Plantago is a genus of about 200 species of small, inconspicuous plants called plantains or fleaworts. The common name plantain is shared with a kind of banana. Most are herbaceous plants; the leaves are sessile, but have a narrow part near the stem, a pseudo-petiole. They have five parallel veins that diverge in the wider part of the leaf. Leaves are narrow, depending on the species; the inflorescences are borne on stalks 5–40 cm tall, can be a short cone or a long spike, with numerous tiny wind-pollinated flowers. They are found all over the world, including America, Australia, New Zealand and Europe. Many species in the genus are cosmopolitan weeds, they are found in many different habitats, most in wet areas like seepages or bogs. They can be found in alpine and semi-alpine or coastal areas; the cosmopolitan weeds can be seen at the side of roads. The boundaries of the genus Plantago have been stable, with the main question being whether to include Bougueria and Littorella. There are about 200 species of Plantago, including: The genus name Plantago descends from the classical Latin name plantago, which in classical Latin meant some Plantago species, including Plantago major and Plantago media.
In Latin the name was formed from the classical Latin word planta = "sole of the foot". The name was so formed in Latin because the leaves of these species grow out near flat at ground level; the suffix -ago in Latin means "a sort of". Plantains are used as food plants by the larvae of some species of Lepidoptera —see list of Lepidoptera that feed on plantains. Plantago species have been used since prehistoric times as herbal remedies; the herb is astringent, anti-toxic, anti-inflammatory, anti-histamine, as well as demulcent, expectorant and diuretic. Externally, a poultice of the leaves is useful for insect bites, poison-ivy rashes, minor sores, boils. In folklore it is claimed to be able to cure snakebite and was used by the Dakota Indian tribe of North America for this. Internally, it is used as a tea, tincture, or syrup; the broad-leaved varieties are sometimes used as a leaf vegetable for salads, green sauce, so on. Plantain seed husks expand and become mucilaginous when wet those of P. psyllium, used in common over-the-counter bulk laxative and fiber supplement products such as Metamucil.
P. psyllium seed is useful for constipation, irritable bowel syndrome, dietary fiber supplementation, diverticular disease. Plantain has been consumed as human food since prehistory. For example, archaeological recovery along California's Central Coast has demonstrated use of this species as a food since the Millingstone Horizon. Psyllium supplements are used in powder form, along with adequate amounts of fluids. A dose of at least 7 grams daily taken with adequate amounts of fluid is used by some for management of elevated cholesterol. There are a number of psyllium products used for constipation; the usual dose is about 3.5 grams twice a day. Psyllium is a component of several ready-to-eat cereals. Mucilage from desert indianwheat is obtained by grinding off the husk; this mucilage known as psyllium, is sold as Isabgol, a laxative, used to control irregular bowel syndrome and constipation. It has been used as an indigenous Unani medicine for a whole range of bowel problems; as Old English Wegbrade the plantago is one of the nine plants invoked in the pagan Anglo-Saxon Nine Herbs Charm, recorded in the 10th century.
In Serbia and Bulgaria, leaves from Plantago major are used as a folk remedy to preventing infection on cuts and scratches because of its antiseptic properties. In Slovenia and other Central European regions, the leaves were traditionally used topically as a cure for blisters resulting from friction and as relief on mosquito bites in eastern Westphalia, as well as western Eastphalia. There may be a use for plantains in the abatement of enteric methane from ruminants, as the natural compounds present, affect the acetate-propionate ratio in the rumen, a primary mechanism by which methanogenesis is restricted; this is not a viable option in any significant scale due to agronomic difficulties. Common Plantain, from Mrs. Grieve's herbal Medicinal uses of P. major in Armenia Additional information about psyllium, including growing procedure and economic value Edibility of Plantago: Visual identification and edible parts of wild plantago
Fittonia is a genus of flowering plants in the acanthus family Acanthaceae, native to tropical rainforest in South America Peru. The most grown are F. albivenis and its cultivars. They are spreading evergreen perennials growing 10–15 cm tall, they bear lush green leaves with accented veins of white to deep pink and have a short fuzz covering their stems. Small buds may appear after a time. Flowers are small with a white to off-white colour. Plants are best kept in a moist area with mild sunlight and temperatures above 55 °F, therefore in temperate areas they must be grown as houseplants. Without water for a few days, this plant is known to "faint" but is revived with a quick watering, its spreading habit makes it ideal as groundcover. Fittonia albivenis "Leaves used by the Machiguenga as a hallucinogenic admixture in kamarampi prior to their introduction to Psychotria viridis." Fittonia gigantea IPNI Listing Kew Plant List
White is the lightest color and is achromatic. It is the color of fresh snow and milk, is the opposite of black. White objects reflect and scatter all the visible wavelengths of light. White on television and computer screens is created by a mixture of red and green light. In ancient Egypt and ancient Rome, priestesses wore white as a symbol of purity, Romans wore a white toga as a symbol of citizenship. In the Middle Ages and Renaissance a white unicorn symbolized chastity, a white lamb sacrifice and purity, it was the royal color of the Kings of France, of the monarchist movement that opposed the Bolsheviks during the Russian Civil War. Greek and Roman temples were faced with white marble, beginning in the 18th century, with the advent of neoclassical architecture, white became the most common color of new churches and other government buildings in the United States, it was widely used in 20th century modern architecture as a symbol of modernity and simplicity. According to surveys in Europe and the United States, white is the color most associated with perfection, the good, cleanliness, the beginning, the new and exactitude.
