Golkonda known as Golconda, Gol konda, or Golla konda, is a citadel and fort in Southern India and was the capital of the medieval sultanate of the Qutb Shahi dynasty, is situated 11 km west of Hyderabad. It is a tehsil of Hyderabad district, India; the region is known for the mines that have produced some of the world's most famous gems, including the Koh-i-Noor, the Hope Diamond, Nassak Diamond and the Noor-ul-Ain. Golkonda was known as Mankal. Golkonda Fort was first built by the Kakatiyas as part of their western defenses along the lines of the Kondapalli Fort; the city and the fortress were built on a granite hill, 120 meters high, surrounded by massive battlements. The fort was strengthened by Rani Rudrama Devi and her successor Prataparudra; the fort came under the control of the Musunuri Nayaks, who defeated the Tughlaqi army occupying Warangal. It was ceded by the Musunuri Kapaya Bhupathi to the Bahmani Sultanate as part of a treaty in 1364. Under the Bahmani Sultanate, Golkonda rose to prominence.
Sultan Quli Qutb-ul-Mulk, sent as a governor of Telangana, established it as the seat of his government around 1501. Bahmani rule weakened during this period, Sultan Quli formally became independent in 1538, establishing the Qutb Shahi dynasty based in Golkonda. Over a period of 62 years, the mud fort was expanded by the first three Qutb Shahi sultans into the present structure, a massive fortification of granite extending around 5 km in circumference, it remained the capital of the Qutb Shahi dynasty until 1590 when the capital was shifted to Hyderabad. The Qutb Shahis expanded the fort; the fort fell into ruin in 1687, after an eight-month-long siege led to its fall at the hands of the Mughal emperor Aurangzeb. The Golkonda Fort used to have a vault where the famous Koh-i-Noor and Hope diamonds were once stored along with other diamonds. Golkonda is renowned for the diamonds found on the south-east at Kollur Mine near Kollur, Guntur district and Atkur in Krishna district and cut in the city during the Kakatiya reign.
At that time, India had the only known diamond mines in the world. Golkonda's mines yielded many diamonds. Golkonda was the market city of the diamond trade, gems sold there came from a number of mines; the fortress-city within the walls was famous for diamond trade. However, Europeans believed. Magnificent diamonds were taken from the mines in the region surrounding Golkonda, including the Daria-i-Noor or "Sea of Light", at 185 carats, the largest and finest diamond of the crown jewels of Iran, its name has come to be associated with great wealth. Gemologists use this classification to denote a diamond with a complete lack of nitrogen. Many famed diamonds are believed to have been excavated from the mines of Golkonda, such as: Daria-i-Noor Noor-ul-Ain Koh-i-Noor Hope Diamond Princie Diamond Regent Diamond Wittelsbach-Graff Diamond By the 1880s, "Golkonda" was being used generically by English speakers to refer to any rich mine, to any source of great wealth. During the Renaissance and the early modern eras, the name "Golkonda" acquired a legendary aura and became synonymous for vast wealth.
The mines brought riches to the Qutb Shahis of Hyderabad State, who ruled Golkonda up to 1687 to the Nizam of Hyderabad, who ruled after the independence from the Mughal Empire in 1724 until 1948, when the Indian integration of Hyderabad occurred. The Golkonda fort is listed as an archaeological treasure on the official "List of Monuments" prepared by the Archaeological Survey of India under The Ancient Monuments and Archaeological Sites and Remains Act. Golkonda consists of four distinct forts with a 10 km long outer wall with 87 semicircular bastions, eight gateways, four drawbridges, with a number of royal apartments and halls, mosques, stables, etc. inside. The lowest of these is the outermost enclosure into which we enter by the "Fateh Darwaza" studded with giant iron spikes near the south-eastern corner. An acoustic effect can be experienced at Fateh Darwazaan, characteristic of the engineering marvels at Golkonda. A hand clap at a certain point below the dome at the entrance reverberates and can be heard at the'Bala Hisar' pavilion, the highest point a kilometer away.
