A race is a grouping of humans based on shared physical or social qualities into categories viewed as distinct by society. The term was first used to refer to speakers of a common language and to denote national affiliations. By the 17th century the term began to refer to physical traits. Modern scholarship regards race as a social construct, an identity, assigned based on rules made by society. While based on physical similarities within groups, race does not have an inherent physical or biological meaning. Social conceptions and groupings of races vary over time, involving folk taxonomies that define essential types of individuals based on perceived traits. Scientists consider biological essentialism obsolete, discourage racial explanations for collective differentiation in both physical and behavioral traits. Though there is a broad scientific agreement that essentialist and typological conceptualizations of race are untenable, scientists around the world continue to conceptualize race in differing ways, some of which have essentialist implications.
While some researchers use the concept of race to make distinctions among fuzzy sets of traits or observable differences in behaviour, others in the scientific community suggest that the idea of race is used in a naive or simplistic way, argue that, among humans, race has no taxonomic significance by pointing out that all living humans belong to the same species, Homo sapiens, subspecies, Homo sapiens sapiens. Since the second half of the 20th century, the association of race with the ideologies and theories of scientific racism has led to the use of the word race itself becoming problematic. Although still used in general contexts, race has been replaced by less ambiguous and loaded terms: populations, ethnic groups, or communities, depending on context. Modern scholarship views racial categories as constructed, that is, race is not intrinsic to human beings but rather an identity created by dominant groups, to establish meaning in a social context. Different cultures define different racial groups focused on the largest groups of social relevance, these definitions can change over time.
In South Africa, the Population Registration Act, 1950 recognized only White and Coloured. The government of Myanmar recognizes eight "major national ethnic races"; the Brazilian census classifies people into brancos, pretos, caboclos and indigenous, though many people use different terms to identify themselves. The United States Census Bureau proposed but withdrew plans to add a new category to classify Middle Eastern and North African peoples in the U. S. Census 2020, over a dispute over whether this classification should be considered a white ethnicity or a separate race. Legal definitions of whiteness in the United States used before the civil rights movement were challenged for specific groups. Historical race concepts have included a wide variety of schemes to divide local or worldwide populations into races and sub-races; the establishment of racial boundaries involves the subjugation of groups defined as racially inferior, as in the one-drop rule used in the 19th-century United States to exclude those with any amount of African ancestry from the dominant racial grouping, defined as "white".
Such racial identities reflect the cultural attitudes of imperial powers dominant during the age of European colonial expansion. This view rejects the notion. According to geneticist David Reich, "while race may be a social construct, differences in genetic ancestry that happen to correlate to many of today’s racial constructs are real." These biological differences in geographic ancestral populations are not consistent with zoological definitions of race, there are no "sharp, categorical distinctions". Although commonalities in physical traits such as facial features, skin color, hair texture comprise part of the race concept, this linkage is a social distinction rather than an inherently biological one. Other dimensions of racial groupings include shared history and language. For instance, African-American English is a language spoken by many African Americans in areas of the United States where racial segregation exists. Furthermore, people self-identify as members of a race for political reasons.
When people define and talk about a particular conception of race, they create a social reality through which social categorization is achieved. In this sense, races are said to be social constructs; these constructs develop within various legal and sociopolitical contexts, may be the effect, rather than the cause, of major social situations. While race is understood to be a social construct by many, most scholars agree that race has real material effects in the lives of people through institutionalized practices of preference and discrimination. Socioeconomic factors, in combination with early but enduring views of race, have led to considerable suffering within disadvantaged racial groups. Racial discrimination coincides with racist mindsets, whereby the individuals and ideologies of one group come to perceive the members of an outgroup as both racially defined and morally inferior; as a result, racial groups possessing little power find themselves excluded or oppressed, while hegemonic individuals and institutions are charged with holding racist attitudes.
Racism has led to many instances including slavery and genocide. In some countries, law enforcement uses race to profile suspects; this use of racial categories is criticized for perpetuating an outmoded unde
Charles Lee is Director and Professor of The Jackson Laboratory for Genomic Medicine and a board certified clinical cytogeneticist who has an active research program in the identification and characterization of structural genomic variants using advanced technology platforms. His laboratory was the first to describe genome-wide structural genomic variants among humans with the subsequent development of two human CNV maps that are now used in the diagnoses of array based genetic tests. Dr. Lee is a Distinguished Professor at Ewha Woman's University and the current President of the Human Genome Organisation. 1990: BS in Genetics, University of Alberta 1993: MS in Experimental Pathology, University of Alberta 1996: PhD in Medical Sciences, University of Alberta 1996-1999: NSERC Fellow, University of Cambridge, UK 1999-2001: Clinical Cytogenetics Fellow, Harvard Medical School Positions held 2001-2003: Instructor, Harvard Medical School 2003-2008: Assistant Professor, Harvard Medical School 2008-2013: Associate Professor, Harvard Medical School 2013: Director & Professor, The Jackson Laboratory for Genomic Medicine 1993: Lee C, Sasi R, Lin CC.
Interstitial localization of telomeric DNA sequences in the Indian muntjac chromosomes: further evidence for tandem chromosome fusions in the karyotypic evolution of the Asian muntjacs. Cytogenet. Cell Genet.. 1993. Human centromeric DNAs. Hum Genet. 1997. Detection of large-scale variation in the human genome. Nat Genet. 2004. Tyler-Smith C*, Carter NP*, Aburatani H*, Jones KW*, Scherer SW*, Hurles ME*, Lee C*. Global variation in copy number in the human genome. Nature. 2006. Diet and the evolution of human gene copy number variation. Nat Genet. 2007. Copy number variations and clinical cytogenetic diagnosis of constitutional disorders. Nat Genet. 2007. The fine-scale and complex architecture of human copy number variation. Am J Hum Genet. 2008. Park WY, Kim H, Church GM, Lee C, Kingsmore SF, Seo JS. A annotated whole genome sequence of a Korean individual. Nature. 2009. Tyler-Smith C*, Carter NP*, Scherer SW*, Hurles ME*, Lee C*. Common copy number variation in the human genome: mechanism and disease association.
Nature. 2010. Eichler EE*, Gerstein MB*, Hurles ME*, McCarroll SA*, Korbel, JO*, Lee C*. Mapping copy number variation by population-scale genome sequencing. Nature. 2011. Extensive genetic diversity and sub-structuring among zebrafish strains revealed through copy number variant analysis. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 2012. Primate genome architecture influences structural variation mechanisms and functional consequences. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 2013. *Mills RE, Gerstein M, Bashir A, Stegle O, Devine SE, Lee C, Eichler EE, Korbel JO. An integrated map of structural variation in 2,504 numan genomes. Nature 2015. Systematic analysis of copy number variation associated with congenital diaphragmatic hernia. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 2018.
Acanthonyx dentatus, the toothed decorator crab, is a species of crab in the family Inachidae. The toothed decorator crab is known around the southern African coast from Cape Columbine to Richards Bay subtidally to 43 metres, it is known from the Red Sea. The toothed decorator crab may grow to 40 millimetres across, it is a well camouflaged crab, decorating its carapace with hydroids and seaweeds, offering camouflage and defence, since hydroids sting and many seaweeds are chemically noxious. Its carapace is teardrop-shaped with two sharp spines projecting forwards between its eyes. There are two marginal spines on its carapace, it has stubby legs. It is a vivid pink-red to a dull brown in colour. Vividly coloured when moulted, these animals are found taking refuge among groups of striped anemones; the crabs use the anemones' habit of shooting sticky defensive threads through their body walls for their own defence