Practical shooting known as dynamic shooting or action shooting, is a set of shooting sports where the competitors are trying to unite the three principles of precision and speed, by using a firearm of a certain minimum power factor to score as many points as possible during the shortest amount of time. While scoring systems vary between organizations, each measures the time of which the course is completed, with penalties for inaccurate shooting; the courses are called "stages", are shot individually by the shooters. The shooter must move and shoot from several positions, fire under or over obstacles and in other unfamiliar positions. There are no standard exercises or set arrangement of the targets, the courses are designed so that the shooter must be inventive, therefore the solutions of exercises sometimes varies between shooters. There are several international sanctioning bodies: The International Practical Shooting Confederation is the oldest and largest sanctioning body within practical shooting.
IPSC Open Division is sometimes considered the "Formula One" of shooting sports, is shot with handguns and shotguns. The United States Practical Shooting Association is the U. S. regional affiliate of IPSC. Many of USPSA's rules differ from those used internationally; the Steel Challenge Shooting Association, founded as a separate discipline, was purchased and integrated by USPSA in 2007. In Steel Challenge matches, competitors shoot five strings of fire at a series of five steel plates of varying sizes at varied distances in an attempt to achieve the fastest time possible for knocking down the plates; the order of fire is dictated by a plate designated as the stop plate. The longest time is dropped and the remaining four times are averaged for a composite stage time; the International Defensive Pistol Association has a strong emphasis on concealed shooting and defensive scenarios. Many aspects of the stage engagement are dictated to competitors, penalties are given to competitors whom the Safety Officer determines attempted to gain a competitive advantage or engaged in a forbidden action with a "guilty mind" - that he knowingly failed to do right.
Cowboy Action Shooting is quite similar with an Old West theme. There are multiple international sanctioning bodies, with Single Action Shooting Society being the oldest and largest. Firearms must be either original or reproduction "cowboy guns", such as Colt single-action pistols and Winchester rifles; the competitors must choose and go by a cowboy nickname, are required to look the part by using cowboy and cowgirl garments in late 19th century period dress. Multigun called 2-Gun or 3-Gun, are shooting events shot with a combination of rifles and shotguns. While multigun has a lot in common with ordinary IPSC/USPSA matches, the biggest difference is that each stage requires the use of several different firearms and that the shooter has to transition between them. Among the largest annual multigun events in the USA are the USPSA Multigun Championship, the Rocky Mountain 3-Gun, the DPMS Tri-Gun Challenge, the Superstition Mountain Mystery 3-Gun, the Larue Tactical Multigun Championship. Glock Sport Shooting Foundation is a competition sponsored by Glock and limited to participants using Glock pistols.
Practical shooting evolved from experimentation with handguns used for self-defense. The researchers were an international group of private individuals, law enforcement officers, military people operating independently of each other, challenging the then-accepted standards of technique, training practices, equipment; the work was, for the most part, conducted for their own purposes without official sanction. So, what they learned has had a great impact on police and military training forever. Competition had begun with the leather slap quick draw events of the 1950s, which had grown out of America's love affair with the TV westerns of that era. However, many wished for a forum that would more directly test the results of the experimentation in modern technique, going on at the Bear Valley Gunslingers at Big Bear Lake and other places. Competitions were set up to test what had been learned, they soon grew into a distinct sport, requiring competitors to deal with changing scenarios; the first IPSC World Shoot was held in 1975 in Zurich, about two years before IPSC was formally founded.
Some consider the previous Olympic event 100 meter running deer as the first practical rifle shooting competition, which originated in Wimbledon, London in 1862. Other notable rifle speed shooting events are Stang shooting, arranged since 1912, Nordic field rapid shooting, a part of the Nordic Fullbore Rifle Championship since 1953. Finland pioneered IPSC Rifle in Scandinavia in the beginning of the 1980's, the discipline soon spread to Norway where the first competitions were held in Stavanger February 1984. In 1987 the first official Norwegian Rifle Championship was held, the championship has been held annually since. South Africa has held IPSC Rifle and Shotgun matches since 1983, IPSC multigun matches since 1984. One of the first 3-Gun matches to be held in the United States was the Soldier of Fortune matches held in 1979 in Missouri, but these matches were neither associated with USPSA nor IPSC; the first USPSA Multigun Championship was held in 1990 at Pike-Adams Sportsmen's Alliance in Barry, but USPSA did not take on multigun full time until around 2000.