This worked. The whole of the Golkonda Fort complex and its surrounding spreads across 11 km of total area and discovering its every nook is an arduous task. A visit to the fort reveals the architectural beauty in many of the pavilions, gates and domes. Divided into four district forts, the architectural valour still gleams in each of the apartments, temples and stables; the graceful gardens of the fort may have lost their fragrance, for which they were known 400 years ago, yet a walk in these former gardens should be in your schedule when exploring the past glories of Golkonda Fort. Bala Hissar Gate is the main entrance to the fort located on the eastern side, it has a pointed arch bordered by rows of scroll work. The spandrels have yalis and decorated roundels; the area above the door has peacocks with ornate tails flanking an ornamental arched niche. The granite block lintel below has sculpted yalis flanking a disc; the design of peacocks and lions is t
Telangana is a state in India situated on the centre-south stretch of the Indian peninsula on the high Deccan Plateau. It is the twelfth largest state and the twelfth-most populated state in India with a geographical area of 112,077 km2 and 35,193,978 residents as per 2011 census. On 2 June 2014, the area was separated from the northwestern part of Andhra Pradesh as the newly formed 29th state with Hyderabad as its historic permanent capital, its other major cities include Warangal, Nizamabad and Karimnagar. Telangana is bordered by the states of Maharashtra to the north, Chhattisgarh to the east, Karnataka to the west, Andhra Pradesh to the east and south; the terrain of Telangana region consists of hills, mountain ranges, thick dense forests distribution of 27,292 sq. km. As of 2019, the state of Telangana is divided into 33 districts. Throughout antiquity and the Middle Ages, the region now known as Telangana was ruled by multiple major Indian powers such as the Cholas, Satavahanas, Kakatiyas, Delhi Sultanate, Bahmani Sultanate, Golconda Sultanate.
During the 16th and 17th centuries, the region was ruled by the Mughals. The region is known for its Ganga-Jamuni Tehzeeb. During the 18th century and the British Raj, Telangana was ruled by the Nizam of Hyderabad. In 1823, the Nizams lost control over Northern Circars and Ceded Districts, which were handed over to the East India Company; the annexation by the British of the Northern Circars deprived Hyderabad State, the Nizam's dominion, of the considerable coastline it had, to that of a landlocked princely state with territories in Central Deccan, bounded on all sides by British India. Thereafter, the Northern Circars were governed as part of Madras Presidency until India's independence in 1947, after which the presidency became India's Madras state; the Hyderabad state joined the Union of India in 1948 after an Indian military invasion. In 1956, the Hyderabad State was dissolved as part of the linguistic reorganisation of states and Telangana was merged with the Telugu-speaking Andhra State to form Andhra Pradesh.
A peasant-driven movement began to advocate for separation from Andhra Pradesh starting in the early 1950s, continued until Telangana was awarded separate statehood on 2 June 2014. The economy of Telangana is the eighth-largest state economy in India with ₹8.43 lakh crore in gross domestic product and a per capita GDP of ₹181,000. The state has emerged as a major focus for robust IT software and services sector; the state is the main administrative centre to a large number of Indian defence aero-space and research labs like Bharat Dynamics Limited, Defence Metallurgical Research Laboratory, Defence Research and Development Organisation and Defence Research and Development Laboratory. The cultural hearts of Telangana and Warangal, are noted for their wealth and renowned historical structures – Charminar, Qutb Shahi Tombs, Paigah Tombs, Falaknuma Palace, Chowmahalla Palace, Warangal Fort, Kakatiya Kala Thoranam, Thousand Pillar Temple and the Bhongir Fort in Yadadri Bhuvanagiri district; the historic city Golconda during the Kakatiya reign was once known for the mines that have produced some of the world's most famous gems, including the Koh-i-Noor, Hope Diamond, Daria-i-Noor, Regent Diamond, Nassak Diamond and Noor-ul-Ain.
Religious edifices like the Lakshmi Narasimha Temple in Yadadri Bhuvanagiri district, Makkah Masjid in Hyderabad, Medak Cathedral are several of its most famous places of worship. A popular etymology derives the word "Telangana" from Trilinga desa, a region so called because three important Shaivite shrines were located here: Kaleshwaram and Draksharama. According to Jayadhir Thirumala Rao, a former director of Andhra Pradesh Oriental Manuscripts Library and Research Centre, the name Telangana is of Gondi origin. Rao asserts that it is derived from "Telangadh", which according to him, means "south" in Gondi and has been referred to in "Gond script dating back to about 2000 years". One of the earliest uses of a word similar to Telangana can be seen in a name of Malik Maqbul, called the Tilangani, which implies that he was from Tilangana, he was the commander of the Warangal Fort. A 16th-century travel writer, recorded in his book: During the just reign of Ibrahim Kootb Shah, like Egypt, became the mart of the whole world.
