The Sanhedrin were assemblies of either twenty-three or seventy-one rabbis appointed to sit as a tribunal in every city in the ancient Land of Israel. There were two classes of rabbinical courts called Sanhedrin, the Great Sanhedrin and the Lesser Sanhedrin. A lesser Sanhedrin of 23 judges was appointed to each city, but there was to be only one Great Sanhedrin of 71 judges, which among other roles acted as the Supreme Court, taking appeals from cases decided by lesser courts. In general usage, "The Sanhedrin" without qualifier refers to the Great Sanhedrin, composed of the Nasi, who functioned as head or representing president, was a member of the court. In the Second Temple period, the Great Sanhedrin met in the Temple in Jerusalem, in a building called the Hall of Hewn Stones; the Great Sanhedrin convened every day except the sabbath day. After the destruction of the Second Temple and the failure of the Bar Kokhba Revolt, the Great Sanhedrin moved to Galilee, which became part of the Roman province of Syria Palaestina.
In this period the Sanhedrin was sometimes referred as the Galilean Patriarchate or Patriarchate of Palaestina, being the governing legal body of Galilean Jewry. In the late 200s, to avoid persecution, the name "Sanhedrin" was dropped and its decisions were issued under the name of Beit HaMidrash; the last universally binding decision of the Great Sanhedrin appeared in 358 CE, when the Hebrew Calendar was abandoned. The Great Sanhedrin was disbanded in 425 CE after continued persecution by the Eastern Roman Empire. Over the centuries, there have been attempts to revive the institution, such as the Grand Sanhedrin convened by Napoleon Bonaparte, modern attempts in Israel. In the Hebrew Bible and the Israelites were commanded by God to establish courts of judges who were given full authority over the people of Israel, who were commanded by God to obey every word the judges instructed and every law they established. Judges in ancient Israel were the religious teachers of the nation of Israel; the Mishnah arrives at the number twenty-three based on an exegetical derivation: it must be possible for a "community" to vote for both conviction and exoneration.
The minimum size of a "community" is 10 men. One more is required to achieve a majority, but a simple majority cannot convict, so an additional judge is required. A court should not have an number of judges to prevent deadlocks; this court dealt with only religious matters. The Hasmonean court in the Land of Israel, presided over by Alexander Jannaeus, king of Judea until 76 BCE, followed by his wife, was called Synhedrion or Sanhedrin; the exact nature of this early Sanhedrin is not clear. It may have been a body of sages or priests, or a political and judicial institution; the first historical record of the body was during the administration of Aulus Gabinius, according to Josephus, organized five synedra in 57 BCE as Roman administration was not concerned with religious affairs unless sedition was suspected. Only after the destruction of the Second Temple was the Sanhedrin made up only of sages; the first historic mention of a Synhedrion occurs in the Psalms of Solomon, a Jewish religious book written in Greek.
A Synhedrion is mentioned 22 times in the Greek New Testament, including in the Gospels in relation to the trial of Jesus, in the Acts of the Apostles, which mentions a ″Great Synhedrion″ in chapter 5 where rabbi Gamaliel appeared, in chapter 7 in relation to the stoning death of Saint Stephen. The Mishnah tractate Sanhedrin states that the Sanhedrin was to be recruited from the following sources: Priests and ordinary Jews who were members of those families having a pure lineage such that their daughters were allowed to marry priests. In the Second Temple period, the Great Sanhedrin met in the Hall of Hewn Stones in the Temple in Jerusalem; the court convened every day except the sabbath day. After the destruction of the Second Temple in 70 CE, the Sanhedrin was re-established in Yavneh with reduced authority; the seat of the Patriarchate moved to Usha under the presidency of Gamaliel II in 80 CE. In 116 it moved back to Yavneh, again back to Usha. Rabbinic texts indicate that following the Bar Kokhba revolt, southern Galilee became the seat of rabbinic learning in the Land of Israel.
