Provinces of Bulgaria
The provinces of Bulgaria are the first level administrative subdivisions of the country. Since 1999, Bulgaria has been divided into 28 provinces which correspond to the 28 districts, that existed before 1987; the provinces are further subdivided into 265 municipalities. Sofia – the capital city of Bulgaria and the largest settlement in the country, is the administrative centre of both Sofia Province and Sofia City Province; the capital is included in Sofia Capital Municipality, the sole municipality comprising Sofia City province. The provinces do not have official names – they are not named but only described as "oblast with administrative centre " - together with a list of the constituting municipalities. In Bulgaria they are called " Oblast"; the Bulgarian term "област" is preferably translated into English as "province", in order to avoid disambiguation and distinguish from the former unit called "окръг" and the term "регион". At any rate, "district" and "region" are sometimes still used to name these contemporary 28 units.
"region": "28 regions / région / oblast" – in ISO 3166-2 Newsletter II-3 "district": "The territory of the South Central Region encompasses five districts – Pazardzhik, Smolyan and Kyrdzhali." – in a website of the European Commission. In 1987, the then-existing 28 districts were transformed into 9 large units, which survived until 1999; the 9 large provinces are listed along with the pre-1987 districts comprising them. On 1 January 1999, the old districts were restored. Administrative divisions below the province level: List of cities and towns in Bulgaria List of villages in Bulgaria Municipalities of Bulgaria The constituencies of Bulgaria, which are based on the provinces ISO 3166-2:BG List of Bulgarian provinces by GDP Liste des gouverneurs des provinces bulgares
Daylight saving time
Daylight saving time daylight savings time or daylight time and summer time, is the practice of advancing clocks during summer months so that evening daylight lasts longer, while sacrificing normal sunrise times. Regions that use daylight saving time adjust clocks forward one hour close to the start of spring and adjust them backward in the autumn to standard time. In effect, DST causes a lost hour of an extra hour of sleep in the fall. George Hudson proposed the idea of daylight saving in 1895; the German Empire and Austria-Hungary organized the first nationwide implementation starting on April 30, 1916. Many countries have used at various times since particularly since the 1970s energy crisis. DST is not observed near the equator, where sunrise times do not vary enough to justify it; some countries observe it only in some regions. Only a minority of the world's population uses DST, because Asia and Africa do not observe it. DST clock shifts sometimes complicate timekeeping and can disrupt travel, record keeping, medical devices, heavy equipment, sleep patterns.
Computer software adjusts clocks automatically, but policy changes by various jurisdictions of DST dates and timings may be confusing. Industrialized societies follow a clock-based schedule for daily activities that do not change throughout the course of the year; the time of day that individuals begin and end work or school, the coordination of mass transit, for example remain constant year-round. In contrast, an agrarian society's daily routines for work and personal conduct are more governed by the length of daylight hours and by solar time, which change seasonally because of the Earth's axial tilt. North and south of the tropics daylight lasts longer in summer and shorter in winter, with the effect becoming greater the further one moves away from the tropics. By synchronously resetting all clocks in a region to one hour ahead of standard time, individuals who follow such a year-round schedule will wake an hour earlier than they would have otherwise. However, they will have one less hour of daylight at the start of each day, making the policy less practical during winter.
While the times of sunrise and sunset change at equal rates as the seasons change, proponents of Daylight Saving Time argue that most people prefer a greater increase in daylight hours after the typical "nine to five" workday. Supporters have argued that DST decreases energy consumption by reducing the need for lighting and heating, but the actual effect on overall energy use is disputed; the manipulation of time at higher latitudes has little impact on daily life, because the length of day and night changes more throughout the seasons, thus sunrise and sunset times are out of phase with standard working hours regardless of manipulations of the clock. DST is of little use for locations near the equator, because these regions see only a small variation in daylight in the course of the year; the effect varies according to how far east or west the location is within its time zone, with locations farther east inside the time zone benefiting more from DST than locations farther west in the same time zone.
Ancient civilizations adjusted daily schedules to the sun more flexibly than DST does dividing daylight into 12 hours regardless of daytime, so that each daylight hour became progressively longer during spring and shorter during autumn. For example, the Romans kept time with water clocks that had different scales for different months of the year. From the 14th century onwards, equal-length civil hours supplanted unequal ones, so civil time no longer varies by season. Unequal hours are still used in a few traditional settings, such as some monasteries of Mount Athos and all Jewish ceremonies. Benjamin Franklin published the proverb "early to bed and early to rise makes a man healthy and wise", he published a letter in the Journal de Paris during his time as an American envoy to France suggesting that Parisians economize on candles by rising earlier to use morning sunlight; this 1784 satire proposed taxing window shutters, rationing candles, waking the public by ringing church bells and firing cannons at sunrise.
