Raška is a geographical region, covering the south-western parts of modern Serbia, also including north-eastern parts of modern Montenegro. In the Middle Ages, the region was a center of the Serbian Principality and of the Serbian Kingdom, whose capital was the city of Ras, from the 11th to the 13th century; the name is derived from the name of the region's most important fort of Ras, which first appears in the 6th century sources as Arsa, recorded under that name in the work De aedificiis of Byzantine historian Procopius. By the 10th century, the variant Ras became common name for the fort, as attested by the work De Administrando Imperio, written by Constantine Porphyrogenitus, by the Byzantine seal of John, governor of Ras. In the same time, Ras became the seat of the Eastern Orthodox Eparchy of Ras, centered in the Church of the Holy Apostles Peter and Paul; the name of the eparchy started to denote the entire area under its jurisdiction and thus becoming the common regional name. Under Stefan Nemanja, Ras was re-generated as state capital and as such it has at times been used by some in historiography to refer to Serbia from the early 12th to the early 14th century.
It had begun its use as an exonym for Serbia in Western European sources in the early 13th century, along with other names such as Dalmatia and Slavonia. The first attested appearance of the name Raška is in the Kotor charter, in which Stefan Nemanja is mentioned as župan of Raška. Soon after Raška became an exonym for Serbia in western sources in conjunction with Serbia. However, that name appears scarcely in medieval Serbian and never in Byzantine works to denote the state. Between the 15th and 18th centuries, the term Raška was used to designate the southern Pannonian Plain inhabited by Serbs, who settled there during the late Middle Ages, the Ottoman period and the Great Serb migrations from medieval Serbia, "Rácz" has survived as a common surname in Hungary. Raška was a medieval region, it was an administrative division under the direct rule of the monarch and sometimes as an appanage. The term has been used to refer to various Serbian states throughout the Middle Ages, it was the crownland, seat or appanage of the following states: Serbian Principality, center of state and religious see Catepanate of Ras and Theme of Sirmium, Byzantine province Grand Principality of Duklja, crownland.
Constantine's Serbia is identified as Raška by modern historiography to differentiate it from the other provinces ruled by these early Serbs: Zahumlje, Travunia and Pagania. Porphyrogenitus uses Serbia as a name for the mainland regions of Bosnia. Between 1918 and 1922, Raška District was one of the administrative units of the Kingdom of Serbs and Slovenes, its seat was in Novi Pazar. In 1922, a new administrative unit known as the Raška Oblast was formed with its seat in Čačak. In 1929, this administrative unit was abolished and its territory was divided among three newly formed provinces; the region is a part of the wider "Old Serbia" region, used in historical terms. Some of the churches in western Serbia and eastern Bosnia were built by masters from Raška, who belonged to the Raška architectural school, they include: Church of the Holy Apostles Peter and Paul in Stari Ras, monasteries of Gradac and Stara Pavlica. Stari Vlah is part of Priboj, Nova Varoš, Prijepolje, Užice, Čajetina, Arilje, part of the Zlatibor District, Ivanjica, part of Moravica District.
Sword of the Stars II: Lords of Winter is a science fiction strategy video game developed by Kerberos Productions. It is published by Paradox Interactive, it features the same six races as the original game along with the Suul ` ka. On October 19, 2012, Kerberos gave the'all-clear' rating, stating the game is now in an acceptable state and support for the project will continue indefinitely. In late 2012, the End of Flesh expansion was made available for free to all owners of the game, simultaneous with the release of the Enhanced Edition which bundles the original game with the expansion; the game received negative reviews from critics. The game received "generally unfavorable reviews" according to the review aggregation website Metacritic. Game Informer summarized the game as "A Total Disaster", explaining that "This might be a decent game after six more months of twice-weekly patching. Right now, it's a failure on every level." Kerberos released multiple updates following release, including an all-clear patch and the late 2012 End of Flesh expansion.
Nonetheless, impressions remained negative: PC Gamer UK found the Enhanced Edition "hobbled by bizarre design decisions." Official website via Internet Archive Sword of the Stars II: Lords of Winter at Paradox Interactive via Internet Archive Sword of the Stars II: Lords of Winter at MobyGames
At Day's End is a 2008 Egyptian short film directed by Sherif El Bendary, based on a short story by Ibrahim Aslan. An old man and his wife are visited by their son, in his thirties and their grandson, the old man becomes preoccupied whether his son has grown taller. Salah Marey.. Shawky Bassem Samra.. Dooa The film was selected for several festivals including Dubai International Film Festival, Tribeca Film Festival and Montpellier Mediterranean Film Festival; the film won the Youth Jury Award and the Cine Cinema Award at Aix-en-Provence International Short Film Festival, as well as Best Short Film award at Noah's Ark International Film Festival. At Day's End on IMDbCategory:Egyptian films Category:Arabic-language films Category:Films set in Cairo Category:Films directed by Sherif El Bendary Category:2008 films Category:Egyptian drama films