During the ceremony he rises from the pyre, scaring off the priests, the twelve hours gained earlier are lost, but Fogg shows no regret.
The travellers hasten to catch the train at the railway station. At Calcutta, they board a steamer going to Hong Kong, Fix has Fogg and Passepartout arrested. They jump bail and Fix follows them to Hong Kong and he shows himself to Passepartout, who is delighted to again meet his travelling companion from the earlier voyage. In Hong Kong, it out that Aoudas distant relative, in whose care they had been planning to leave her, has moved to Holland
1080i is an abbreviation referring to a combination of frame resolution and scan type, used in high-definition television and high-definition video. The number 1080 refers to the number of lines on the screen. The term assumes a widescreen ratio of 16,9, so the 1080 lines of vertical resolution implies 1920 columns of horizontal resolution. A1920 pixels ×1080 lines screen has a total of 2.1 megapixels and this format is used in the SMPTE 292M standard. The choice of 1080 lines originates with Charles Poynton, who in the early 1990s pushed for square pixels to be used in HD video formats, within the designation 1080i, the i stands for interlaced scan. A frame of 1080i video consists of two fields of 1920 horizontal and 540 vertical pixels. The first field consists of all odd-numbered TV lines and the second all even numbered lines, 1080i differs from 1080p, where the p stands for progressive scan, where all lines in a frame are captured at the same time. In native or pure 1080i, the two fields of a frame correspond to different instants, so motion portrayal is good and this is true for interlaced video in general and can be easily observed in still images taken of fast motion scenes.
However, when 1080p material is captured at 25 or 30 frames/second, it is converted to 1080i at 50 or 60 fields/second, respectively, in this situation both fields in a frame do correspond to the same instant. The field-to-instant relation is more complex for the case of 1080p at 24 frames/second converted to 1080i at 60 fields/second. Both field rates can be carried by digital television broadcast formats such as ATSC, DVB. The frame rate can be implied by the context, while the rate is generally specified after the letter i. In this case 1080i60 refers to 60 fields per second, the European Broadcasting Union prefers to use the resolution and frame rate separated by a slash, as in 1080i/30 and 1080i/25, likewise 480i/30 and 576i/25. Resolutions of 1080i60 or 1080i50 often refers to 1080i/30 or 1080i/25 in EBU notation, 1080i is directly compatible with some CRT HDTVs on which it can be displayed natively in interlaced form, but for display on progressive-scan—e. g. Most new LCD and plasma TVs, it must be deinterlaced, depending on the televisions video processing capabilities, the resulting video quality may vary, but may not necessarily suffer.
For example, film material at 25fps may be deinterlaced from 1080i50 to restore a full 1080p resolution at the frame rate without any loss. Preferably video material with 50 or 60 motion phases/second is to be converted to 50p or 60p before display, most HD channels on satellite and cable broadcast in 1080i. This allows local newscasts on these ABC affiliates to be produced in the resolution to match the picture quality of their 1080i competitors
Digital television is the transmission of audio and video by digitally processed and multiplexed signal, in contrast to the totally analog and channel separated signals used by analog television. Digital TV can support more than one program in the channel bandwidth. It is a service that represents the first significant evolution in television technology since color television in the 1950s. Several regions of the world are in different stages of adaptation and are implementing different broadcasting standards and this standard has been adopted in Europe, Singapore and New Zealand. Advanced Television System Committee uses eight-level vestigial sideband for terrestrial broadcasting and this standard has been adopted by six countries, United States, Mexico, South Korea, Dominican Republic and Honduras. Integrated Services Digital Broadcasting is a designed to provide good reception to fixed receivers. It utilizes OFDM and two-dimensional interleaving and it supports hierarchical transmission of up to three layers and uses MPEG-2 video and Advanced Audio Coding.
