Brad Anderson (director)
Brad Anderson is an American film director and writer. A director of thriller and horror films and television projects, he is best known for having directed The Machinist, starring Christian Bale, psychological horror film Session 9 and The Call, starring Halle Berry, he produced and directed several installments of the Fox science fiction television series Fringe. Anderson was born in Madison, the son of Pamela Taylor Anderson, a community services administrator, he is the nephew of Emmy Award-winning actress Holland Taylor. Before he began his film career, he attended Bowdoin College, where he majored in anthropology and Russian, he went to London to finish his film education at London Film School before returning to Boston. Anderson started out directing the romantic comedy films Happy Accidents; the films were Sundance Film Festival audience favorites. His next film was the 2001 psychological horror film Session 9. Unsuccessful at the box office, the film has since gained a cult following. In 2002, Anderson was a member of the dramatic jury at the Sundance Film Festival.
This was followed by his most notable work to The Machinist, starring Christian Bale. The film has helped earn Anderson a cult following, his next two films were Transsiberian, a thriller starring Woody Harrelson, Emily Mortimer and Ben Kingsley and the horror film Vanishing on 7th Street, starring Hayden Christensen, John Leguizamo and Thandie Newton. Notably, both Transsiberian and The Machinist were funded by Anglo-German production companies. At one point, he was one of the candidates to direct the sequel to Paranormal Activity. In 2013, Anderson directed a thriller starring Halle Berry and Abigail Breslin; this was followed by Stonehearst Asylum in 2014, with Kate Beckinsale, Jim Sturgess, David Thewlis and Ben Kingsley in the leading roles. His latest film is an espionage thriller Beirut, which stars Rosamund Pike. Anderson has directed numerous episodes of Fringe, as well as two episodes each of The Wire, The Killing, Boardwalk Empire. Anderson was one of the contributors to the horror series Masters of Horror, directing the season two episode "Sounds Like".
Anderson directed the pilot episode of the ABC prime time series Forever. He directed the pilot episode of CBS's Zoo. Anderson replaced Joseph Ruben as director of Bold Films thriller Jack in May 2010, cast John Cusack for the lead, who has since been replaced by Liev Schreiber. Anderson was supposed to direct The Living and the Dead, based on the novel of the same name by Robert Tinnell and Todd Livingston. After working together on The Machinist and Christian Bale have had plans to collaborate again on an adaptation of J. G. Ballard's novel Concrete Island. Brad Anderson on IMDb Brad Anderson at TV Guide Brad Anderson at TV.com
Michel Gondry is a French film director and producer. He is noted for his inventive visual style and distinctive manipulation of mise en scène, he won an Academy Award for Best Original Screenplay as one of the writers of the 2004 film Eternal Sunshine of the Spotless Mind. His other films include the surrealistic science fantasy comedy The Science of Sleep, the comedy Be Kind Rewind, the superhero action comedy The Green Hornet, the drama The We and the I, the romantic science fantasy tragedy Mood Indigo, he is well known for his music video collaborations with Donald Fagen, Radiohead, Björk, The Chemical Brothers and The White Stripes. Gondry was born in Versailles, he is the grandson of inventor Constant Martin. Gondry's vision and career began with his emphasis on emotion. Much of his inspiration, came from the film Le voyage en ballon, he stated: "When I watch this movie, I dream I'm flying and I do stories where people are flying. I think it's directly influencing."His career as a filmmaker began with creating music videos for the French rock band Oui Oui, in which he served as a drummer.
The style of his videos for Oui Oui caught the attention of music artist Björk, who asked him to direct the video for her song "Human Behaviour". The collaboration proved long-lasting, with Gondry directing a total of eight music videos for Björk. Other artists who have collaborated with Gondry on more than one occasion include Daft Punk, The White Stripes, The Chemical Brothers, The Vines, Steriogram and Beck. Gondry's video for Lucas Secon's "Lucas with the Lid Off" was nominated in the Best Music Video category at the 37th Grammy Awards. Gondry has created numerous television commercials, he pioneered the "bullet time" technique adapted in The Matrix in the 1996 "Smarienberg" commercial for Smirnoff vodka, as well as directing a trio of inventive holiday-themed advertisements for clothing retailer Gap. Gondry, along with directors Spike Jonze and David Fincher, is representative of the influx of music video directors into feature film. Gondry made his feature film debut in 2001 with Human Nature.