Merchants from Toorkistan and Persia resorted to it. The greatest luxuries from foreign parts daily abounded at the king's hospitable board; the word "Telinga" changed over time to "Telangana" and the name "Telangana" was designated to distinguish the predominantly Telugu-speaking region of the erstwhile Hyderabad State from its predominantly Marathi-speaking one, Marathwada. After Asaf Jahis ceded the Seemandhra region to the British, the rest of the Telugu region retained the name Telingana and the other parts were called Madras Presidency's Circars and Ceded. Telangana was governed by many rulers, including the Maurya Empire, Satavahana dynasty, Vakataka dynasty, Chalukya dynasty, Rashtrakuta dynasty, the Kakatiya Dynasty, the Musunuri Nayaks the Delhi Sultanate, the Bahmani Sultanate, Vijayanagara Empire, Qutb Shahi dynasty, Mughal Empire and Asaf Jahi Dynasty; the Satavahana dynasty became the dominant power in this region. It originated from the lands between the Godavari
Vijayanagara was the capital city of the historic Vijayanagara Empire. Located on the banks of the Tungabhadra River, it spread over a large area and included the modern era Group of Monuments at Hampi site in Ballari district and others in and around that district in Karnataka, India. A part of Vijayanagara ruins known as Hampi have been designated as a UNESCO world heritage site. Vijayanagara is in the eastern part of central Karnataka, close to the Andhra Pradesh border. Hampi is an ancient human settlement, mentioned in Hindu texts and has pre-Vijayanagara temples and monuments. In early 14th century, Deccan region including the Hoyasala and tiny Kampli Empire were invaded and plundered by armies of Khalji and Tughlaq dynasties of the Delhi Sultanate. From these ruins was founded Vijayanagara by the Sangama brothers, who were working as soldiers in Kampli Kingdom under Kampalidevaraya; the city grew rapidly. The Vijayanagara centered empire functioned as a barrier to the Muslim sultanates in the north, leading to the reconstruction of Hindu life, multi-religious activity, rapid infrastructure improvements and economic activity.
Along with Hinduism, Vijayanagara accepted communities of other faiths such as Jainism and Islam, leading to multi-religious monuments and mutual influences. Chronicles left by Persian and European travelers state Vijayanagara to be a prosperous and wealthy city. By 1500 CE, Hampi-Vijayanagara was the world's second largest medieval era city and India's richest at that time, attracting traders from Persia and Portugal. Wars between nearby Muslim Sultanates and Hindu Vijayanagara continued through the 16th century. In 1565, the Vijayanagara leader was captured and beheaded, the city fell to a coalition of Muslim Sultanates; the conquered capital city of Vijayanagara was looted and destroyed, after which it remained in ruins. Vijayanagara is located in the modern era Indian state of Karnataka, along the banks of the Tungabhadra River, it is eastern part of the state, close to the Andhra Pradesh border. The city grew from an ancient pilgrimage center in 13th-century, to being founded as a capital of Vijayanagara Empire in early 14th century, to being a metropolis stretching by some estimates to 650 square kilometers by early 16th century.
It became the world's second largest city, after Beijing, by about 1500 CE. Estimates of the population vary and are based on the size of the city and number of houses mentioned in the memoirs of foreigners who visited India and wrote about Vijayanagara; some estimate the population was about 500,000 around 1500 CE, but others consider this estimate to be generous or too conservative. The capital city was founded around the religious Hindu temple complex, Pampa Tirtha and Kishkinda that existed at Hampi; the name of the city center, Hampi, is derived from Pampa, another name of goddess Parvati in Hindu theology. According to Sthala Purana, Parvati pursued her ascetic, yogini lifestyle to win and bring ascetic Shiva back into householder life on the banks of Tungabhadra river, on Hemakuta hill now a part of Hampi. Shiva is called Pampapati; the river came to be known as Pampa river. The Sanskrit word Pampa morphed into Kannada word Hampa, the place Parvati pursued what she wanted came to be known as Hampe or Hampi.