In Finland multigun matches have been held since around 1
National Rifle Association
The National Rifle Association of America is a U. S. nonprofit organization that advocates for gun rights. Founded in 1871, the group has informed its members about firearm-related legislation since 1934, it has directly lobbied for and against firearms legislation since 1975. Founded to advance rifle marksmanship, the modern NRA continues to teach firearm safety and competency; the organization publishes several magazines and sponsors competitive marksmanship events. According to the NRA, it has nearly 5 million members as of December 2018, although that figure has not been independently confirmed. Observers and lawmakers see the NRA as one of the top three most influential lobbying groups in Washington, D. C; the NRA Institute for Legislative Action is its lobbying arm, which manages its political action committee, the Political Victory Fund. Over its history the organization has influenced legislation, participated in or initiated lawsuits, endorsed or opposed various candidates at local and federal levels.
The NRA has been criticized by gun control and gun rights advocacy groups, political commentators, politicians. The organization has been the focus of intense criticism in the aftermath of high-profile shootings, such as the Sandy Hook Elementary School shooting and the Stoneman Douglas High School shooting. A few months after the Civil War started in 1861, a national rifle association was proposed by Americans in England. In a letter, sent to President Lincoln and appeared in the New York Times, R. G. Moulton and R. B. Perry recommended forming an organization similar to the British National Rifle Association, which had formed a year and a half earlier, they suggested making a shooting range on the base on Staten Island, were offering Whitworth rifles for prizes for the first shooting competition with those rifles. They suggested a provisional committee to start the Association which would include: President Lincoln, Secretary of War and other prominent New Yorkers; the National Rifle Association was first chartered in the State of New York on November 16, 1871 by Army and Navy Journal editor William Conant Church and Captain George Wood Wingate.
On November 25, 1871, the group voted to elect its first corporate officers. Union Army Civil War General Ambrose Burnside, who had worked as a Rhode Island gunsmith, was elected president; when Burnside resigned on August 1, 1872, Church succeeded him as president. Union Army records for the Civil War indicate that its troops fired about 1,000 rifle shots for each Confederate hit, causing General Burnside to lament his recruits: "Out of ten soldiers who are perfect in drill and the manual of arms, only one knows the purpose of the sights on his gun or can hit the broad side of a barn." The generals attributed this to the use of volley tactics, devised for earlier, less accurate smoothbore muskets. Recognizing a need for better training, Wingate sent emissaries to Canada, the United Kingdom, Germany to observe militia and armies' marksmanship training programs. With plans provided by Wingate, the New York Legislature funded the construction of a modern range at Creedmoor, Long Island, for long-range shooting competitions.
The range opened on June 21, 1873. The Central Railroad of Long Island established a railway station nearby, with trains running from Hunter's Point, with connecting boat service to 34th Street and the East River, allowing access from New York City. After beating England and Scotland to win the Elcho Shield in 1873 at Wimbledon a village outside London, the Irish Rifle Team issued a challenge through the New York Herald to riflemen of the United States to raise a team for a long-range match to determine an Anglo-American championship; the NRA organized a team through a subsidiary amateur rifle club. Remington Arms and Sharps Rifle Manufacturing Company produced breech-loading weapons for the team. Although muzzle-loading rifles had long been considered more accurate, eight American riflemen won the match firing breech-loading rifles. Publicity of the event generated by the New York Herald helped to establish breech-loading firearms as suitable for military marksmanship training, promoted the NRA to national prominence.
The NRA organized rifle clubs in other states, many state National Guard organizations sought NRA advice to improve members' marksmanship. Wingate's markmanship manual evolved into the United States Army marksmanship instruction program. Former President Ulysses S. Grant served as the NRA's eighth president and General Philip H. Sheridan as its ninth; the US Congress created the National Board for the Promotion of Rifle Practice in 1901 to include representatives from the NRA, National Guard, United States military services. A program of annual rifle and pistol competitions was authorized, included a national match open to military and civilian shooters. In 1907, NRA headquarters moved to Washington, D. C. to facilitate the organization's advocacy efforts. Springfield Armory and Rock Island Arsenal began the manufacture of M1903 Springfield rifles for civilian members of the NRA in 1910; the Director of Civilian Marksmanship began manufacture of M1911 pistols for NRA members in August 1912. Until 1927, the United States Department of War provided free ammunition and targets to civilian rifle clubs with a minimum membership of ten United States citizens at least 16 years of age.