His second film, Eternal Sunshine of the Spotless Mind, was released in 2004 and received favorable reviews, becoming one of the most critically acclaimed films of the year. Eternal Sunshine utilizes many of the image manipulation techniques that Gondry had experimented with in his music videos. Gondry won an Academy Award alongside Kaufman and Pierre Bismuth for the screenplay of Eternal Sunshine; the style of Gondry's music videos relies on videography and camera tricks which play with frames of reference. Gondry directed the musical documentary Dave Chappelle's Block Party which followed comedian Dave Chappelle as he attempted to hold a large, free concert in the Bedford-Stuyvesant neighborhood of Brooklyn, his following film, The Science of Sleep, hit theaters in September 2006. This film stars Mexican actor Gael García Bernal, marked a return to the fantastical, surreal techniques he employed in Eternal Sunshine. According to the Guinness World Records 2004, Gondry's Levi's 501 Jeans "Drugstore" spot holds the record for "Most awards won by a TV commercial".
The commercial was never aired in North America because of the suggestive content involving purchasing latex condoms. He declined. In September 2006, Gondry made his debut as an installation artist at Deitch Projects in New York City's SoHo gallery district; the show, called "The Science of Sleep: An Exhibition of Sculpture and Pathological Creepy Little Gifts" featured props from his film, The Science of Sleep, as well as film clips and a selection of gifts that the artist had given to women he was interested in, many of them former or current collaborators, Karen Baird, Kishu Chand, Dorothy Barrick and Lauri Faggioni. A leitmotif of the film is a'Disastrology' calendar, his brother Olivier "Twist" Gondry is a television commercial and music video director creating videos for bands such as The Stills, Hot Hot Heat, Daft Punk and The Vines. Michel's son Paul Gondry is an artist and film director as well. Gondry was an Artist in Residence at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology in 2005 and 2006.
Directing the music video for the Paul McCartney song "Dance Tonight", in which Gondry makes a cameo appearance. Gondry directed "Unnatural Love", the fifth episode in season two of HBO's Flight of the Conchords. Interior Design one third of the 2008 anthology film Tokyo! was next for Gondry. Interior Design was based on the comic book "Cecil and Jordan in New York" by Gabrielle Bell but was adapted from New York City to Tokyo for the film. In 2009, The Thorn in the Heart, another feature documentary, was released, it is about Michel's aunt Suzette and her son Jean-Yves. In 2011, Gondry directed The Green Hornet, a superhero film by Sony starring Seth Rogen, Jay Chou and Christoph Waltz. In 2011, he was the head of the jury for the short film competition at the 2011 Cannes Film Festival, his film The We and the I was selected to be screened in the Directors' Fortnight section at the 2012 Cannes Film Festival. On 3 January 2013, Gondry released his latest animated short Haircut Mouse on his official Vimeo channel.
In February 2013, Gondry released a hand-drawn animated documentary on fam
The Cherry Orchard
The Cherry Orchard is the last play by Russian playwright Anton Chekhov. Written in 1903, it was first published by Znaniye, came out as a separate edition that year in Saint Petersburg, via A. F. Marks Publishers, it opened at the Moscow Art Theatre on 17 January 1904 in a production directed by Konstantin Stanislavski. Chekhov described the play as a comedy, with some elements of farce, though Stanislavski treated it as a tragedy. Since its first production, directors have contended with its dual nature, it is identified as one of the three or four outstanding plays by Chekhov, along with The Seagull, Three Sisters, Uncle Vanya. The play concerns an aristocratic Russian landowner who returns to her family estate just before it is auctioned to pay the mortgage. Unresponsive to offers to save the estate, she allows its sale to the son of a former serf; the story presents themes of cultural futility – both the futile attempts of the aristocracy to maintain its status and of the bourgeoisie to find meaning in its newfound materialism.