White is an important color for all world religions. The Pope, the head of the Roman Catholic Church, has worn white since 1566, as a symbol of purity and sacrifice. In Islam, in the Shinto religion of Japan, it is worn by pilgrims. In Western cultures and in Japan, white is the most common color for wedding dresses, symbolizing purity and virginity. In many Asian cultures, white is the color of mourning; the word white continues Old English hwīt from a Common Germanic *χwītaz reflected in OHG wîz, ON hvítr, Goth. ƕeits. The root is from Proto-Indo-European language *kwid-, surviving in Sanskrit śveta "to be white or bright" and Slavonic světŭ "light"; the Icelandic word for white, hvítur, is directly derived from the Old Norse form of the word hvítr. Common Germanic had the word *blankaz, borrowed into Late Latin as *blancus, which provided the source for Romance words for "white"; the antonym of white is black. Some non-European languages have a wide variety of terms for white; the Inuit language has seven different words for seven different nuances of white.
Sanskrit has specific words for bright white, the white of teeth, the white of sandalwood, the white of the autumn moon, the white of silver, the white of cow's milk, the white of pearls, the white of a ray of sunlight, the white of stars. Japanese has six different words, depending upon brilliance or dullness, or if the color is inert or dynamic. White was one of the first colors used in art; the Lascaux Cave in France contains drawings of bulls and other animals drawn by paleolithic artists between 18,000 and 17,000 years ago. Paleolithic artists used calcite or chalk, sometimes as a background, sometimes as a highlight, along with charcoal and red and yellow ochre in their vivid cave paintings. In ancient Egypt, white was connected with the goddess Isis; the priests and priestesses of Isis dressed only in white linen, it was used to wrap mummies. In Greece and other ancient civilizations, white was associated with mother's milk. In Greek mythology, the chief god Zeus was nourished at the breast of the nymph Amalthea.
In the Talmud, milk was one of four sacred substances, along with wine and the rose. The ancient Greeks saw the world in terms of darkness and light, so white was a fundamental color. According to Pliny the Elder in his Natural History and the other famous painters of ancient Greece used only four colors in their paintings. A plain white toga, known as a toga virilis, was worn for ceremonial occasions by all Roman citizens over the age of 14–18. Magistrates and certain priests wore a toga praetexta, with a broad purple stripe. In the time of the Emperor Augustus, no Roman man was allowed to appear in the Roman forum without a toga; the ancient Romans had two words for white. A man who wanted public office in Rome wore a white toga brightened with chalk, called a toga candida, the origin of the word candidate; the Latin word candere meant to be bright. It was the origin of the words candid. In ancient Rome, the priestesses of the goddess Vesta dressed in white linen robes, a white palla or shawl, a white veil.