Despite common misconception, Franklin did not propose DST. However, this changed as rail transport and communication networks required a standardization of time unknown in Franklin's day. In 1810, the Spanish National Assembly Cortes of Cádiz issued a regulation that moved certain meeting times forward by one hour from May 1 to September 30 in recognition of seasonal changes, but it did not change the clocks, it acknowledged that private businesses were in the practice of changing their opening hours to suit daylight conditions, but they did so of their own volition. New Zealand entomologist George Hudson first proposed modern DST, his shift-work job gave him leisure time to collect insects and led him to value after-hours daylight. In 1895, he presented a paper to the Wellington Philosophical Society proposing a two-hour daylight-saving shift, considerable interest was expressed in
Municipalities of Bulgaria
The 28 provinces of Bulgaria are divided into 265 municipalities. Municipalities comprise multiple towns and settlements and are governed by a mayor, elected by popular majority vote for a four-year term, a municipal council, elected using proportional representation for a four-year term; the creation of new municipalities requires that they must be created in a territory with a population of at least 6,000 and created around a designated settlement. They must be named after the settlement that serves as the territory's administrative center, among other criteria; the council of a municipality is further permitted to create admininistrative subdivisions: mayoralties and wards or quarters. Mayoralties are overseen by elected mayors and comprises one or more villages or towns. Settlements are overseen by a manager appointed by the mayor of a municipality and thus have fewer responsibilities and less power than a mayoralty. Wards are overseen by elected mayors and must include a population of at least 25,000.
Like municipalities themselves and wards are designated administrative-territorial units, as they have their own elected officials. Settlements, are designated territorial units since their leaders are appointed. Bansko Municipality Belitsa Municipality Blagoevgrad Municipality Garmen Municipality Gotse Delchev Municipality Hadzhidimovo Municipality Kresna Municipality Petrich Municipality Razlog Municipality Sandanski Municipality Satovcha Municipality Simitli Municipality Strumyani Municipality Yakoruda Municipality Aytos Municipality Burgas Municipality Kameno Municipality Karnobat Municipality Malko Tarnovo Municipality Nesebar Municipality Pomorie Municipality Primorsko Municipality Ruen Municipality Sozopol Municipality Sredets Municipality Sungurlare Municipality Tsarevo Municipality Balchik Municipality Dobrich Municipality Dobrichka Municipality General Toshevo Municipality Kavarna Municipality Krushari Municipality Shabla Municipality Tervel Municipality ) Dryanovo Municipality Gabrovo Municipality Sevlievo Municipality Tryavna Municipality Dimitrovgrad Municipality Harmanli Municipality Haskovo Municipality Ivaylovgrad Municipality Lyubimets Municipality Madzharovo Municipality Mineralni Bani Municipality Simeonovgrad Municipality Stambolovo Municipality Svilengrad Municipality Topolovgrad Municipality Ardino Municipality Chernoochene Municipality Dzhebel Municipality Kardzhali Municipality Kirkovo Municipality Krumovgrad Municipality Momchilgrad Municipality Boboshevo Municipality Bobov Dol Municipality Dupnitsa Municipality Kocherinovo Municipality Kyustendil Municipality Nevestino Municipality Rila Municipality Sapareva Banya Municipality Treklyano Municipality Apriltsi Municipality Letnitsa Municipality Lovech Municipality Lukovit Municipality Teteven Municipality Troyan Municipality Ugarchin Municipality Yablanitsa Municipality Berkovitsa Municipality Boychinovtsi Municipality Brusartsi Municipality Chiprovtsi Municipality Georgi Damyanovo Municipality Lom Municipality Medkovets Municipality Montana Municipality Valchedram Municipality Varshets Municipality Yakimovo Municipality Batak Municipality Belovo Municipality Bratsigovo Municipality Lesichovo Municipality Panagyurishte Municipality Pazardzhik Municipality Peshtera Municipality Rakitovo Municipality Sarnitsa Municipality Septemvri Municipality Strelcha Municipality Velingrad Municipality Brezn
The Astronomical Observatory of Belogradchik or Belogradchik Observatory is an astronomical observatory owned and operated by the Institute of Astronomy of the Bulgarian Academy of Sciences. It is located near the town of Belogradchik in northwestern Bulgaria, at the foot of the Western Balkan Mountains; the other observatory operated by the same institute is the Rozhen Observatory. Built in 1961 by a group of astronomy enthusiasts led by high school physics teacher and chief assistant professor in Sofia University Hristo Kostov, Belogradchik Observatory became the first school observatory in Bulgaria. Official opening ceremony was held on 21.06.1965, by its first director Dr. Alexander Tomov, was attended by much of Bulgarian leading astronomers - Acad. Nikola Bonev, Prof. Malina Popova, Prof. Tsvetan Bonchev, Assoc. Prof. Bogomil Kovachev, Chief Assist. Prof. Hristo Kostov. From 1964 till 1974 it was used as an auxiliary observational base for tracking Soviet satellites amidst the Space Race era.