Its significance to the Hindus comes from the Kishkindha chapters of the Hindu epic Ramayana, where Rama and Lakshmana meet Hanuman and the monkey army in their search for kidnapped Sita. Hampi area has many close resemblances between the place described in the epic; the regional tradition believes that it is that place mentioned in the Ramayana, attracting pilgrims. Prior to its founding and kings of various kingdoms visited Hampi. Hoysala Empire's Hindu kings built and supported the Hampi pilgrimage center before the 14th century. At the start of the 14th century, the armies of Delhi Sultanate, first those of Alauddin Khalji and of Muhammad bin Tughlaq invaded and pillaged South India; the Hoysala Empire and temple cities such as those in Halebidu and Somanathapura were plundered in early 14th century. From the ruins of this collapse and destruction emerged Vijayanagara Empire and its new capital Vijayanagara; the city was founded by the Sangama brothers. The city was a sacred site of pilgrimage for devotees of Shiva in the 10th century.
It became the most powerful urban centre in the Deccan between 14th to 16th centuries and one of the ten largest cities of the world. The Renaissance Portuguese and Persian traders reported it as a marvelous achievement; the city was a powerful urban centre in South India from 14th to 16th century and one of the ten largest cities of the world. It stood as a bastion of Hindu values dedicated to fighting back the encroachments of the Muslim sultans from the north, who soon came to be operating from Golkonda; the Sangama dynasty was involved in repeated conflicts with the Bahamani Sultanate. The Bahamanis had disintegrated into five sultanates which formed a Deccan alliance. Krishnadevaraya after the Battle of Raichur allowed one sultan to stay in power rather than let it split into smaller kingdoms; however Vijayanagara kings had to contend with multiple Sultanates to their north. The Vijayanagara kingdom befriended and allowed the Portuguese to take control of Goa and western territories of the Bahamani Sultanate.
The sultanates united against the Vijayanagara Empire. An ongoing war between Muslim Sultanates and the Hindu Vijayanagara Empire led to the Battle of Talikota in 1565 CE, fought about 175 kilometres north, it resulted in the capture and beheading of the leader, mass confusion within the Vijayanagara forces and a shock defeat. The Sultanate army th
Devarakonda is a town in the Nalgonda district of the Indian state of Telangana. It is a nagar panchayat in Devarakonda mandal of Devarakonda division. Devarakonda's history dates back to 14th centuries, it was ruled by the Recherla Padmanayaka velama dynasty,the last Hindu rulers of Telangana and Andhrapradesh. According to the 2001 India census, Devarakonda has a population of 37,434. Males constitute 53% of the population and females 47%. Devarakonda has an average literacy rate of 72%, higher than the national average of 59.5%: male literacy is 81% and female literacy is 63%. In Devarakonda, 12% of the population is under 6 years of age. Gollapally Kandukur Singarajupally Thoorpupally Vavilkole Kamepally Thatikole Myanampally Neredugommu Khader Memorial College of Engineering and Technology
Odisha is one of the 29 states of India. Located in eastern India, it is surrounded by the states of West Bengal to the north-east, Jharkhand to the north, Chhattisgarh to the west and north-west, Andhra Pradesh to the south. Odisha has 485 kilometres of coastline along the Bay of Bengal from Balasore to Ganjam, it is the 9th largest state by area, the 11th largest by population. It is the 3rd most populous state of India in terms of tribal population. Odia is the official and most spoken language, spoken by 36.6 million according to the 2016 Census. The ancient kingdom of Kalinga, invaded by the Mauryan emperor Ashoka in 261 BCE resulting in the Kalinga War, coincides with the borders of modern-day Odisha; the modern state of Odisha was established on 1 April 1936, as a province in British India, consisted predominantly of Odia-speaking regions. 1 April is celebrated as Odisha Day. The region is known as Utkala and is mentioned in India's national anthem, "Jana Gana Mana". Cuttack was made the capital of the region by Anantavarman Chodaganga in c.
1135, after which the city was used as the capital by many rulers, through the British era until 1948. Thereafter, Bhubaneswar became the capital of Odisha; the term "Odisha" is derived from the ancient Prakrit word "Odda Visaya" as in the Tirumalai inscription of Rajendra Chola I, dated to 1025. Sarala Das, who translated the Mahabharata into the Odia language in the 15th century, calls the region Odra Rashtra and Odisha; the inscriptions of Kapilendra Deva of the Gajapati Kingdom on the walls of temples in Puri call the region Odisha or Odisha Rajya. The name of the state was changed from Orissa to Odisha, the name of its language from Oriya to Odia, in 2011, by the passage of the Orissa Bill, 2010 and the Constitution Bill, 2010 in the Parliament. After a brief debate, the lower house, Lok Sabha, passed the bill and amendment on 9 November 2010. On 24 March 2011, Rajya Sabha, the upper house of Parliament passed the bill and the amendment. Prehistoric Acheulian tools dating to Lower Paleolithic era have been discovered in various places in the region, implying an early settlement by humans.