They protected the penates of Rome. White symbolized their purity and chastity; the early Christian church adopted the Roman symbolism of white as the color of purity and virtue. It became the color worn by priests during Mass, the color worn by monks of the Cistercian Order, under Pope Pius V, a former monk of the Dominican Order, it became the official color worn by the pope himself. Monks of the Order of Saint Benedict dressed in the white or gray of natural undyed wool, but changed to black, the color of humility and penitence. Postclassical history art, the white lamb became the symbol of the sacrifice of Christ on behalf of mankind. John the Baptist described Christ as the lamb of God; the white lamb was the center of one of the most famous paintings of the Medieval period, the Ghent Altarpiece by Jan van Eyck. White was the symbolic color of the transfiguration; the Gospel of Saint Mark describes Jesus' clothing in this event as "shining, exceeding white as snow." Artists such as Fra Angelico used their skill
Rabbits are small mammals in the family Leporidae of the order Lagomorpha. Oryctolagus cuniculus includes the European rabbit species and its descendants, the world's 305 breeds of domestic rabbit. Sylvilagus includes 13 wild rabbit species, among them the 7 types of cottontail; the European rabbit, introduced on every continent except Antarctica, is familiar throughout the world as a wild prey animal and as a domesticated form of livestock and pet. With its widespread effect on ecologies and cultures, the rabbit is, in many areas of the world, a part of daily life—as food, clothing, a companion, as a source of artistic inspiration. Male rabbits are called bucks. An older term for an adult rabbit is coney. Another term for a young rabbit is bunny, though this term is applied informally to rabbits especially domestic ones. More the term kit or kitten has been used to refer to a young rabbit. A group of rabbits is known as a nest. A group of baby rabbits produced from a single mating is referred to as a litter, a group of domestic rabbits living together is sometimes called a herd.
Rabbits and hares were classified in the order Rodentia until 1912, when they were moved into a new order, Lagomorpha. Below are some of the species of the rabbit. Order Lagomorpha Family Leporidae Hares are precocial, born mature and mobile with hair and good vision, while rabbits are altricial, born hairless and blind, requiring closer care. Hares live a solitary life in a simple nest above the ground, while most rabbits live in social groups underground in burrows or warrens. Hares are larger than rabbits, with ears that are more elongated, with hind legs that are larger and longer. Hares have not been domesticated, while descendants of the European rabbit are bred as livestock and kept as pets. Rabbits have long been domesticated. Beginning in the Middle Ages, the European rabbit has been kept as livestock, starting in ancient Rome. Selective breeding has generated a wide variety of rabbit breeds, many of which are kept as pets; some strains of rabbit have been bred as research subjects. As livestock, rabbits are bred for their fur.
The earliest breeds were important sources of meat, so became larger than wild rabbits, but domestic rabbits in modern times range in size from dwarf to giant. Rabbit fur, prized for its softness, can be found in a broad range of coat colors and patterns, as well as lengths; the Angora rabbit breed, for example, was developed for its long, silky fur, hand-spun into yarn. Other domestic rabbit breeds have been developed for the commercial fur trade, including the Rex, which has a short plush coat; because the rabbit's epiglottis is engaged over the soft palate except when swallowing, the rabbit is an obligate nasal breather. Rabbits have two sets of one behind the other; this way they can be distinguished from rodents, with which they are confused. Carl Linnaeus grouped rabbits and rodents under the class Glires. However, recent DNA analysis and the discovery of a common ancestor has supported the view that they do share a common lineage, thus rabbits and rodents are now referred to together as members of the superorder Glires.
Since speed and agility are a rabbit's main defenses against predators, rabbits have large hind leg bones and well developed musculature. Though plantigrade at rest, rabbits are on their toes while running, assuming a more digitigrade form. Rabbits use their strong claws for defense; each front foot has four toes plus a dewclaw. Each hind foot has four toes. Most wild rabbits have full, egg-shaped bodies; the soft coat of the wild rabbit is agouti in coloration. The tail of the rabbit is dark on white below. Cottontails have white on the top of their tails; as a result of the position of the eyes in its skull, the rabbit has a field of vision that encompasses nearly 360 degrees, with just a small blind spot at the bridge of the nose. The anatomy of rabbits' hind limbs are structurally similar to that of other land mammals and contribute to their specialized form of locomotion; the Bones of the hind limbs consist of long bones as well as short bones. These bones are created through endochondral ossification during development.