In the late 1960s additional working studies were built, adjacent to the dome. During his serve time as a director Dr. Tomov referred to the Soviet experience in developing the infrastructure of the observatory, implemented much of the methods of the Soviet astronomy school. Notable examples of cooperation are those with Acad. B. A. Vorontsov-Velyaminov, Prof. A. Masevich, Dr. I. Karachentsev, among other members of Sternberg Astronomical Institute and Soviet Academy of Sciences. In 1976 the Bulgarian Academy of Sciences took over operation. Since the observatory was used for scientific research, in cooperation with astronomers from the Department of Astronomy at Faculty of Physics of Sofia University and members of foreign institutes. By the time the Institute of Astronomy became a separate structure of the Academy in 1995, the observatory saw a notable revival. During the 1990s and 2000s Assoc. Prof. Dr. Alexander Antov, a second long term director of the observatory, modernized both its residential and scientific facilities, including the addition of a smaller dome in 1994.
Its current director is Assoc. Prof. Dr. Anton Strigachev. In July 2015 the observatory marked its 50 years of operation by hosting the X annual conference of the Bulgarian Astronomical Society; the observatory started out with a single 15 cm Cassegrain telescope by Zeiss. In August 1969 it was replaced by a 60 cm Cassegrain telescope, mounted in the same 5 m dome of the previous one. Primary focal length is 2400 mm, while focal length at Cassegrain focus is 7500 mm, with a relative aperture of f/12.5. Field of view at Cassegrain focus is 20'. Main instrument accommodates a smaller 110 mm refractor finder with a focal length of 750 mm and a field of view of 2 degrees. Between 1969 and 1980 it was the biggest telescope on the Balkans to be eclipsed by the 2 m RCC telescope of Rozhen Observatory, which held this title until 2007; the purchase of the telescope was worth 200 000 leva, an enormous value at that time. Both instruments were manufactured by the German Carl Zeiss AG; the connections established with the manufacturer helped purchase and equip instruments for the Bulgarian National Rozhen Observatory, which has a twin 60 cm Cassegrain telescope.
The 15 cm telescope is used for visitor demonstrations only. In 1994 another catadioptric telescope was added in a separate, smaller dome - a 14-inch Schmidt-Cassegrain model. In 1973 the first Bulgarian single channel electro-photometer was constructed and mounted on the main instrument, operating in photon counting regime, using the UBV photometric system of filters and five diaphragms, it was upgraded a couple of years with an EMI-9789 QA photomultiplier. In 1997 the photometer's preamp-discriminator module was changed with a new one built in Ukraine, it is still used for bright stars. A ST-8 CCD camera was used between 1997 and 2008. Since 2008 the main 60 cm telescope is equipped with a CCD camera FLI PL-9000, manufactured by Finger Lakes Instrumentation, it uses a KAF-09000 chip with a resolution of 3056 x 3056 px without binning, a 16-bit ADC. The pixel size is 12 µm which gives, with this telescope, a scale of 0.330 arcsec/px without binning and 1.0 arcsec/px with binning 3 x 3. The field of view is 17' x 17'.
BVRcIc Johnson-Cousins standard filters are used. At first the observatory has been used for satellite astrometry. Between 1964 and 1974 more than 1000 Soviet satellites were observed and data sent to Mission Control Centre in Moscow for orbit corrections. During the 1970s and 1980s, Photo-electric surveys of more than 200 catalogue double and multiple galaxies were carried out. Holmberg effect was used to rule out physical and visual systems. Notable results were included in "A General Catalogue of Photoelectric Magnitudes and Colours in the UBV System of 3578 Galaxies, Brighter than the 16-th V Magnitude" by G. Longo, Antoinette de Vaucouleurs and H. G. Corwin, with significant part of its data obtained from Belogradchik observatory. During the 1990s, beside fast stellar electro-photometry of variable stars, it was a base for meticulous observations of minor bodies of the Solar System, including the famous Shoemaker-Levy 9 comet encounter with Jupiter in July 1994. In recent years Romanian astronomers have jointly used the observatory for an astrometry project, linked to the Gaia programme, prior to its launch in December 2013.
It was by that time an automatic seismograph was mounted in an adjacent
Borovitsa, Vidin Province
Borovitsa is a village in Vidin Province, Bulgaria. It is in the municipality of Belogradchik. Borovitsa means "pine stone" - the name of the rock. On top of the rock was once a huge pine tree destroyed by fire; the ancient village was located next to the stone, so people could hide in the woods in case of attack by the Ottoman invaders. After the Liberation of Bulgaria, the village has been built out along the Lom River and along the road to Belogradchik; the inhabitants have in the past engaged in animal husbandry and beekeeping. A few kilometers from the village the Romans had a military camp - Falcon or Falkovets. A Roman colony was on the outskirts of Borovitsa; the only remnants remain of the old village church, built in 1866, situated 2.5 km from the village to the west. The frescoes and wooden altar are preserved; the bell tower dominates the valley among the woods. Nearby are the remains of a small school. At about 500 meters from the village is a waterfall, "Boboka"