Kalinga has been mentioned in ancient texts like Vayu Purana and Mahagovinda Suttanta. The Sabar people of Odisha have been mentioned in the Mahabharata. Baudhayana mentions Kalinga as not yet being influenced by Vedic traditions, implying it followed tribal traditions. Ashoka of the Mauryan dynasty conquered Kalinga in the bloody Kalinga War in 261 BCE, the eighth year of his reign. According to his own edicts, in that war about 100,000 people were killed, 150,000 were captured and more were affected; the resulting bloodshed and suffering of the war is said to have affected Ashoka. He converted to Buddhism. By c. 150 BCE, emperor Kharavela, a contemporary of Demetrius I of Bactria, conquered a major part of the Indian sub-continent. Kharavela was a Jain ruler, he built the monastery atop the Udayagiri hill. Subsequently, the region was ruled by monarchs, such as Shashanka, it was a part of Harsha's empire. The kings of the Somavamsi dynasty began to unite the region. By the reign of Yayati II, c. 1025 CE, they had integrated the region into a single kingdom.
Yayati II is supposed to have built the Lingaraj temple at Bhubaneswar. They were replaced by the Eastern Ganga dynasty. Notable rulers of the dynasty were Anantavarman Chodaganga, who began re-construction on the present-day Shri Jagannath Temple in Puri, Narasimhadeva I, who constructed the Konark temple; the Eastern Ganga Dynasty was followed by the Gajapati Kingdom. The region resisted integration into the Mughal empire until 1568, when it was conquered by Sultanate of Bengal. Mukunda Deva, considered the last independent king of Kalinga, was defeated and was killed in battle by a rebel Ramachandra Bhanja. Ramachandra Bhanja himself was killed by Bayazid Khan Karrani. In 1591, Man Singh I governor of Bihar, led an army to take Odisha from the Karranis of Bengal, they agreed to treaty because their leader Qutlu Khan Lohani had died. But, they broke the treaty by attacking the temple town of Puri. Man Singh pacified the region. Orissa was the first subah added to Akbar's fifteen by Shah Jahan, it had Cuttack as seat and bordered Bihar and Golconda subahs as well as the remaining independent and tributary chiefs.
From 1717, the Orissa and Bihar governors were reduced to deputies of the Nawab of the pseudo-autonomous Bengal Subah. In 1751, the Nawab of Bengal Alivardi Khan ceded the region to the Maratha Empire; the British had occupied the Northern Circars, comprising the southern coast of Odisha, as a result of the 2nd Carnatic War by 1760, incorporated them into the Madras Presidency gradually. In 1803, the British ousted the Marathas from the Puri-Cuttack region of Odisha during the Second Anglo-Maratha War; the northern and western districts of Odisha were incorporated into the Bengal Presidency. The Orissa famine of 1866 caused an estimated 1 million deaths. Following this, large-scale irrigation projects were undertaken. In 1903, the Utkal Sammilani organisation was founded to demand the unification of Odia-speaking regions into one state. On 1 April 1912, the Orissa Province was formed. On 1 April 1936, Orissa were split into separate provinces; the new province of Orissa came into existence on a linguistic basis during the British rule in India, with Sir John Austen Hubback as
Reddy is a caste that originated in India, predominantly settled in Andhra Pradesh and Telangana. They are classified as a forward caste; the origin of the Reddy has been linked to the Rashtrakutas. At one time they were a warrior caste and became feudal overlords and peasant proprietors, they have been the land-owning aristocracy of the villages. Traditionally, they were a diverse community of cultivators, their prowess as rulers and warriors is well documented in Telugu history. The Reddy dynasty ruled central Andhra for over a hundred years. According to Alain Daniélou and Kenneth Hurry, the Rashtrakuta and Reddy dynasties may both have been descended from the earlier dynasty of the Rashtrikas; this common origin is by no means certain: there is evidence suggesting that the Rashtrakuta line came from the Yadavas in northern India and that they may have held a common title. Either of these alternate theories might undermine the claim to a connection between them and the Reddys; the varna designation of Reddys is a contested and complex topic.