The NRA formed its Legislative Affairs Division to update members with facts and analysis of upcoming bills, after the National Firearms Act of 1934 became the first federal gun-control law passed in the US. Karl Frederick, NRA president in 1934, during congressional NFA hearings testified "I have never believed in the general practice of carrying weapons. I carry one.... I do not believe in the general promis
A rifle is a portable, long-barrelled firearm designed for long-range precision shooting, to be held with both hands and braced against the shoulder for stability during firing, with a barrel that has a helical pattern of grooves cut into the bore walls. The term was rifled gun, with the word "rifle" referring to the machining process of creating grooving with cutting tools, is now used for any long handheld device designed for aimed discharge activated by a trigger, such as air rifles and the personnel halting and stimulation response rifle. Rifles are used in warfare, law enforcement and shooting sports. Like all typical firearms, a rifle's projectile is propelled by the contained deflagration of a combustible propellant compound, although other means such as compressed air are used in air rifles, which are popular for vermin control, hunting small game, formal target shooting and casual shooting; the raised areas of the rifling are called "lands," which make contact with the projectile, imparting a spin around the longitudinal axis of the barrel.
When the projectile leaves the barrel, this spin lends gyroscopic stability to the projectile and prevents tumbling, in the same way that a properly spirally thrown American football or rugby ball behaves. This thus improves range and accuracy. Rifles only fired a single projectile with each squeeze of the trigger. Modern rifles are classified as single shot, bolt action, semi-automatic, or automatic. Single shot, bolt action, semi-automatic rifles are limited by their designs to fire a single shot for each trigger pull. Only automatic rifles are capable of firing more than one round per trigger squeeze. Modern automatic rifles overlap to some extent in function with machine guns. In fact, many light machine guns are adaptations of existing automatic rifle designs. A military's light machine guns are chambered for the same caliber ammunition as its service rifles; the difference between an automatic rifle and a machine gun comes down to weight, cooling system, ammunition feed system. Rifles, with their lighter components and smaller capacity magazines, are incapable of sustained automatic fire in the way that machine guns are.
Modern military rifles are fed by magazines, while machine guns are belt-fed. Many machine guns allow the operator to exchange barrels in order to prevent overheating, whereas rifles do not. Most machine guns fire from an open bolt in order to reduce the danger of "cook-off", while all rifles fire from a closed bolt for accuracy. Machine guns are crewed by more than one soldier; the term "rifle" is sometimes used to describe larger rifled crew-served weapons firing explosive shells, for example, recoilless rifles and naval rifles. In many works of fiction a rifle refers to any weapon that has a stock and is shouldered before firing if the weapon is not rifled or does not fire solid projectiles; the origins of rifling are difficult to trace, but some of the earliest practical experiments seem to have occurred in Europe during the 15th century. Archers had long realized that a twist added to the tail feathers of their arrows gave them greater accuracy. Early muskets produced large quantities of smoke and soot, which had to be cleaned from the action and bore of the musket either through the action of repeated bore scrubbing, or a deliberate attempt to create "soot grooves" that would allow for more shots to be fired from the firearm.
This might have led to a perceived increase in accuracy, although no one knows for sure. True rifling dates from the mid-15th century, although military commanders preferred smooth bore weapons for infantry use because rifles were much more prone to problems due to powder fouling the barrel and because they took longer to reload and fire than muskets. Rifles were created as an improvement in the accuracy of smooth bore muskets. In the early 18th century, Benjamin Robins, an English mathematician, realized that an elongated bullet would retain the momentum and kinetic energy of a musket ball, but would slice through the air with greater ease; the black powder used in early muzzle-loading rifles fouled the barrel, making loading slower and more difficult. Their greater range was considered to be of little practical use, since the smoke from black powder obscured the battlefield and made it impossible to target the enemy from a distance. Since musketeers could not afford to take the time to stop and clean their barrels in the middle of a battle, rifles were limited to use by sharpshooters and non-military uses like hunting.