This standard has adopted in Japan and the Philippines. ISDB-T International is an adaptation of this standard using H. 264/MPEG-4 AVC that been adopted in most of South America and is being embraced by Portuguese-speaking African countries. Digital Terrestrial Multimedia Broadcasting adopts time-domain synchronous OFDM technology with a signal frame to serve as the guard interval of the OFDM block. The DTMB standard has adopted in the Peoples Republic of China, including Hong Kong. Digital TVs roots have been tied very closely to the availability of inexpensive and it wasnt until the 1990s that digital TV became a real possibility. S. Until June 1990, the Japanese MUSE standard—based on an analog system—was the front-runner among the more than 23 different technical concepts under consideration, then, an American company, General Instrument, demonstrated the feasibility of a digital television signal. This breakthrough was of significance that the FCC was persuaded to delay its decision on an ATV standard until a digitally based standard could be developed.
In March 1990, when it became clear that a standard was feasible. The new ATV standard allowed the new DTV signal to be based on new design principles. Although incompatible with the existing NTSC standard, the new DTV standard would be able to incorporate many improvements, the final standard adopted by the FCC did not require a single standard for scanning formats, aspect ratios, or lines of resolution. This outcome resulted from a dispute between the electronics industry and the computer industry over which of the two scanning processes—interlaced or progressive—is superior
Vodafone Kabel Deutschland
Kabel Deutschland is the largest cable television operator in Germany. Kabel Deutschland was subject to a takeover bid by the British Vodafone Group in September 2013. Kabel Deutschland GmbH, operates in 13 of the 16 States of Germany except Baden-Württemberg, North Rhine-Westphalia, in 2006, of the 15.4 million households passed by their cable the company served 9. The cable network was established from the mid-1980s on by the German federal post office, Kabel Deutschland was split into nine regional companies, of which three were sold to other investors until 2002. The remaining six were sold in 2003 to the US investment firms Providence Equity Partners, Apax Partners, from February 2006 to September 2010, Kabel Deutschland was majority-owned by Providence Equity Partners. On 24 June 2013, Vodafone announced a bid for Kabel Deutschland valued at €7.7 billion. The board recommended the bid above that of rival Liberty Global, on 23 September the deal was approved by the European Commission, and shortly after Vodafone completed its acquisition of 76. 57% of shares in the company.
With a basic plan, Kabel Deutschland offers about 30 free-to-air analogue TV, all analogue TV channels are available in the digital DVB-C encoding format, Plus an additional 70 television channels are not available in analogue. On top of that, about 100 digital Pay TV channels can be ordered as a subscription-based service and this includes Germanys Pay TV broadcasters Sky Deutschland as well as Kabel Deutschlands own offerings. Kabel Deutschland broadcasts from Astras 3A satellite at 23. 5° east, Kabel Deutschland offers Internet and telephone services. For historic reasons, Kabel Deutschland cannot offer its products directly to all who are connected via Kabel Deutschlands network, in the early 1980s, when the cable network was established, Kabel Deutschlands predecessor, Deutsche Bundespost had to leave in-house cables to other companies or the house owners. This turned out to be a significant obstacle since Kabel Deutschland now has to make contracts with hundreds of small cable operators
A guide is a person who leads travelers or tourists through unknown or unfamiliar locations. The term can be applied to a person who leads others to more abstract goals such as knowledge or wisdom, explorers in the past venturing into territory unknown by their own people invariably hired guides. Tour guides lead visitors through tourist attractions and give information about the natural and cultural significance. Often, they act as interpreters for travelers who do not speak the local language. Automated systems like audio tours are sometimes substituted for human tour guides, tour operators often hire guides to lead tourist groups. This professional class of guides arose in the middle of the 19th century when Alpine climbing became recognized as a sport, in Chamonix a statue has been raised to Jacques Balmat, who was the first to climb Mont Blanc in 1786. A wilderness guide leads others through wilderness areas and works to ensure the safety of their clients, wilderness guides are expected to have a command of survival skills and an understanding of the ecology and history of the location where they guide.
Other common skills among guides include traditional handicrafts and cooking methods, hunting, bird watching, wilderness tours usually take place on foot but may involve other vehicles such as cars, canoes, kayaks, or sledges. Hunting guides are employed by those seeking to hunt wildlife, especially big game animals in the wild, european hunting guides working in Africa are sometimes called white hunters, although the term is most commonly used in the context of the early 20th century. Guides employed on safari, usually for photographic safaris, although the term can be a synonym of hunting guide, safari guides who are self-employed, working on their own account with their own marketing and clientele sometimes refer to themselves as professional safari guides. Safari Guides can be unqualified, but most should be qualified, associations are typically linked to specific countries and are governed by that countries laws and policies. Guides employed by those seeking to fish for example big game fishing in Sea, fishing guides have been important in many areas of the world, including the Norwegian coast, the Swedish archipelago, Florida coast, and north Canada rivers and lakes, etc.