Like most land mammals, the round head of the femur articulates with the acetabulum of the ox coxae. The femur articulates with the tibia, but not the fibula, fused to the tibia; the tibia and fibula articulate with the tarsals of the pes called the foot. The hind limbs of the rabbit are longer than the front limbs; this allows them to produce their hopping form of locomotion. Longer hind limbs are more capable of producing faster speeds. Hares, which have longer legs than cottontail rabbits, are able to move faster. Rabbits stay just on their toes; the hind feet have four long toes that allow for this and are webbed to prevent them from spreading when hopping. Rabbits do not have paw
Year of the Rabbit (album)
Year of the Rabbit is the only full-length album from Year of the Rabbit, Ken Andrews' second post-Failure project. A tour accompanied the album in the remainder of 2003. All songs composed by Ken Andrews except. "Rabbit Hole" – 2:33 "Lie Down" – 4:09 "Last Defense" – 3:29 "Strange Eyes" – 4:32 "Absent Stars" – 3:12 "Vaporize" – 4:03 "Let It Go" – 4:14 "Hunted" – 4:36 "River" – 3:12 "Hold Me Up" – 3:14 "Say Goodbye" – 5:00
The traditional China calendar, or Former Calendar, Traditional Calendar or Lunar Calendar, is a lunisolar calendar which reckons years and days according to astronomical phenomena. It is defined by GB/T 33661-2017, "Calculation and promulgation of the Chinese calendar", issued by the Standardisation Administration of China on 12 May 2017. Although modern day China uses the Gregorian calendar, the traditional Chinese calendar governs holidays in China and in overseas Chinese communities, it lists the dates of traditional Chinese holidays and guides people in selecting auspicious days for weddings, moving, or starting a business. Like Chinese characters, variants of this calendar are used in different parts of the Chinese cultural sphere. Korea and the Ryukyu Islands adopted the calendar, it evolved into Korean and Ryukyuan calendars; the main difference from the traditional Chinese calendar is the use of different meridians, which leads to some astronomical events—and calendar events based on them—falling on different dates.
The traditional Japanese calendar derived from the Chinese calendar, but its official use in Japan was abolished in 1873 as part of reforms after the Meiji Restoration. Calendars in Mongolia and Tibet have absorbed elements of the traditional Chinese calendar, but are not direct descendants of it. Days begin and end at midnight, months begin on the day of the new moon. Years begin on the second new moon after the winter solstice. Solar terms govern the end of each month. Written versions in ancient China included stems and branches of the year and the names of each month, including leap months as needed. Characters indicated whether a month was short; the traditional Chinese calendar was developed between 771 and 476 BC, during the Spring and Autumn period of the Eastern Zhou dynasty. Before the Zhou dynasty, solar calendars were used. One version of the solar calendar is the five-elements calendar. A 365-day year was divided into five phases of 73 days, with each phase corresponding to a Day 1 Wu Xing element.
A phase began followed by six 12-day weeks. Each phase consisted of two three-week months. Years began followed by a bǐngzǐ day and a 72-day fire phase. Other days were tracked using the Yellow River Map. Another version is a four-quarters calendar. Weeks were ten days long, with one month consisting of three weeks. A year had 12 months, with a ten-day week intercalated in summer as needed to keep up with the tropical year; the 10 Heavenly Stems and 12 Earthly Branches were used to mark days. A third version is the balanced calendar. A year was 365.25 days, a month was 29.5 days. After every 16th month, a half-month was intercalated. According to oracle bone records, the Shang dynasty calendar was a balanced calendar with 12 to 14 months in a year; the first lunisolar calendar was the Zhou calendar, introduced under the Zhou dynasty. This calendar set the beginning of the year at the day of the new moon before the winter solstice, it set the shàngyuán as the winter solstice of a dīngsì year, making the year it was introduced around 2,758,130.
Several competing lunisolar calendars were introduced by states fighting Zhou control during the Warring States period. The state of Lu issued its own Lu calendar. Jin issued the Xia calendar in AD 102, with a year beginning on the day of the new moon nearest the March equinox. Qin issued the Zhuanxu calendar, with a year beginning on the day of the new moon nearest the winter solstice. Song's Yin calendar began its year on the day of the new moon after the winter solstice; these calendars are known as the six ancient calendars, or quarter-remainder calendars, since all calculate a year as 365 1⁄4 days long. Months begin on the day of the new moon, a year has 12 or 13 months. Intercalary months are added to the end of the year; the Qiang and Dai calendars are modern versions of the Zhuanxu calendar, used by mountain peoples. After Qin Shi Huang unified China under the Qin dynasty in 221 BC, the Qin calendar was introduced, it followed most of the rules governing the Zhuanxu calendar, but the month order was that of the Xia calendar.