This region was the location of the court of the Patriarch, situated first at Usha at Bet Shearim at Sepphoris and at Tiberias. The Great Sanhedrin moved in 140 to Shefaram under the presidency of Shimon ben Gamliel II, to Beit Shearim and Sepphoris in 163, under the presidency of Judah I, it moved to Tiberias in 193, under the presidency of Gamaliel III ben Judah haNasi, where it became more of a consistory, but still retained, under the presidency of Judah II, the power of excommunication. During the presidency of Gamaliel IV, due to Roman persecution, it dropped the name Sanhedrin. In the year 363, the emperor Julian, an apostate from Christianity, ordered the Temple rebuilt; the project's failure has been ascribed to the Galilee earthquake of 363, to the Jews' ambivalence about the project. Sabotage is a possibility. Divine intervention was the common view among Christian historians of the tim
Jews or Jewish people are an ethnoreligious group and a nation, originating from the Israelites and Hebrews of historical Israel and Judah. Jewish ethnicity and religion are interrelated, as Judaism is the traditional faith of the Jewish people, while its observance varies from strict observance to complete nonobservance. Jews originated as an ethnic and religious group in the Middle East during the second millennium BCE, in the part of the Levant known as the Land of Israel; the Merneptah Stele appears to confirm the existence of a people of Israel somewhere in Canaan as far back as the 13th century BCE. The Israelites, as an outgrowth of the Canaanite population, consolidated their hold with the emergence of the kingdoms of Israel and Judah; some consider that these Canaanite sedentary Israelites melded with incoming nomadic groups known as'Hebrews'. Though few sources mention the exilic periods in detail, the experience of diaspora life, from the Ancient Egyptian rule over the Levant, to Assyrian captivity and exile, to Babylonian captivity and exile, to Seleucid Imperial rule, to the Roman occupation and exile, the historical relations between Jews and their homeland thereafter, became a major feature of Jewish history and memory.
Prior to World War II, the worldwide Jewish population reached a peak of 16.7 million, representing around 0.7% of the world population at that time. 6 million Jews were systematically murdered during the Holocaust. Since the population has risen again, as of 2016 was estimated at 14.4 million by the Berman Jewish DataBank, less than 0.2% of the total world population. The modern State of Israel is the only country, it defines itself as a Jewish and democratic state in the Basic Laws, Human Dignity and Liberty in particular, based on the Declaration of Independence. Israel's Law of Return grants the right of citizenship to Jews who have expressed their desire to settle in Israel. Despite their small percentage of the world's population, Jews have influenced and contributed to human progress in many fields, both and in modern times, including philosophy, literature, business, fine arts and architecture, music and cinema, science and technology, as well as religion. Jews have played a significant role in the development of Western Civilization.
The English word "Jew" continues Iewe. These terms derive from Old French giu, earlier juieu, which through elision had dropped the letter "d" from the Medieval Latin Iudaeus, like the New Testament Greek term Ioudaios, meant both "Jew" and "Judean" / "of Judea"; the Greek term was a loan from Aramaic Y'hūdāi, corresponding to Hebrew יְהוּדִי Yehudi the term for a member of the tribe of Judah or the people of the kingdom of Judah. According to the Hebrew Bible, the name of both the tribe and kingdom derive from Judah, the fourth son of Jacob. Genesis 29:35 and 49:8 connect the name "Judah" with the verb yada, meaning "praise", but scholars agree that the name of both the patriarch and the kingdom instead have a geographic origin—possibly referring to the gorges and ravines of the region; the Hebrew word for "Jew" is יְהוּדִי Yehudi, with the plural יְהוּדִים Yehudim. Endonyms in other Jewish languages include the Yiddish ייִד Yid; the etymological equivalent is in use in other languages, e.g. يَهُودِيّ yahūdī, al-yahūd, in Arabic, "Jude" in German, "judeu" in Portuguese, "Juif" /"Juive" in French, "jøde" in Danish and Norwegian, "judío/a" in Spanish, "jood" in Dutch, "żyd" in Polish etc. but derivations of the word "Hebrew" are in use to describe a Jew, e.g. in Italian, in Persian and Russian.