After the introduction of the varna concept to south India, caste boundaries in south India were not as marked as in north India, where the four-tier varna system placed the priestly Brahmins on top followed by the Kshatriyas and Shudras. In south India, on the other hand, there existed only three distinguishable classes, the Brahmins, the non-Brahmins and the Dalits; the two intermediate dvija varnas — the Kshatriyas and Vaishyas — did not exist. The dominant castes of south India, such as Reddys and Nairs, held a status in society analogous to the Kshatriyas and Vaishyas of the north with the difference that religion did not sanctify them, i.e. they were not accorded the status of Kshatriyas and Vaishyas by the Brahmins in the Brahmanical varna system. Land-owning castes like the Reddys have belonged to the regal ruling classes and are analogous to the Kshatriyas of the Brahmanical society; the Brahmins, on top of the hierarchical social order, viewed the ruling castes of the south like the Reddys and Vellalars as sat-Shudras meaning shudras of "true being”.
Sat-shudras are known as clean shudras, upper shudras, pure or high-caste shudras. This classification and the four-tier varna concept was never accepted by the ruling castes. During the Kakatiya period, together with its variant Raddi, was used as a status title; the title broadly represented the category of village headmen irrespective of their hereditary background. The Kakatiya prince Prola I was referred to as "Prola Reddi" in an inscription. After the Kakatiyas became independent rulers in their own right, various subordinate chiefs under their rule are known to have used the title Reddi. Reddy chiefs were appointed as soldiers under the Kakatiyas; some Reddys were among the feudatories of Kakatiya ruler Pratapa Rudra. During this time, some of the Reddys carved out feudal principalities for themselves. Prominent among them were the Munagala Reddy chiefs. Two inscriptions found in the Zamindari of Munagala at Tadavayi, two miles west of Munagala—one dated 1300 CE, the other dated 1306 CE show that the Munagala Reddy chiefs were feudatories to the Kakatiya dynasty.
The inscriptions proclaim Annaya Reddy of Munagala as a chieftain of Kakatiya ruler Pratapa Rudra. The Reddy feudatories fought against attacks from the Delhi sultanate and defended the region from coming under the Turkic rule; the Sultanate invaded Warangal and captured Pratapa Rudra in 1323. After the death of Pratapa Rudra in 1323 CE and the subsequent fall of the Kakatiya empire, some Reddy chiefs became independent rulers. Prolaya Vema Reddy proclaimed independence, he had been part of a coalition of Telugu rulers. The Reddy dynasty ruled central Andhra for over a hundred years; the post-Kakatiya period saw the emergence of Vijayanagara Empire as well as the Reddy dynasty. The two kingdoms were locked up in a territorial struggle for supremacy in the coastal region of Andhra, they united and became allies against their common archrivals—the Bahmani sultans and the Recherla Velamas of Rachakonda who had formed an alliance. This political alliance between Vijayanagara and the Reddy kingdom was cemented further by a matrimonial alliance.
Harihara II of Vijayanagara gave his daughter in marriage to Kataya Vema Reddy’s son Kataya. The Reddy rulers exercised a policy of invasion of Kalinga. However, the suzerainty of Kalinga rulers was to be recognised. In 1443 CE, determined to put an end to the aggressions of the Reddy kingdom, the Gajapati ruler Kapilendra of Kalinga formed an alliance with the Velamas and launched an attack on the Reddy kingdom. Veerabhadra Reddy defeated Kapilendra. After the death of Devaraya II in 1446 CE, he was succeeded by Mallikarjuna Raya. Overwhelmed by difficulties at home, Mallikarjuna Raya recalled the Vijayanagara forces from Rajahmundry. Veerabhadra Reddy died in 1448 CE. Seizing this opportunity, Kapilendra sent an army under the leadership of his son Hamvira into the Reddy kingdom, took Rajahmundry and gained control of the Reddy kingdom; the Gajapatis lost control after the death of Kapilendra, the territories of the former Reddy kingdom came under the control of the Vijayanagara Empire. Reddys became the military chieftains of the Vijayanagara rulers.