Fishing guides in the Gulf of Mexico are commonly referred to as a Charter Guide, there are specialists such as a Fly fishing Guide. There are thousands of fishing guides but some are better than others, often when searching on search engines like google, captains that pay for ad-services appear higher in priority. In pre-modern times, the lack of detailed maps made local guides almost essential to the direction of military operations, following the unification of Italy in 1870-71, the new national army included a regiment designated as Guides - the 19th Cavalleggieri. In the Belgian Army the two Guides regiments, created respectively in 1833 and 1874, constituted part of the light cavalry, until the outbreak of World War I, they wore a distinctive uniform comprising a plumed busby, green dolman braided in yellow, and crimson breeches. Mechanised in October 1937, both regiments formed armored battalions in the post World War II Belgian Army, following a series of amalgamations the Belgian Guides ceased to exist in 2011.
In the Swiss army prior to 1914, the squadrons of Guides acted as divisional cavalry, in this role these light cavalry units were called upon, on occasion, to lead columns and provide scouts
Austria, officially the Republic of Austria, is a federal republic and a landlocked country of over 8.7 million people in Central Europe. It is bordered by the Czech Republic and Germany to the north and Slovakia to the east and Italy to the south, the territory of Austria covers 83,879 km2. The terrain is mountainous, lying within the Alps, only 32% of the country is below 500 m. The majority of the population speaks local Bavarian dialects of German as their native language, other local official languages are Hungarian, Burgenland Croatian, and Slovene. The origins of modern-day Austria date back to the time of the Habsburg dynasty, from the time of the Reformation, many northern German princes, resenting the authority of the Emperor, used Protestantism as a flag of rebellion. Following Napoleons defeat, Prussia emerged as Austrias chief competitor for rule of a greater Germany, Austrias defeat by Prussia at the Battle of Königgrätz, during the Austro-Prussian War of 1866, cleared the way for Prussia to assert control over the rest of Germany.
In 1867, the empire was reformed into Austria-Hungary, Austria was thus the first to go to war in the July Crisis, which would ultimately escalate into World War I. The First Austrian Republic was established in 1919, in 1938 Nazi Germany annexed Austria in the Anschluss. This lasted until the end of World War II in 1945, after which Germany was occupied by the Allies, in 1955, the Austrian State Treaty re-established Austria as a sovereign state, ending the occupation. In the same year, the Austrian Parliament created the Declaration of Neutrality which declared that the Second Austrian Republic would become permanently neutral, Austria is a parliamentary representative democracy comprising nine federal states. The capital and largest city, with a population exceeding 1.7 million, is Vienna, other major urban areas of Austria include Graz, Linz and Innsbruck. Austria is one of the richest countries in the world, with a nominal per capita GDP of $43,724, the country has developed a high standard of living and in 2014 was ranked 21st in the world for its Human Development Index.
Austria has been a member of the United Nations since 1955, joined the European Union in 1995, Austria signed the Schengen Agreement in 1995, and adopted the euro currency in 1999. The German name for Austria, Österreich, meant eastern realm in Old High German, and is cognate with the word Ostarrîchi and this word is probably a translation of Medieval Latin Marchia orientalis into a local dialect. Austria was a prefecture of Bavaria created in 976, the word Austria is a Latinisation of the German name and was first recorded in the 12th century. Accordingly, Norig would essentially mean the same as Ostarrîchi and Österreich, the Celtic name was eventually Latinised to Noricum after the Romans conquered the area that encloses most of modern-day Austria, around 15 BC. Noricum became a Roman province in the mid-first century AD, heers hypothesis is not accepted by linguists. Settled in ancient times, the Central European land that is now Austria was occupied in pre-Roman times by various Celtic tribes, the Celtic kingdom of Noricum was claimed by the Roman Empire and made a province