The German word "Jude" is pronounced, the corresponding adjective "jüdisch" is the origin of the word "Yiddish". According to The American Heritage Dictionary of the English Language, fourth edition, It is recognized that the attributive use of the noun Jew, in phrases such as Jew lawyer or Jew ethics, is both vulgar and offensive. In such contexts Jewish is the only acceptable possibility; some people, have become so wary of this construction that they have extended the stigma to any use of Jew as a noun, a practice that carries risks of its own. In a sentence such as There are now several Jews on the council, unobjectionable, the substitution of a circumlocution like Jewish people or persons of Jewish background may in itself cause offense for seeming to imply that Jew has a negative connotation when used as a noun. Judaism shares some of the characteristics of a nation, an ethnicity, a religion, a culture, making the definition of, a Jew vary depending on whether a religious or national approach to identity is used.
In modern secular usage Jews include three groups: people who were born to a Jewish family regardless of whether or not they follow the religion, those who have some Jewish ancestral background or lineage, people without any Jewish ancestral background or lineage who have formally converted to Judaism and therefore are followers of the religion. Historical definitions of Jewish identity have traditionally been based on halakhic definitions of matrilineal descent, halakhic conversions; these definitions of, a Jew date back to the codification of the Oral
Jewish Publication Society
The Jewish Publication Society known as the Jewish Publication Society of America, is the oldest nonprofit, nondenominational publisher of Jewish works in English. Founded in Philadelphia in 1888, by reform Rabbi Joseph Krauskopf among others, JPS is well known for its English translation of the Hebrew Bible, the JPS Tanakh; the JPS Bible translation is used in Jewish and Christian seminaries, on hundreds of college campuses, in informal adult study settings, in synagogues, in Jewish day schools and supplementary programs. It has been licensed in a wide variety of books as well as in electronic media; as a nonprofit publisher, JPS continues to develop projects that for-profit publishers will not invest in, significant projects that may take years to complete. Other core JPS projects include the ongoing JPS Bible commentary series. Since 2012, JPS publications have been distributed by the University of Nebraska Press; the first Jewish Publication Society was founded in 1845 in Philadelphia, but was dissolved six years after a fire destroyed the building and the entire JPS stock.
A second, founded in New York in 1873, ended in 1875. The 1880s saw an "awakening of interest in Judaism and Jewish culture of the part of young Jews... growing sense of American Jewry's destiny on the world Jewish stage." In response to the growing need for English-language Jewish texts and lay leaders of the American Jewish community met on June 3, 1888 at a national convention in Philadelphia to discuss the re-founding of a national Jewish publication society. That day, after many squabbles and political maneuverings, the Jewish Publication Society was "gaveled into being."As JPS moved into the 20th century, membership grew rapidly. After years of meetings and revisions, the entire translation of the Bible was completed in 1917; this crowning achievement was put to use at the start of World War I, when young Jewish men were given prayer books and Bible readings as they marched off to war. As Hitler and the Nazi party rose to power during the 1930s, Jews in America resisted anti-Semitism through the power of words.
Works such as The Decay of Czarism and Legends of the Jews became staples of Jewish literacy and helped to preserve the legacy of European Jewry. JPS assisted the war effort by supporting refugee employment and resettlement, by printing pamphlets that were dropped behind enemy lines, at the request of the American government. During the latter half of the 20th century, JPS published a revised translation of the Bible, books detailing both war atrocities and triumphs, books with a new-found focus on the State of Israel. Works such as The JPS Commentary Series, The Jewish Catalog and The K'Tonton Series were tremendously successful. In 1985, the newly translated three parts of the Bible were compiled into what is now known as the JPS Tanakh. In September 2011, JPS entered into a new collaborative publishing arrangement with the University of Nebraska Press, under which Nebraska purchased all of JPS's outstanding book inventory, is responsible for the production and marketing of all JPS publications, effective January 1, 2012.