It dramatises the socio-economic forces in Russia at the turn of the 20th century, including the rise of the middle class after the abolition of serfdom in the mid-19th century and the decline of the power of the aristocracy. Regarded as a classic of 20th-century theatre, the play has been translated and adapted into many languages and produced around the world. Major theatre directors have staged it, including Charles Laughton, Peter Brook, Andrei Șerban, Jean-Louis Barrault, Tyrone Guthrie, Katie Mitchell, Mehmet Ergen and Giorgio Strehler, it has influenced many other playwrights, including Eugene O'Neill, George Bernard Shaw, David Mamet, Arthur Miller. The spelling of character names depends on the transliteration used. Madame Lyubov Andreievna Ranevskaya – a landowner. Ranyevskaya is the linchpin. A commanding and popular figure, she represents the pride of the old aristocracy, now fallen on hard times, her confused feelings of love for her old home and sorrow at the scene of her son's death, give her an emotional depth that keeps her from devolving into a mere aristocratic grotesque.
Most of her humor comes from her inability to understand financial or business matters. Peter Trofimov – a student and Anya's love interest. Trofimov is depicted as an "eternal" student. An impassioned left-wing political commentator, he represents the rising tide of reformist political opinion in Russia, which struggled to find its place within the authoritarian Czarist autocracy. Boris Borisovich Simeonov-Pishchik – a landowner and another old aristocrat whose estate has hit hard times, he is discussing new business ventures that may save him and badgering Ranyevskaya for a loan. His character embodies the irony of the aristocracy's position: despite his financial peril, he spends the play relaxing and socializing with the Gayevs. Anya – Lyubov's daughter, aged 17, she journeys to Paris to rescue her mother from her desperate situation. She is a strong young woman, she is in love with Trofimov and listens to his revolutionary ideas, although she may or may not be taking them in. Varya – Lyubov's adopted daughter, aged 24.
Varya is the one who keeps everything in order. She is the rock; the reason why Ranevskaya adopted her is never made clear, although she is mentioned to have come from "simple people". Varya fantasizes about becoming a nun, she adores her mother and sister, frets about money constantly. Her relationship to Lopakhin is a mysterious one. Leonid Andreieveitch Gayev – the brother of Madame Ranevskaya. One of the more comic characters, Gayev is a talkative eccentric, his addiction to billiards is symbolic of the aristocracy's decadent life of leisure, which renders them impotent in the face of change. Gayev tries hard to save his family and estate, but as an aristocrat, either lacks the drive, or doesn't understand the real world mechanisms necessary to realize his goals. Yermolai Alexeievitch Lopakhin – a merchant. Lopakhin comes from the lowest social class; this contrast defines his character: he enjoys living the high life, but at the same time is uncomfortably conscious of his low beginnings and obsession with business.
He is portrayed on stage as an unpleasant character because of his greedy tendencies and ultimate betrayal of the Gayev family, but there is nothing in the play to suggest this: he works strenuously to help the Gayevs, but to no avail. Lopakhin represents the new middle class in Russia, one of many threats to the old aristocratic way of doing things. Charlotta Ivanovna – a governess. By far the most eccentric character, Charlotta is the only governess the Gayevs could afford and is a companion for Anya, she is a melancholy figure, raised by a German woman without any real knowledge of who her circus entertainer parents were. She performs card tricks and ventriloquism at the party in the third act and accepts the loss of her station, when the family disbands, with pragmatism. Yepikhodov – a clerk; the Gayev's estate clerk is another source of comedy. He is unfortunate and clumsy in the extreme, earning him the insulting nickname "Twenty-Two Calamities" invoked by Yasha, he considers himself to be in love with Dunyasha, whom he has
Heywood "Woody" Allen is an American director, writer and comedian whose career spans more than six decades. He began his career as a comedy writer in the 1950s, writing jokes and scripts for television and publishing several books of short humor pieces. In the early 1960s, Allen began performing as a stand-up comedian, emphasizing monologues rather than traditional jokes; as a comedian, he developed the persona of an insecure, fretful nebbish, which he maintains is quite different from his real-life personality. In 2004, Comedy Central ranked Allen fourth on a list of the 100 greatest stand-up comedians, while a UK survey ranked Allen as the third-greatest comedian. By the mid-1960s, Allen was writing and directing films, first specializing in slapstick comedies before moving into dramatic material influenced by European art cinema during the 1970s, alternating between comedies and dramas to the present, he is identified as part of the New Hollywood wave of filmmakers of the mid-1960s to late 1970s.