Muskets were smoothbore, large caliber weapons using ball-shaped ammunition fired at low velocity. Due to the high cost and great difficulty of precision manufacturing, the need to load from the muzzle, the musket ball was a loose fit in the barrel. On firing the ball bounced off the sides of the barrel when fired and the final direction on leaving the muzzle was unpredictable; the performance of early muskets defined the style of warfare at the time. Due to the lack of accuracy, soldiers were deployed in long lines to fire at the opposing forces. Precise aim was thus not necessary to hit an opponent. Muskets were used for comparatively rapid, imprecise
A handgun is a short-barrelled firearm that can be held and used with one hand. The two most common handgun sub-types in use today are semi-automatic pistols. In the days before mass production, handguns were considered a badge of office, much the same as a sword; as they had limited utility and were more expensive than the long-guns of the era, handguns were carried only by the few who could afford to purchase them. However, in 1836, Samuel Colt patented the Colt Paterson, the first practical mass-produced revolver, it was capable of firing 5 shots in rapid succession and quickly became a popular defensive weapon, giving rise to the saying "God created men, but Colt made them equal." Today, in most of the world, handguns are considered self-defence weapons used by police and military officers. However, in the United States and many other countries around the world, handguns are widely available to civilians and carried for self-defence. Firearms first appeared in China; the oldest known bronze barrel handgun is the Heilongjiang hand cannon, dated to 1288.
It weighs 3.55 kg. The diameter of the interior at the end of the barrel is 2.5 cm. The barrel is 6.9 inches long. The hand cannon has a bulbous base at the breech called the yaoshi or gunpowder chamber, where the explosion that propels the projectile occurs; the diameter of the Heilongjiang hand-gun's powder chamber is 6.6 cm. The walls of the powder chamber are noticeably thicker to better withstand the explosive pressure of the gunpowder; the powder chamber has a touch hole, a small hole for the fuse that ignites the gunpowder. Behind the gunpowder chamber is a socket shaped like a trumpet where the handle of the hand cannon is inserted; the bulbous shape of the base gave the earliest Chinese and Western cannons a vase-like or pear-like appearance, which disappeared when advancements in metallurgical technology made the bulbous base obsolete. The matchlock appeared in Europe in the mid-15th century; the matchlock was the first mechanism invented to facilitate the firing of a hand-held firearm.
The classic European matchlock gun held a burning slow match in a clamp at the end of a small curved lever known as the serpentine. Upon the pulling of a lever protruding from the bottom of the gun and connected to the serpentine, the clamp dropped down, lowering the smoldering match into the flash pan and igniting the priming powder; the flash from the primer traveled through the touch hole igniting the main charge of propellant in the gun barrel. On release of the lever or trigger, the spring-loaded serpentine would move in reverse to clear the pan. For obvious safety reasons the match would be removed before reloading of the gun. Both ends of the match were kept alight in case one end should be accidentally extinguished; the wheellock was the next major development in firearms technology after the matchlock and the first self-igniting firearm. Its name is from its rotating steel wheel to provide ignition. Developed in Europe around 1500, it was used alongside the matchlock; the wheellock works by spinning a spring-loaded steel wheel against a piece of pyrite to generate intense sparks, which ignite gunpowder in a pan, which flashes through a small touchhole to ignite the main charge in the firearm's barrel.
The pyrite is clamped in vise jaws on a spring-loaded arm. When the trigger is pulled, the pan cover is opened, the wheel is rotated, with the pyrite pressed into contact. A close modern analogy of the wheellock mechanism is the operation of a cigarette lighter, where a toothed steel wheel is spun in contact with a piece of sparking material to ignite the liquid or gaseous fuel. A wheellock firearm had the advantage that it can be readied and fired with one hand, in contrast to the then-common matchlock firearms, which must have a burning cord of slow match ready if the gun might be needed and demanded the operator's full attention and two hands to operate. On the other hand, wheellock mechanisms were complex to make, making them expensive. A flintlock is a general term for any firearm; the term may apply to a particular form of the mechanism itself, introduced in the early 17th century, replaced earlier firearm-ignition technologies, such as the matchlock and the wheellock. Flintlock pistols were used as a military arm.