JPS continues its operations from its Philadelphia headquarters, acquiring new manuscripts and developing new projects. JPS is governed by a Board of Trustees, headed by Board President Gittel Hilibrand. Past editors-in-chief include Henrietta Szold, Solomon Grayzel, Chaim Potok. Chaim Potok was involved in JPS's publication activities for 35 years, serving as editor for 8 years, secretary of the Bible translation committee for the Writings for 16 years, chair of the JPS Editorial Committee for 18 years and literary editor to its Bible program for 18 years. Dr. Ellen Frankel was editor-in-chief from 1991 until her retirement in October 2009, she is now Editor Emerita of the Society. Rabbi Barry L. Schwartz became the CEO in 2010, when he came to JPS from Congregation M'Kor Shalom in Cherry Hill, New Jersey, where he served as senior rabbi for 11 years. Rabbi Schwartz served on the board of several nonprofit social justice organizations, is active in Jewish environmental work. Carol Hupping was managing editor from 1991 until her retirement in March, 2016.
Joy Weinberg succeeded her as managing editor in April 2016. The JPS Torah Commentaries The JPS Bible Commentaries" Outside the Bible: Ancient Jewish Writings Related to Scripture, Louis H. Feldman, James L. Kugel and Lawrence Schiffman The JPS Commentary on the Haggadah", Joseph Tabory Dictionary of Jewish Words, Joyce Eisenberg and Ellen Scolnic The Jewish Bible, The Jewish Publication Society Celebrating the Jewish Year in 3 volumes, Paul Steinberg, Janet Greenstein Potter The Commentators' Bible, Michael Carasik JPS Illustrated Children's Bible, Ellen Frankel Chanting the Hebrew Bible, Josh Jacobson The JPS TANAKH: The Jewish Bible, audio version is a recorded version of the JPS TANAKH, the most read English translation of the Hebrew Bible. Produced and recorded for The Jewish Publication Society by The Jewish Braille Institute, this complete, unabridged audio version features over 60 hours of readings by 13 narrators, it is available for purchase or by subscr
Heinrich Graetz was amongst the first historians to write a comprehensive history of the Jewish people from a Jewish perspective. Born Tzvi Hirsh Graetz to a butcher family in Xions, Grand Duchy of Posen, in Prussia, he attended Breslau University, but since Jews at that time were barred from receiving Ph. D.s there, he obtained his doctorate from the University of Jena. After 1845 he was principal of the Jewish Orthodox school of the Breslau community, taught history at the Jewish Theological Seminary in Breslau, his magnum opus History of the Jews was translated into other languages and ignited worldwide interest in Jewish history. In 1869 the University of Breslau granted him the title of Honorary Professor. In 1888 he was appointed an Honorary Member of the Spanish Royal Academy of Sciences. Graetz received his first instruction at Zerkov, where his parents had relocated, in 1831 was sent to Wolstein, where he attended the yeshivah up to 1836, acquiring secular knowledge by private study.
The "Neunzehn Briefe von Ben Uziel" made a powerful impression on him. His first intention was to go to Prague, to which place he was attracted by the fame of its old yeshivah and the facilities afforded by the university. Being rejected by the immigration officers, he returned to Zerkov and wrote to Samson Raphael Hirsch rabbi of Oldenburg, intimating his desire. Hirsch offered him a home in his house. Graetz arrived there on May 8, 1837, spent three years with his patron as a pupil and amanuensis. In 1840 he accepted a tutorship with a family at Ostrowo, in October 1842 he entered the University of Breslau. At that time the controversy between Orthodoxy and Reform Judaism was at its height, Graetz, true to the principles which he had imbibed from Hirsch, began his literary career by writing contributions to the "Orient", edited by Julius Fürst, in which he criticized the Reform party, as well as Geiger's text-book of the Mishnah; these contributions and his championship of the Conservative cause during the time of the rabbinical conferences made him popular with the Orthodox party.