Allen stars in his films in the persona he developed as a standup. Some of the best-known of his over 50 films are Annie Hall, Manhattan and Her Sisters, Crimes and Misdemeanors. In 2007 he said Stardust Memories, The Purple Rose of Cairo, Match Point were his best films. Critic Roger Ebert described Allen as "a treasure of the cinema". Allen has received many honors throughout his career, he has won four Academy Awards: three for one for Best Director. He garnered nine British Academy Film Awards, his screenplay for Annie Hall was named the funniest screenplay by the Writers Guild of America in its list of the "101 Funniest Screenplays". In 2011, PBS televised the film biography Woody Allen: A Documentary on the American Masters TV series. In 1992 Dylan Farrow accused Allen of molesting her, an accusation he has denied; the accusation gained new life with the rise of the Me Too movement. In 2019 Amazon canceled the release of his film A Rainy Day in New York, filmed in 2017. Allen is suing Amazon for breach of contract for $68 million.
He is shooting a film in Spain. Allen was born Allan Stewart Konigsberg in the Brooklyn borough of New York City, he and his sister, were raised in Midwood, Brooklyn. He is the son of Nettie, a bookkeeper at her family's delicatessen, Martin Konigsberg, a jewelry engraver and waiter, his family was Jewish, his grandparents immigrated to the US from Russia and Austria and spoke Yiddish and German. Both of Allen's parents were raised on the Lower East Side of Manhattan, his childhood was not happy. Allen spoke German quite a bit in his early years, he would joke that when he was young he was sent to inter-faith summer camps. While attending Hebrew school for eight years, he went to Public School 99 and to Midwood High School, where he graduated in 1953. Unlike his comic persona, he was more interested in baseball than school and his strong arms ensured he was first to be picked for a team, he impressed students with his extraordinary talent with magic tricks. For pay, he wrote jokes for agent David O. Alber.
At the age of 17, he changed his name to Heywood Allen and began to call himself Woody Allen. According to Allen, his first published joke read: "Woody Allen says he ate at a restaurant that had O. P. S. Prices—over people's salaries." He was earning more. After high school, he attended New York University, studying communication and film in 1953, before dropping out after failing the course "Motion Picture Production", he left before the end of the first semester. He taught himself rather than studying in the classroom, he taught at The New School and studied with writing teacher Lajos Egri.p.74 Allen began writing short jokes when he was 15, the following year began sending them to various Broadway writers to see if they'd be interested in buying any. He began going by the name "Woody Allen". One of those writers was Abe Burrows, coauthor of Guys and Dolls, who wrote, "Wow! His stuff was dazzling." Burrows wrote Allen letters of introduction to Sid Caesar, Phil Silvers, Peter Lind Hayes, who sent Allen a check for just the jokes Burrows included as samples.
As a result of the jokes Allen mailed to various writers, he was invited age 19, to join the NBC Writer's Development Program in 1955, followed by a job on The NBC Comedy Hour in Los Angeles. He was hired as a full-time writer for humorist Herb Shriner earning $25 a week, he began writing scripts for The Ed Sullivan Show, The Tonight Show, specials for Sid Caesar post-Caesar's Hour, other television shows.p.111 By the time he was working for Caesar, he was earning $1,500 a week. He worked alongside Mel Brooks, Carl Reiner, Larry Gelbart, Neil Simon, he worked with Danny Simon, whom Allen credits for helping form his writing style. In 1962 alone he estimated. Allen wrote for the Candid Camera television show, appeared in some episodes, he wrote jokes for the Buddy Hackett sitcom Stanley and for The Pat Boone Chevy Showroom, in 1958 he co-wrote a few Sid Caesar specials with Larry Gelbart. After writing for many of television's leading comedians and comedy shows, All
Bernardo Bertolucci was an Italian director and screenwriter, whose films include The Conformist, Last Tango in Paris, 1900, The Last Emperor, The Sheltering Sky, Little Buddha, Stealing Beauty and The Dreamers. In recognition of his work, he was presented with the inaugural Honorary Palme d'Or Award at the opening ceremony of the 2011 Cannes Film Festival. From 1979 until his death in 2018, he was married to screenwriter Clare Peploe. Bertolucci was born in the region of Emilia-Romagna, he was the elder son of Ninetta, a teacher, Attilio Bertolucci, a poet, a reputed art historian and film critic. His mother was born to an Italian father and an Irish mother. Having been raised in an artistic environment, Bertolucci began writing at the age of fifteen, soon after received several prestigious literary prizes including the Premio Viareggio for his first book, his father's background helped his career: the elder Bertolucci had helped the Italian filmmaker Pier Paolo Pasolini publish his first novel, Pasolini reciprocated by hiring Bertolucci as first assistant in Rome on Accattone.