The intercalary month, known as the second Jiǔyuè, was placed at the end of the year. The Qin calendar was used into the Han dynasty. Emperor Wu of Han r. 141 – 87 BC introduced reforms halfway through his reign. His Taichu Calendar defined a solar year as 365 385⁄1539 days, the lunar month was 29 43⁄81 days; this calendar introduced the 24 solar terms. Solar terms were paired, with the 12 combined periods known as climate terms; the first solar term of the period was known as a pre-climate, the second was a mid-climate. Months were named for the mid-climat
An aroma compound known as an odorant, fragrance, or flavor, is a chemical compound that has a smell or odor. A chemical compound has a smell or odor when it is sufficiently volatile to be transported to the olfactory system in the upper part of the nose. Molecules meeting this specification have molecular weights of less than 300. Flavors affect both the sense of smell, whereas fragrances affect only smell. Flavors tend to be occurring, fragrances tend to be synthetic. Aroma compounds can be found in food, spices, floral scent, fragrance oils, essential oils. For example, many form biochemically during the ripening of other crops. In wines, most form as byproducts of fermentation. Many of the aroma compounds play a significant role in the production of flavorants, which are used in the food service industry to flavor and increase the appeal of their products. An odorizer may add a detectable odor to a dangerous odorless substance, like propane, natural gas, or hydrogen, as a safety measure. Note: Carvone, depending on its chirality, offers two different smells.
Furaneol 1-Hexanol cis-3-Hexen-1-ol Menthol High concentrations of aldehydes tend to be pungent and overwhelming, but low concentrations can evoke a wide range of aromas. Acetaldehyde Hexanal cis-3-Hexenal Furfural Hexyl cinnamaldehyde Isovaleraldehyde – nutty, cocoa-like Anisic aldehyde – floral, hawthorn, it is a crucial component of chocolate, strawberry, raspberry and others. Cuminaldehyde – Spicy, cumin-like, green Fructone Hexyl acetate Ethyl methylphenylglycidate Cyclopentadecanone Dihydrojasmone Oct-1-en-3-one 2-Acetyl-1-pyrroline 6-Acetyl-2,3,4,5-tetrahydropyridine gamma-Decalactone intense peach flavor gamma-Nonalactone coconut odor, popular in suntan lotions delta-Octalactone creamy note Jasmine lactone powerful fatty-fruity peach and apricot Massoia lactone powerful creamy coconut Wine lactone sweet coconut odor Sotolon Thioacetone A studied organosulfur, its smell is so potent it can be detected several hundred meters downwind mere seconds after a container is opened. Allyl thiol methanethiol, the "mouse thiol", found in mouse urine and functions as a semiochemical for female mice Ethanethiol called ethyl mercaptan 2-Methyl-2-propanethiol called tert-butyl mercaptan, is added as a blend of other components to natural gas used as fuel gas.
Butane-1-thiol called butyl mercaptan, is a chemical intermediate. Grapefruit mercaptan Methanethiol called methyl mercaptan Furan-2-ylmethanethiol called furfuryl mercaptan Benzyl mercaptan Methylphosphine and dimethylphosphine Phosphine Diacetyl Acetoin Nerolin Tetrahydrothiophene 2,4,6-Trichloroanisole Substituted pyrazines Animals that are capable of smell detect aroma compounds with their olfactory receptors. Olfactory receptors are cell-membrane receptors on the surface of sensory neurons in the olfactory system that detect airborne aroma compounds. Aroma compounds can be identified by Gas Chromatography-Olfactometry, which involves a human operator sniffing the GC effluent. In mammals, olfactory receptors are expressed on the surface of the olfactory epithelium in the nasal cavity. In 2005–06, fragrance mix was the third-most-prevalent allergen in patch tests.'Fragrance' was voted Allergen of the Year in 2007 by the American Contact Dermatitis Society. A recent academic study in the United States has shown that "34.7 % of the population reported health problems, such as migraine headaches and respiratory difficulties, when exposed to fragranced products".
The composition of fragrances is not disclosed in the label of products, hiding the actual chemicals of the formula, which raises concerns among some consumers. Fragrances are regulated in the United States by the Toxic Substances Control Act of 1976 that "grandfathered" existing chemicals without further review or testing and put the burden of proof that a new substance is not safe on the EPA; the EPA, does not conduct independent safety testing but relies on data provided by the manufacturer. In 2010 the International Fragrance Association published a list of 3,059 chemicals used in 2011 based on a voluntary survey of its members, it was estimated to represent about 90% of the world's production volume of fragrances. Flavour and Fragrance Journal Fragrances of the World Foodpairing Odor Odor detection threshold Olfaction Olfactory system Olfactory receptor Odorizer, a device for adding an odorant to gas flowing through a pipe Pheromone Aroma of wine Eau de toilette