This was the case when he agitated for a vote of confidence to be given to Zecharias Frankel after he had left the Frankfurt conference because of the stand which the majority had taken on the question of the Hebrew language. After Graetz had obtained his degree of Ph. D. from the University of Jena, he was made principal of a religious school founded by the Conservatives in Breslau. In the same year he was invited to preach a trial sermon before the congregation of Gleiwitz, but failed completely, he remained in Breslau until 1848, upon the advice of a friend, he went to Vienna, purposing to follow a journalistic career. On the way he stopped at Nikolsburg, where Hirsch was residing as Moravian chief rabbi. Hirsch, who contemplated the establishment of a rabbinical seminary, employed Graetz temporarily as teacher at Nikolsburg, afterward gave him a position as principal of the Jewish school in the neighboring city of Lundenburg. In October 1850, Graetz married Marie Monasch, the daughter of the printer and publisher B. L. Monasch, of Krotoschin.
It seems. They do not seem to have been successful. Meantime his advocacy of Frankel's course had brought him into close contact with the latter, for whose magazine he wrote articles. In this position he remained up to his death, teaching history and Bible exegesis, with a preparatory course on the Talmud. In 1869 the government conferred upon him the title of professor, thenceforward he lectured at Breslau University. In 1872 Graetz went to Palestine in the company of his friend Gottschalck Levy of Berlin, for the purpose of studying the scenes of the earliest period of Jewish history, which he treated in volumes one and two of his history, published in 1874-76. While in Palestine, he gave the first impetus to the foundation of an orphan asylum there, he took a great interest in the progress of the Alliance Israélite Universelle, participated as a delegate in the convention assembled at Paris in 1878 in the interest of the Romanian Jews. Graetz's name was prominently mentioned in the anti-Semitic controversy after Treitschke had published his "Ein Wort über Unser Judenthum", in which the latter, referring to the eleventh volume of the history, accused Graetz of hatred of Christianity and of bias against the German people, quoting him as a proof that the Jews could never assimilate themselves to their surroundings.
This arraignment of Graetz had a decided effect upon the public. Friends of the Jews, like Mommsen, advocates of Judaism within the Jewish fold expressed their condemnation of Graetz's passionate language, it was due to this comparative unpopularity that Graetz was not invited to join the commission created by the union of German Jewish congregations for the promotion of the study of the history of the Jews of Germany. On the other hand, his fam
There were a Theodosius II of Abkhazia, a Patriarch Theodosius II of Alexandria and a Theodosius II of Constantinople. Additionally, Pope Theodoros I of Alexandria is known as Theodosius II in Coptic history. Theodosius II surnamed Theodosius the Younger, or Theodosius the Calligrapher, was the Eastern Roman Emperor for most of his life, taking the throne as an infant in 402 and ruling as the Eastern Empire's sole emperor after the death of his father Arcadius in 408, he is known for promulgating the Theodosian law code, for the construction of the Theodosian Walls of Constantinople. He presided over the outbreak of two great Christological controversies and Eutychianism. Theodosius was born in 401 as the only son of Emperor Arcadius and his Frankish-born wife Aelia Eudoxia. In January 402 he was proclaimed co-Augustus by his father, thus becoming the youngest person to bear this title in Roman history. In 408, his father died and the seven-year-old boy became Emperor of the Eastern half of the Roman Empire.
According to Procopius, the Sasanian king Yazdegerd I was appointed by Arcadius as the guardian of Theodosius, whom Yazdegerd treated as his own child, sending a tutor to raise him and warning that enmity toward him would be taken as enmity toward Persia. Government was at first by the Praetorian Prefect Anthemius, under whose supervision the Theodosian land walls of Constantinople were constructed. In 414, Theodosius' older sister Pulcheria was assumed the regency. By 416 Theodosius was declared Augustus in his own right and the regency ended, but his sister remained a strong influence on him. In June 421, Theodosius married a woman of Greek origin; the two had a daughter named Licinia Eudoxia. A separation occurred between the imperial couple, with Eudocia's establishment in Jerusalem where she favoured monastic Monophysitism and Pulcheria reassuming an influential role with the support of the eunuch Chrysaphius. Theodosius' increasing interest in Christianity, fuelled by the influence of Pulcheria, led him to go to war against the Sassanids, who were persecuting Christians.