Bertolucci had the theatre director and playwright Giuseppe. His cousin was the film producer Giovanni Bertolucci, with. Bertolucci wished to become a poet like his father. With this goal in mind, he attended the Faculty of Modern Literature of the University of Rome from 1958 to 1961, where his film career as an assistant director to Pasolini began. Shortly after, Bertolucci left the University without graduating. In 1962, at the age of 22, he directed his first feature film, produced by Tonino Cervi with a screenplay by Pasolini, called La commare secca; the film is a murder mystery, following a prostitute's homicide. Bertolucci uses flashbacks to piece together the person who committed it; the film which shortly followed was his acclaimed Before the Revolution. The boom of Italian cinema, which gave Bertolucci his start, slowed in the 1970s as directors were forced to co-produce their films with several of the American, Swedish and German companies and actors due to the effects of the global economic recession on the Italian film industry.
Bertolucci caused controversy in 1972 with the film Last Tango in Paris, starring Marlon Brando, Maria Schneider, Jean-Pierre Léaud and Massimo Girotti. The film presents Brando's character, Paul, as he copes with his wife's suicide by and physically dominating a young woman, Jeane; the depictions of Schneider 19 years old, were regarded as exploitative. In one scene, Paul anally rapes Jeane using butter as a lubricant; the use of butter was not in the script. She said in 2007 that she had cried "real tears" during the scene and had felt humiliated and "a little raped". In 2013 Bertolucci said that he had withheld the information from Schneider to generate a real "reaction of frustration and rage". Brando alleged that Bertolucci had wanted the characters to have real sex, but Brando and Schneider both said it was simulated. In 2016 Bertolucci released a statement where he clarified that Schneider had known of the violence to be depicted in the scene, but had not been told about the use of butter.
Following the scandal surrounding the film's release, Schneider became suicidal. She became a women's rights advocate, in particular fighting for more female film directors, more respect for female actors and better representation of women in film and media. Criminal proceedings were brought against Bertolucci in Italy for the rape scene. An Italian court revoked Bertolucci's civil rights for five years and gave him a four-month suspended prison sentence. In 1978 the Appeals Court of Bologna ordered three copies of the film to be preserved in the national film library with the stipulation that they could not be viewed, until Bertolucci was able to re-submit it for general distribution with no cuts. Bertolucci increased his fame with his next few films, from 1900, an epic depiction of the struggles of farmers in Emilia-Romagna from the beginning of the 20th century up to World War II with an international cast to La Luna, set in Rome and in Emilia-Romagna, in which Bertolucci deals with the thorny issue of drugs and incest, La tragedia di un uomo ridicolo, with Ugo Tognazzi.
He wrote two screenplays based on Dashiell Hammett’s Red Harvest. He hoped this would be his first film set in America. In 1987, Bertolucci directed the epic The Last Emperor, a biographical film telling the life story of Aisin-Gioro Puyi, the last Emperor of China; the film was independently produced by British producer Jeremy Thomas, with whom Bertolucci worked exclusively from on. The film was three years in the making. Bertolucci, who co-wrote the film with Mark Peploe, won the Academy Award for Best Director; the film uses Puyi's life as a mirror that reflects China's passage from feudalism through revolution to its current state. At the 60th Academy Awards, The Last Emperor won all nine Oscars for which it was nominated: Best Picture, Best Director, Best Writing, Screenplay Based on Material from Another Medium, Best Cinematography, Best Film
Drew Blythe Barrymore is an American actress, director, author and entrepreneur. She is a member of the Barrymore family of actors, the granddaughter of John Barrymore, she achieved fame as a child actress with her role in E. T. the Extra-Terrestrial. She is the recipient of several accolades, including a Golden Globe, a Screen Actors Guild Award, a BAFTA nomination. Following a publicized childhood marked by drug and alcohol abuse, Barrymore released an autobiography, Little Girl Lost, in 1991, she went on to appear in a string of successful films throughout the decade, including Poison Ivy, Boys on the Side, Mad Love, Ever After and The Wedding Singer. The latter was her first collaboration with Adam Sandler. Barrymore's other films include Never Been Kissed, Charlie's Angels, Donnie Darko, Riding in Cars with Boys, Confessions of a Dangerous Mind, Fever Pitch and Lyrics, Going the Distance, Big Miracle and Miss You Already. Barrymore made her directorial debut with Whip It, in which she starred, received a SAG Award and a Golden Globe for her performance in Grey Gardens.