Their effective range was short, they were used as an adjunct to a sword or cutlass. Pistols were smoothbore although some rifled pistols were produced. Flintlock pistols came in a variety of sizes and styles which overlap and are not well defined, many of the names we use having been applied by collectors and dealers long after the pistols were obsolete; the smallest were less than 15 cm long and the largest were over 51 cm. From around the beginning of the 1700s the larger pistols got shorter, so that by the late 1700s the largest would be more like 41 cm long; the smallest would fit into a typical pocket or a hand warming muff and could be carried. The largest sizes would be carried in holsters across a horse's back just ahead of the saddle. In-between sizes included the coat pocket pistol, or coat pistol, which would fit into a large pocket, the coach pistol, meant to be carried on or under the seat of a coach in a bag or box, belt pistols, sometimes equipped with a hook designed to slip over a belt or waistband.
Larger pistols were called horse pistols. Arguably the most elegant of the p
A shotgun is a firearm, designed to be fired from the shoulder, which uses the energy of a fixed shell to fire a number of small spherical pellets called shot, or a solid projectile called a slug. Shotguns come in a wide variety of sizes, ranging from 5.5 mm bore up to 5 cm bore, in a range of firearm operating mechanisms, including breech loading, single-barreled, double or combination gun, pump-action, bolt-, lever-action, semi-automatic, fully automatic variants. A shotgun was a smoothbore firearm, which means that the inside of the barrel is not rifled but rifled shotgun barrels and slugs become available. Preceding smoothbore firearms, such as the musket, were used by armies in the 18th century; the direct ancestor to the shotgun, the blunderbuss, was used in a similar variety of roles from self-defense to riot control. It was used by cavalry troops because of its shorter length and ease of use, as well as by coachmen for its substantial power. In the 19th century, these weapons were replaced on the battlefield with breechloading rifled firearms, which were more accurate over longer ranges.
The military value of shotguns was rediscovered in the First World War, when American forces used 12-gauge pump action shotguns in close-quarters trench fighting to great effect. Since it has been used in a variety of roles in civilian, law enforcement, military applications; the shot pellets from a shotgun spread upon leaving the barrel, the power of the burning charge is divided among the pellets, which means that the energy of any one ball of shot is low. In a hunting context, this makes shotguns useful for hunting birds and other small game. However, in a military or law enforcement context, the large number of projectiles makes the shotgun useful as a close quarters combat weapon or a defensive weapon. Militants or insurgents may use shotguns in asymmetric engagements, as shotguns are owned civilian weapons in many countries. Shotguns are used for target shooting sports such as skeet and sporting clays; these involve. Shotguns come in a wide variety of forms, from small up to massive punt guns, in nearly every type of firearm operating mechanism.
The common characteristics that make a shotgun unique center on the requirements of firing shot. These features are the features typical of a shotgun shell, namely a short, wide cartridge, with straight walls, operating at a low pressure. Ammunition for shotguns is referred to in the USA as shotshells, or just shells; the term cartridges is standard usage in the United Kingdom. The shot is fired from a smoothbore barrel; the typical use of a shotgun is against small and fast moving targets while in the air. The spreading of the shot allows the user to point the shotgun close to the target, rather than having to aim as in the case of a single projectile; the disadvantages of shot are limited range and limited penetration of the shot, why shotguns are used at short ranges, against smaller targets. Larger shot sizes, up to the extreme case of the single projectile slug load, result in increased penetration, but at the expense of fewer projectiles and lower probability of hitting the target. Aside from the most common use against small, fast moving targets, the shotgun has several advantages when used against still targets.
First, it has enormous stopping power at more than nearly all handguns and many rifles. Though many believe the shotgun is a great firearm for inexperienced shooters, the truth is, at close range, the spread of shot is not large at all, competency in aiming is still required. A typical self-defense load of buckshot contains 8–27 large lead pellets, resulting in many wound tracks in the target. Unlike a jacketed rifle bullet, each pellet of shot is less to penetrate walls and hit bystanders, it is favored by law enforcement for its low penetration and high stopping power. On the other hand, the hit potential of a defensive shotgun is overstated; the typical defensive shot is taken at close ranges, at which the shot charge expands no more than a few centimeters. This means. Balancing this is the fact that shot spreads further upon entering the target, the multiple wound channels of a defensive load are far more to produce a disabling wound than a rifle or handgun; some of the most common uses of shotguns are the sports of skeet shooting, trap shooting, sporting clays.