In 423, the Western Emperor Honorius, Theodosius' uncle and the primicerius notariorum Joannes was proclaimed Emperor. Honorius' sister Galla Placidia and her young son Valentinian fled to Constantinople to seek Eastern assistance and after some deliberation in 424 Theodosius opened the war against Joannes. On 23 October 425, Valentinian III was installed as Emperor of the West with the assistance of the magister officiorum Helion, with his mother acting as regent. To strengthen the ties between the two parts of the Empire, Theodosius' daughter Licinia Eudoxia was betrothed to Valentinian. In 425, Theodosius founded the University of Constantinople with 31 chairs. Among the subjects were law, medicine, geometry, astronomy and rhetoric. In 429, Theodosius appointed a commission to collect all of the laws since the reign of Constantine I, create a formalized system of law; this plan was left unfinished, but the work of a second commission that met in Constantinople, assigned to collect all of the general legislations and bring them up to date, was completed.
The law code of Theodosius II, summarizing edicts promulgated since Constantine, formed a basis for the law code of Emperor Justinian I, the Corpus Juris Civilis, in the following century. The war with Persia proved indecisive, a peace was arranged in 422 without changes to the status quo; the wars of Theodosius were less successful. The Eastern Empire was plagued by raids by the Huns. Early in Theodosius II's reign Romans used internal Hun discord to overcome Uldin's invasion of the Balkans; the Romans strengthened their fortifications and in 424 agreed to pay 350 pounds of gold to encourage the Huns to remain at peace with the Romans. In 433 with the rise of Attila and Bleda to unify the Huns, the payment was doubled to 700 pounds; when Roman Africa fell to the Vandals in 439, both Eastern and Western Emperors sent forces to Sicily, intending to launch an attack on the Vandals at Carthage, but this project failed. Seeing the Imperial borders without significant forces, the Huns and Sassanid Persia both attacked and the expeditionary force had to be recalled.
During 443 two Roman armies were destroyed by the Huns. Anatolius negotiated a peace agreement. In 447 the Huns went through the Balkans, destroying among others the city of Serdica and reaching Athyra on the outskirts of Constantinople. During a visit to Syria, Theodosius met the monk Nestorius, a renowned preacher, he appointed Nestorius Archbishop of Constantinople in 428. Nestorius became involved in the disputes of two theological factions, which differed in their Christology. Nestorius tried to find a middle ground between those who, emphasizing the fact that in Christ God had been born as a man, insisted on calling the Virgin Mary Theotokos, those who rejected that title because God, as an eternal being, could not have been born. Nestorius suggested the title Christotokos as a compromise, but it did not find acceptance with either faction, he was accused of separating Christ's divine and human natures, resulting in "two Christs", a heresy called Nestorianism. Though initial
Honorius was Western Roman Emperor from 395 to 423. He was the younger son of emperor Theodosius I and his first wife Aelia Flaccilla, brother of Arcadius, the Eastern Emperor from 395 until his death in 408. During his reign, Rome was sacked for the first time in 800 years. By the standards of the declining Western Empire, Honorius's reign was precarious and chaotic, his reign was supported by his principal general, successively Honorius's guardian and his father-in-law. Stilicho's generalship helped preserve some level of stability, but with his execution in 408, the Western Roman Empire moved closer to collapse. After holding the consulate at the age of two, Honorius was declared Augustus by his father Theodosius I, thus co-ruler, on 23 January 393 after the death of Valentinian II and the usurpation of Eugenius; when Theodosius died, in January 395, Honorius and Arcadius divided the Empire, so that Honorius became Western Roman Emperor at the age of ten. During the first part of his reign Honorius depended on the military leadership of the general Stilicho, appointed by Theodosius and was of mixed Vandal and Roman ancestry.