She stars on the Netflix series Santa Clarita Diet. In 1995, Barrymore and Nancy Juvonen formed the production company Flower Films; the pair have produced several projects. In 2013, Barrymore launched a range of cosmetics under the Flower banner, which has grown to include lines in makeup and eyewear, her other business ventures include a range of a clothing line. In 2015, she released Wildflower. Barrymore received a star on the Hollywood Walk of Fame in 2004. Barrymore was born in California, to actor John Barrymore and aspiring actress Jaid. Jaid was born in a displaced persons camp in Brannenburg, West Germany, to Hungarian World War II refugees. Barrymore is one of four children and has a half-brother, an actor, her parents divorced in 1984. Barrymore was born into an acting family. All of her paternal great-grandparents—Maurice and Georgie Drew Barrymore and Mae Costello —as well as her paternal grandparents, John Barrymore and Dolores Costello, were actors, with John being arguably the most acclaimed actor of his generation.
Barrymore is a niece of Diana Barrymore, a grandniece of Lionel Barrymore, Ethel Barrymore, Helene Costello, a great-great-granddaughter of Irish-born John and English-born Louisa Lane Drew, all of whom were actors. She was a great-grandniece of Broadway idol John Drew Jr. and silent film actor and director Sidney Drew. Barrymore's godmothers are Lee Strasberg's widow, Anna Strasberg, her godfather is director Steven Spielberg. Barrymore's first name, was the maiden name of her paternal great-grandmother, Georgie Drew, her middle name, was the surname of the family first used by her great-grandfather, Maurice Barrymore. In her 1991 autobiography Little Girl Lost, Barrymore recounted early memories of her abusive father, who left the family when Barrymore was 6 months old, she and her father never had anything resembling a significant relationship and spoke to each other. Barrymore grew up on Poinsettia Place in West Hollywood until the age of 7, when she moved to Sherman Oaks. In her 2015 memoir, she says she talks "like a valley girl" because she grew up in Sherman Oaks.
She moved back to West Hollywood upon becoming emancipated at 14. Barrymore attended elementary school at Fountain Day School in Country School. In the wake of her sudden stardom, Barrymore endured a notoriously troubled childhood, she was a regular at the racy Studio 54 as a young girl, her nightlife and constant partying became a popular subject with the media. She was placed in rehab at the age of 13, spent 18 months in an institution for the mentally ill. A suicide attempt at 14 put her back in rehab, followed by a three-month stay with singer David Crosby and his wife; the stay was precipitated, Crosby said, because she "needed to be around some people that were committed to sobriety." Barrymore described this period of her life in her autobiography, Little Girl Lost. After a successful juvenile court petition for emancipation, she moved into her own apartment at the age of 15. Barrymore's professional career began at 11 months, she was nipped by her canine co-star, to which she laughed and was hired for the job.
After her film debut with a small role in Altered States, she played Gertie in E. T. the Extra-Terrestrial, directed by Steven Spielberg. He felt that she had the right imagination for her role after she impressed him with a story that she led a punk rock band. E. T. is the highest-grossing film of the 1980s and made her one of the most famous child actors of the time. For her work, she won a Young Artist Award for Best Supporting Actress. In the 1984 horror film adaptation of Stephen King's 1980 novel Firestarter, Barrymore played a girl with pyrokinesis who becomes the target of a secret government agency known as The Shop; the same year, she played a young girl divorcing her famous parents in Irreconcilable Differences, for which she was nominated for her first Golden Globe Award for Best Supporting Actress. In a review in the Chicago Sun-Times, Roger Ebert stated, "Barrymore is the right actress for this role b
Anton Pavlovich Chekhov was a Russian playwright and short-story writer, considered to be among the greatest writers of short fiction in history. His career as a playwright produced four classics, his best short stories are held in high esteem by writers and critics. Along with Henrik Ibsen and August Strindberg, Chekhov is referred to as one of the three seminal figures in the birth of early modernism in the theatre. Chekhov practiced as a medical doctor throughout most of his literary career: "Medicine is my lawful wife", he once said, "and literature is my mistress."Chekhov renounced the theatre after the reception of The Seagull in 1896, but the play was revived to acclaim in 1898 by Konstantin Stanislavski's Moscow Art Theatre, which subsequently produced Chekhov's Uncle Vanya and premiered his last two plays, Three Sisters and The Cherry Orchard. These four works present a challenge to the acting ensemble as well as to audiences, because in place of conventional action Chekhov offers a "theatre of mood" and a "submerged life in the text".