They along with their private armies accompanied and supported the Vijayanagara army in
Khammam Fort is a fort in the city of Khammam, India constructed by Musunuri Kamma Kings. Khammam fort was ruled by Kamma kings for more than 200 years, it served as an impregnable citadel during various regimes of different dynasties, including the Qutb Shahi’s and Asaf Jahis. The fort was situated in a vast area in the heart of the City of Khammam, it was notified as a protected monument by the Archaeology Department several decades ago. Despite decades of neglect, the historical edifice, which once flourished with regal opulence, presents its alluring charm due to its architectural splendor; the historical records show that the name was "Kammamet." Mett or Mettu means fort in Telugu language. Kammamet was built by Musunuri Kamma Kings. Several inscriptions were discovered in the surrounding areas of Khammam and Guntur districts of Musunuri Kamma Kings dating back to 12th, 13th and 14th century A. D. Kammamet became an independent territory within the kingdom of Kakatiya Kings for Musunuri Kamma Kings.
75 Telugu speaking feudatories of the region under the leadership of Musunuri Kamma Kings fought for 10 long years to unify the Telugu land and succeeded in repulsing them out of country. Gurijala Kamma Kings ruled Kammamet from 1370-1433 A. D. after the death of Kamma king Musunuri Kapaya Nayaka in 1369. This Fort is located in an area of 4 Sq. miles in the heart of the City of Khammam on top of a massive granite Hill. It is surrounded by a huge rock wall averaging between 40 and 80 feet in height and 15 to 20 feet in width. There are steps from each buruju to enter into the fort; the Fort was considered impregnable by invading armies. A number of balconies and windows are constructed along the wall in order to use the artillery during wartime, it has a capacity of mounting at least 60 cannons at a time. The fort 10 large gates most of them in poor shape now; each gate has cannons mounted on them along with a water pot made of rocks. They are built such; the main entrance is a 30 foot tall entrance known as the Khilla darwaza.
It has 2 cannons on either side of the entrance. One of them still mounted with a head, they are now destroyed due to the negligence of the archeology department. The east gate or the secondary entrance is large and is popularly known as the Raathi Darwaza or Potha Darwaza. All other gates are smaller than the main entrance and could have been constructed to avoid large cavalries to enter the fort in case of an attack. A huge rainwater catchment system and well have been constructed on the Khilla during the period of Zafar-ud-doula, well known for construction of tanks during Qutb shahi dynasty; this massive tank is now known as the ‘Zafar well’. It is 60 feet X 30 feet stepped well with a bridge across it for horses to move around, he built the walls using Bricks and limestone along the fort. As soon as we enter the Khilla darwaza, one can see the Fort at a distance of 300 feet. There are small steps carved out of this hill to reach the top of the Hill fort, they are renovated with railings for the steps by the Tourism department and Archaeological Survey of India in 2005 during the 1000 year celebrations of this historical fort.
A lot of small gates known as ‘Dalohiswar’ are all around the walls of the fort. Fort has at least 15 bastions constructed with two massive walls as a military strategy to take the impact of the cannonballs and to counter the enemy from the top. A 15 foot deep trench is dug in some places for the army to use as a hiding place; the huge blocks of stone used for the walls are as long as 10 feet and are believed to be transported using elephants and men. No mud or limestone is used in this huge wall and the rocks are placed and leaving the viewers amazed by the construction A permanent Gallows has been erected on this prominent hill fort, where the estimated seat of justice could have been inside the fort; the platform is made of Stone and appears like a well, due to which the locals call this'Nethi bhavi'. This stone structure could be seen from allover the city of khammam; the fort is believed to have a secret tunnels to the Warangal Fort with multiple entrances in different locations at the fort.
One such entrance is 10 feet in diameter and the steps to enter the tunnel are closed due to damage over the years. The local folklore includes stories about valuables being transferred between the kings from here using the secret passages and escaping enemy attacks through them; this Fort appears to be a replicate the cultures of both Hindu and Muslim rulers who ruled this fort city. The Lakshmi Narasimha swami temple in Brahmin bazar, Sri Ramalingeshwara temple is one of the oldest shivalayam are some of the oldest Hindu temples in Telangana and are older than the fort itself. During the Qutb shahi dynasty, many new places of worship have been constructed in and around the fort such as the Khilla masjid; the fort, once mighty bastion of royal dynasties, continues to face further encroachment threat due to lack of proper monitoring mechanism. Large settlements occupied the areas in and around the fort due to the lack of proper monitoring of encroachments. Destruction of the granite hill and construction of houses continues till today around the fort area.
The historic Khammam fort, a living testimony to the majestic grandeur and architectural marvel of the bygone era, is poised to get a face lift with the government departments drawing up grand plans to beautify and develop the majestic edifice. Illumination of the fort, including installation of solar streetlights atop the fort, introduction of the sound and light show at the historical edifice and develo