To strengthen his bonds with the young emperor, Stilicho married his daughter Maria to him. The epithalamion written for the occasion by Stilicho's court poet Claudian survives. Honorius was greatly influenced by the Popes of Rome, who sought to extend their influence through his youth and weak character. So it was that Pope Innocent I contrived to have Honorius write to his brother, condemning the deposition of John Chrysostom in 407. At first Honorius based his capital in Milan, but when the Visigoths under King Alaric I entered Italy in 401 he moved his capital to the coastal city of Ravenna, protected by a ring of marshes and strong fortifications. While the new capital was easier to defend, it was poorly situated to allow Roman forces to protect Central Italy from the regular threat of barbarian incursions, it was significant that the Emperor's residence remained in Ravenna until the overthrow of the last western Roman Emperor in 476. That was the reason why Ravenna was chosen not only as the capital of the Ostrogothic Kingdom in Italy, but for the seat of the Byzantine exarchs as well.
Honorius' reign was plagued by constant barbarian incursions into Gaul and Hispania. At the same time, a host of usurpers rose up due to the apparent inability of the Emperor to see to the Empire's defences; the first crisis faced by Honorius was a revolt led by Gildo, the Comes Africae and Magister utriusque militiae per Africam, in Northern Africa, which lasted for two years. It was subdued by Stilicho, under the local command of Mascezel, the brother of Gildo; the next crisis was the Visigoth invasion of Italy in 402 under the formidable command of their king, Alaric. Stilicho was absent in Raetia in the latter months of 401, when Alaric, the Eastern Empire's magister militum in Illyricum marched with a large army to the Julian Alps and entered Italy. Stilicho hurried back to protect Honorius and the legions of Gaul and Britain were summoned to defend Italy. Honorius, slumbering at Milan, was caught unaware and fled to Asti, only to be pursued by Alaric, who marched into Liguria. Stilicho defeated Alaric on the river Tanarus on Easter Day.
Alaric retreated to Verona. The Visigoths, were allowed to retreat back to Illyricum. In 405 Stilicho met, they brought devastation to the heart of the Empire, until Stilicho defeated them in 406 and recruited most of them into his forces. In 405/6, an enormous barbarian horde, composed of Ostrogoths, Alans and Quadi, crossed the frozen Rhine and invaded Gaul; the situation in Britain was more difficult. The British provinces were isolated, lacking support from the Empire, the soldiers supported the revolts of Marcus and Constantine III. Constantine invaded Gaul in 407, occupying Arles, while Constantine was in Gaul, his son Constans ruled over Britain. By 410, Britain was told to look after its own affairs and expect no aid from Rome. There was good reason for this as the western empire was overstretched due to the massive invasion of Alans and Vandals who, although they had been repulsed from Italy in 406, moved into Gaul on 31 December 406, arrived in Hispania in 409. In early 408, Stilicho attempted to strengthen his position at court by marrying his second daughter, Thermantia, to Honorius after the death of the Empress Maria in 407 making Honorius the last Western Roman Emperor to have multiple wives.
Another invasion by Alaric was prevented in 408 by Stilicho when he forced the Roman Senate to pay 4,000 pounds of gold to persuade the Goths to leave Italy. Honorius, in the meantime, was at Bononia, on his way from Ravenna to Ticinum, when the news reached him of his brother's death in May 408, he at first was planning to go to Constantinople to help set up the court in the wake of the accession of Theodosius II. Summoned from Ravenna for advice, Stilicho advised Honorius not to go, proceeded to go himself. In Stilicho's absence, a minister named, he convinced the emperor that his Arian father-in-law was conspiring with the barbarians to overthrow him. On his return to Ravenna, Honorius ordered the execution of Stilicho. With Stilicho’s fall, Honorius moved against all of his former father-in-law’s allies and torturing key individuals and ordering the confisca
Christians are people who follow or adhere to Christianity, a monotheistic Abrahamic religion based on the life and teachings of Jesus Christ. The words Christ and Christian derive from the Koine Greek title Christós, a translation of the Biblical Hebrew term mashiach. While there are diverse interpretations of Christianity which sometimes conflict, they are united in believing that Jesus has a unique significance; the term "Christian" is used as an adjective to describe anything associated with Christianity, or in a proverbial sense "all, noble, good, Christ-like."According to a 2011 Pew Research Center survey, there were 2.2 billion Christians around the world in 2010, up from about 600 million in 1910. By 2050, the Christian population is expected to exceed 3 billion. According to a 2012 Pew Research Center survey Christianity will remain the world's largest religion in 2050, if current trends continue. Today, about 37% of all Christians live in the Americas, about 26% live in Europe, 24% live in sub-Saharan Africa, about 13% live in Asia and the Pacific, 1% live in the Middle East and North Africa.