Chekhov had at first written stories to earn money, but as his artistic ambition grew, he made formal innovations which have influenced the evolution of the modern short story. He made no apologies for the difficulties this posed to readers, insisting that the role of an artist was to ask questions, not to answer them. Anton Chekhov was born on the feast day of St. Anthony the Great 29 January 1860 in Taganrog, a port on the Sea of Azov in southern Russia, he was the third of six surviving children. His father, Pavel Yegorovich Chekhov, the son of a former serf and his Ukrainian wife, was from the village Olhovatka and ran a grocery store. A director of the parish choir, devout Orthodox Christian, physically abusive father, Pavel Chekhov has been seen by some historians as the model for his son's many portraits of hypocrisy. Chekhov's mother, was an excellent storyteller who entertained the children with tales of her travels with her cloth-merchant father all over Russia. "Our talents we got from our father," Chekhov remembered, "but our soul from our mother."
In adulthood, Chekhov criticised his brother Alexander's treatment of his wife and children by reminding him of Pavel's tyranny: "Let me ask you to recall that it was despotism and lying that ruined your mother's youth. Despotism and lying so mutilated our childhood that it's sickening and frightening to think about it. Remember the horror and disgust we felt in those times when Father threw a tantrum at dinner over too much salt in the soup and called Mother a fool."Chekhov attended the Greek School in Taganrog and the Taganrog Gymnasium, where he was kept down for a year at fifteen for failing an examination in Ancient Greek. He sang at the Greek Orthodox monastery in his father's choirs. In a letter of 1892, he used the word "suffering" to describe his childhood and recalled: When my brothers and I used to stand in the middle of the church and sing the trio "May my prayer be exalted", or "The Archangel's Voice", everyone looked at us with emotion and envied our parents, but we at that moment felt like little convicts.
In 1876, Chekhov's father was declared bankrupt after overextending his finances building a new house, having been cheated by a contractor named Mironov. To avoid debtor's prison he fled to Moscow, where his two eldest sons and Nikolay, were attending university; the family lived in poverty in Moscow. Chekhov was left behind to finish his education. Chekhov remained in Taganrog for three more years, boarding with a man by the name of Selivanov who, like Lopakhin in The Cherry Orchard, had bailed out the family for the price of their house. Chekhov had to pay for his own education, which he managed by private tutoring and selling goldfinches, selling short sketches to the newspapers, among other jobs, he sent every ruble he could spare to his family in Moscow, along with humorous letters to cheer them up. During this time, he read and analytically, including the works of Cervantes, Turgenev and Schopenhauer, wrote a full-length comic drama, which his brother Alexander dismissed as "an inexcusable though innocent fabrication."
Chekhov experienced a series of love affairs, one with the wife of a teacher. In 1879, Chekhov completed his schooling and joined his family in Moscow, having gained admission to the medical school at I. M. Sechenov First Moscow State Medical University. Chekhov now assumed responsibility for the whole family. To support them and to pay his tuition fees, he wrote daily short, humorous sketches and vignettes of contemporary Russian life, many under pseudonyms such as "Antosha Chekhonte" and "Man without a Spleen", his prodigious output earned him a reputation as a satirical chronicler of Russian street life, by 1882 he was writing for Oskolki, owned by Nikolai Leykin, one of the leading publishers of the time. Chekhov's tone at this stage was harsher than that familiar from his mature fiction. In 1884, Chekhov qualified as a physician, which he considered his principal profession though he made little money from it and treated the poor free of charge. In 1884 and 1885, Chekhov found himself coughing blood, in 1886 the attacks worsened, but he would not admit his tuberculosis to his family or his friends.
He confessed to Leykin, "I am afraid to submit myself to be sounded by my colleagues." He continued writing for weekly periodicals, earning enough mon