These involve shooting clay discs known as clay pigeons, thrown in by hand and by machine. Both skeet and trap competitions are featured at the Olympic Games; the shotgun is popular for bird hunting, it is used for more general forms of hunting in semi-populated areas where the range of rifle bullets may pose a hazard. Use of a smooth bore shotgun with a rifled slug or, alternatively, a rifled barrel shotgun with a sabot slug, improves accuracy to 100 m or more; this is well within the range of the majority of kill shots by experienced hunters using shotguns. However, given the low muzzle velocity of slug ammunition around 500 m/s, the blunt, poorly streamlined shape of typical slugs (which cause them to lose
The Steel Challenge is a speed shooting competition governed by the Steel Challenge Shooting Association that consists of eight standardized stages with steel targets in three sizes. Competitors are scored by the time it takes them to complete each stage, the match winner is the competitor with the lowest overall time. Steel Challenge has many similarities with IPSC, but has a more TV- and spectator friendly format because of simpler rules and the stages being the same from year to year; because of this, Steel Challenge has become a place where speed records are broken. The annual World Championship called the World Speed Shooting Championships was held in Frostproof, Florida, St. George, San Luis Obispo, Talladega and draws shooters from around the world. Up until 2011 the World Championship used to be held in California each year; the competition was founded in 1981 by Mike Fichman. The Steel Challenge World Speed Shooting Championships have grown to one of the largest professional pistol competitions in America.
In 2007, more than 220 competitors from the United States and around the world competed for a portion of the $390,000 in cash and prizes - the largest purse in competitive pistol shooting. Seventy shooters competed in the first Steel Challenge in 1981. John Shaw claimed the first ‘World’s Fastest Shooter’ title along with his share of the $20,000 in cash and prizes. In the winter of 2007, Dalton and Fichman sold the Steel Challenge to the United States Practical Shooting Association, the US sanctioning body of IPSC. Since 2007, USPSA has been organizing US National Steel Championship every year in US. There are 8 stages with 5 steel targets on each. Shooters get five runs on each stage; each competitor shoots each stage five times, with their slowest run dropped, excluding the stage Outer Limits where only four runs are shot and the top three counted. The counting times are totaled for their stage score, the eight stage scores are added together to establish the competitor's match score. For each run, one hit per target is required, with an unlimited number of rounds.
The last target to be shot is known as the "stop plate". All primary target hits made after the stop plate has been struck, will be scored with a 3 second penalty each; the maximum time permitted for a run is 30 seconds and a competitor will be stopped and asked to reload if they reach the 30 second limit. The Steel Challenge comprises eight courses of fire called'stages.' They are: Five To Go Showdown Smoke & Hope Outer Limits Accelerator Pendulum Speed Option Roundabout All stages have competitors fire from square boxes. In the American Steel Challenge, the boxes have side lengths of 3 ft, except the stage Outer Limits where the boxes' sides are 4 ft; the European Steel Challenge has used boxes of 1×1 meter on all stages. Showdown has two boxes, requires the competitor to make the first two runs from one of the boxes, the two following runs from the other box. On the fifth and final run the competitor can choose. There is no movement, so each run is to be shot from one box only; the competitor can choose.
Outer Limits has the longest shots in the match, is the only stage with movement. Contrary to the other stages, Outer Limits only has four runs, which with one throwaway run makes for three counting runs in the aggregate score. In the American Steel Challenge the shooting boxes on Outer Limits are larger than those on the other stages; the stage has three boxes, the competitor starts on their weakhand side. For example, for a right handed shooter, the procedure is to start in the leftmost box from where they are to engage the leftmost 12 in plate at 20 yd and the leftmost 18×24 in plate plate at 35 yards. Thereafter the shooter is to move to the center box and engage the two similar plates on their stronghand side, before engaging the stop plate; every stage consists of 5 steel targets, giving a total of 40 targets for a match with all eight official World Championship stages. A World Championship will therefore consist of minimum 195 rounds to complete, since all stages are shot five times except Outer Limits, only shot four times.