About half of all Christians worldwide are Catholic. Orthodox communions comprise 12% of the world's Christians. Other Christian groups make up the remainder. Christians make up the majority of the population in territories. 280 million Christians live as a minority. Christians have made noted contributions to a range of fields, including the sciences, politics and business. According to 100 Years of Nobel Prizes, a review of Nobel prizes awarded between 1901 and 2000 reveals that of Nobel Prizes laureates identified Christianity in its various forms as their religious preference; the Greek word Χριστιανός, meaning "follower of Christ", comes from Χριστός, meaning "anointed one", with an adjectival ending borrowed from Latin to denote adhering to, or belonging to, as in slave ownership. In the Greek Septuagint, christos was used to translate the Hebrew מָשִׁיחַ, meaning " anointed." In other European languages, equivalent words to Christian are derived from the Greek, such as Chrétien in French and Cristiano in Spanish.
The abbreviations Xian and Xtian have been used since at least the 17th century: Oxford English Dictionary shows a 1634 use of Xtianity and Xian is seen in a 1634-38 diary. The word Xmas uses a similar contraction; the first recorded use of the term is in the New Testament, in Acts 11:26, after Barnabas brought Saul to Antioch where they taught the disciples for about a year, the text says: " the disciples were called Christians first in Antioch." The second mention of the term follows in Acts 26:28, where Herod Agrippa II replied to Paul the Apostle, "Then Agrippa said unto Paul, Almost thou persuadest me to be a Christian." The third and final New Testament reference to the term is in 1 Peter 4:16, which exhorts believers: "Yet if as a Christian, let him not be ashamed. The city of Antioch, where someone gave them the name Christians, had a reputation for coming up with such nicknames; however Peter's apparent endorsement of the term led to its being preferred over "Nazarenes" and the term Christianoi from 1 Peter becomes the standard term in the Early Church Fathers from Ignatius and Polycarp onwards.
The earliest occurrences of the term in non-Christian literature include Josephus, referring to "the tribe of Christians, so named from him. In the Annals he relates that "by vulgar appellation called Christians" and identifies Christians as Nero's scapegoats for the Great Fire of Rome. Another term for Christians which appears in the New Testament is "Nazarenes". Jesus is named as a Nazarene in Math 2:23, while Saul-Paul is said to be Nazarene in Acts 24:5; the latter verse makes it clear that Nazarene referred to the name of a sect or heresy, as well as the town called Nazareth. The term Nazarene was used by the Jewish lawyer Tertullus which records that "the Jews call us Nazarenes." While around 331 AD Eusebius records that Christ was called a Nazoraean from the name Nazareth, that in earlier centuries "Christians" were once called "Nazarenes". The Hebrew equivalent of "Nazarenes", occurs in the Babylonian Talmud, is still the modern Israeli Hebrew term for Christian. A wide range of beliefs and practices are found across the world among those who call themselves Christian.
Denominations and sects disagree on a common definition of "Christianity". For example, Timothy Beal notes the disparity of beliefs among those who identify as Christians in the United States as follows: Although all of them have their historical roots in Christian theology and tradition, although most would identify themselves as Christian, many would not identify others within the larger category as Christian. Most Baptists and fundamentalists, for example, would not acknowledge Mormonism or Christian Science as Christian. In fact, the nearly 77 percent of Americans who self-identify as Christian are a diverse pluribus of Christianities that are far from any collective unity. Linda Woodhead attempts to provide a common belief thread for Christians by noting that "Whatever else they might disagree about, Christians are at least united