The targets must be made of hardened steel. It is recommended that the targets have a flat front surface and a pole attachment at the rear, but targets with holes for attachment are permitted. All targets must be painted with white color before each new shooter, but the match organizer may choose to use another single color due to weather conditions. Unofficial stages at club matches, it is recommended that the target stands of the stop plates are painted in a distinct color, for instance red. The equipment divisions in Steel Challenge have varied past the years; the 2017 Steel Challenge World Championship had the following divisions: Handguns Open Limited Production Single Stack Iron Sight Revolver Open Revolver Carry Optics Rimfire Pistol Iron Rimfire Pistol Open Long guns Rimfire Rifle Iron Rimfire Rifle Open Pistol Caliber Carbine Irons Pistol Caliber Carbine Open "Steel Master" is awarded to the competitor with the lowest aggregate time from three completed handgun divisions. One has to be Rimfire Pistol The other two has to be Centerfire Pistol or Revolver, but only one of them can be optically sighted."Rifle Master" is award
International Practical Shooting Confederation
The International Practical Shooting Confederation is the world's second largest shooting sport association and the largest and oldest within practical shooting. Founded in 1976, the IPSC nowadays affiliates over 100 regions from Africa, Asia and Oceania. Competitions are held with pistol, revolver and shotgun, competitors are divided into different divisions based on firearm and equipment features. While everyone in a division competes in the Overall category, there are own separate awards for the categories Lady, Super Junior, Junior and Super Senior. IPSC's activities include international regulation of the sport by approving firearms and equipment for various divisions, administering competition rules and education of range officials through the International Range Officers Association who are responsible for conducting matches safely and according to the rules. IPSC organizes the World Championships called the Handgun World Shoot, Rifle World Shoot and Shotgun World Shoot with three year intervals for each discipline.
The sport of practical shooting originated from competitions in California in the 1950s with the goal of developing handgun skills for defensive use, but evolved into a pure sport with little grounding in the original purpose. The sport soon expanded to Europe, South America, Africa. IPSC was founded in May 1976 when practical shooting enthusiasts from around the world participated at a conference held in Columbia, creating a constitution and establishing the rules governing the sport. Jeff Cooper served as the first IPSC President. Today there are over 100 active IPSC regions, making practical shooting a major international sport which emphasizes firearms safety highly. Through international rules concerning firearms and organizing of matches one tries to unite the three elements precision and speed, the motto of IPSC, Diligentia, Celeritous, Latin for "precision, speed". Only full caliber firearms are used, i.e. for handguns 9×19 mm is the smallest caliber, the competitors try to achieve most points in the shortest time possible.
Accuracy and speed is reflected by the comstock scoring method, while power is reflected by the minimum power factor requirement. Competitors fire the stages one at a time, the scoring system is based on achieving most possible points in the shortest time; the scoring method is called comstock, named after its inventor Walt Comstock, which means that the competitor has unlimited time to complete the stage and can fire an unlimited number of rounds. The time is measured from the start signal until the last shot fired using special shot timers with microphones, this way the competitor can influence the total stage time. Since the number of rounds is unlimited, the competitor can re-engage the same target in order to get more points, but at the cost of using more time; the two best scoring hits count for each target. Competitors are ranked for each stage by their hit factor, the ratio of points per second; the hit factor is calculated by dividing by the time used. H i t f a c t o r = p o i n t s s e c o n d s For example, if a stage has 12 paper targets, requires two scoring hits per paper taget, since an A-hit gives 5 points, the stage will have 12 × 2 × 5 = 120 points available.
If a competitor scores 115 points and uses 25.00 seconds he will get a hit factor for that stage of 115 points⁄25.00 s = 4.6. The competitor with the highest hit factor wins the stage and gets all the available stage points, while other competitors are given stage points based on their hit factor percentage compared to the winner. For the overall match score, stage points are added for all stages, which means that each stage is weighted by how many stage points that are available; the scoring method allows for a precise gradation of performances across the match, but requires a computer and software to do in a timely fashion. Matches can either be scored on paper and manually transferred to the official IPSC Match Scoring System, or can be scored directly on electronic devices like smartphones and tablets with the WinMSS Electronic Score Sheet app or third party scoring systems like Shoot'n Score It or PractiScore; the power factor is the momentum of the fired bullet as it's moving through the air, which contribute to the recoil of the firearm.
Thus, the power factor in a way reflects recoil. The power factor must exceed certain thresholds, is calculated by measuring the bullet speed using a chronograph and measuring another of the competitors bullets on a weighing scale to find the bullet mass, thereafter calculating the power factor by the formula: p o w e r f a c t o r = m a s s ⋅ v e l o c i t y The official unit used for the power factor is the imperial unit "kilo grain feet per second". "Grain feet per second" can be obtained by measuring the mass in grain (equal to 1⁄7000 p