2004 Summer Olympics
The 2004 Summer Olympic Games known as the Games of the XXVIII Olympiad and known as Athens 2004, was a premier international multi-sport event held in Athens, from 13 to 29 August 2004 with the motto Welcome Home. The Games saw 10,625 athletes compete, some 600 more than expected, accompanied by 5,501 team officials from 201 countries. There were 301 medal events in 28 different sports. Athens 2004 marked the first time since the 1996 Summer Olympics that all countries with a National Olympic Committee were in attendance. 2004 marked the return of the Olympic Games to the city where they began. Having hosted the Olympics in 1896, Athens became one of only four cities to have hosted the Summer Olympic Games on two separate occasions. A new medal obverse was introduced at these Games, replacing the design by Giuseppe Cassioli, used since the 1928 Games; this rectified the long lasting mistake of using a depiction of the Roman Colosseum rather than a Greek venue. The new design features the Panathenaic Stadium.
The 2004 Summer Games were hailed as "unforgettable, dream games" by IOC President Jacques Rogge, left Athens with a improved infrastructure, including a new airport, ring road, subway system. There have been arguments regarding the cost of the 2004 Athens Summer Games and their possible contribution to the Greek government-debt crisis, there is little or no evidence for such a correlation; the 2004 Olympics were deemed to be a success, with the rising standard of competition amongst nations across the world. The final medal tally was led by the United States, followed by China and Russia with the host Greece at 15th place. Several World and Olympic records were broken during these Games. Athens was chosen as the host city during the 106th IOC Session held in Lausanne on 5 September 1997. Athens had lost its bid to organize the 1996 Summer Olympics to Atlanta nearly seven years before on 18 September 1990, during the 96th IOC Session in Tokyo. Under the direction of Gianna Angelopoulos-Daskalaki, Athens pursued another bid, this time for the right to host the Summer Olympics in 2004.
The success of Athens in securing the 2004 Games was based on Athens' appeal to Olympic history and the emphasis that it placed on the pivotal role that Greece and Athens could play in promoting Olympism and the Olympic Movement. Furthermore, unlike their bid for the 1996 Games, criticized for its overall disorganization and arrogance—wherein the bid lacked specifics and relied upon sentiment and the notion that it was Athens' right to organize the Centennial Games—the bid for the 2004 Games was lauded for its humility and earnestness, its focused message, its detailed bid concept; the 2004 bid addressed concerns and criticisms raised in its unsuccessful 1996 bid – Athens' infrastructural readiness, its air pollution, its budget, politicization of Games preparations. Athens' successful organization of the 1997 World Championships in Athletics the month before the host city election was crucial in allaying lingering fears and concerns among the sporting community and some IOC members about its ability to host international sporting events.
Another factor which contributed to Athens' selection was a growing sentiment among some IOC members to restore the values of the Olympics to the Games, a component which they felt was lost during the criticized over-commercialization of Atlanta 1996 Games. Subsequently, the selection of Athens was motivated by a lingering sense of disappointment among IOC members regarding the numerous organizational and logistical setbacks experienced during the 1996 Games. After leading all voting rounds, Athens defeated Rome in the 5th and final vote. Cape Town and Buenos Aires, the three other cities that made the IOC shortlist, were eliminated in prior rounds of voting. Six other cities submitted applications, but their bids were dropped by the IOC in 1996; these cities were Istanbul, Rio de Janeiro, San Juan, Saint Petersburg and Cali. The 2004 Summer Olympic Games cost the Government of Greece €8.954 billion to stage. According to the cost-benefit evaluation of the impact of the Athens 2004 Olympic Games presented to the Greek Parliament in January 2013 by the Minister of Finance Mr. Giannis Stournaras, the overall net economic benefit for Greece was positive.
The Athens 2004 Organizing Committee, responsible for the preparation and organisation of the Games, concluded its operations as a company in 2005 with a surplus of €130.6 million. ATHOC contributed €123.6 million of the surplus to the Greek State to cover other related expenditures of the Greek State in organizing the Games. As a result, ATHOC reported in its official published accounts a net profit of €7 million; the State's contribution to the total ATHOC budget was 8% of its expenditure against an anticipated 14%. The overall revenue of ATHOC, including income from tickets, broadcasting rights, merchandise sales etc. totalled €2,098.4 million. The largest percentage of that income came from broadcasting rights; the overall expenditure of ATHOC was €1,967.8 million. Analysts refer to the "Cost of the Olympic Games" by taking into account not only the Organizing Committee's budget directly related to the Olympic Games, but the cost incurred by the hosting country during preparation, i.e. the large projects required for the upgrade of the country's infrastructure, including sports infrastructure, airports, power grid etc.
This cost, however, is not directly attributable to the act
Freestyle is a category of swimming competition, defined by the rules of the International Swimming Federation, in which competitors are subject to few limited restrictions on their swimming stroke. Freestyle races are the most common of all swimming competitions, with distances beginning with 50 meters and reaching 1500 meters known as the mile; the term'freestyle stroke' is sometimes used as a synonym for'front crawl', as front crawl is the fastest swimming stroke. It is now the most common stroke used in freestyle competitions. Freestyle swimming implies the use of legs and arms for competitive swimming, except in the case of the individual medley or medley relay events; the front crawl is most chosen by swimmers, as this provides the greatest speed. During a race, the competitor circles the arms forward in alternation, kicking the feet down. Individual freestyle events can be swum using one of the regulated strokes. For the freestyle part of medley swimming competitions, one cannot use breaststroke, butterfly, or backstroke.
Front crawl is based on the Trudgen, improved by Richmond Cavill from Sydney, Australia. Cavill developed the stroke by observing a young boy from Alick Wickham. Cavill and his brothers spread the Australian crawl to England, New Zealand and America, creating the freestyle used worldwide today. During the Olympic Games, front crawl is swum exclusively during freestyle; some of the few rules state that swimmers must touch the end of the pool during each length and cannot push off the bottom, hang on the wall, or pull on the lane lines during the course of the race. As with all competitive events, false starts can lead to disqualification of the swimmer. Times have dropped over the years due to better training techniques and to new developments in the sport. In the first four Olympics, swimming competitions were not in open water; the 1904 Olympics freestyle race was the only one measured at 100 yards, instead of the usual 100 meters. A 100-meter pool was built for the 1908 Olympics and sat in the center of the main stadium's track and field oval.
The 1912 Olympics, held in the Stockholm harbor, marked the beginning of electronic timing. Male swimmers wore full body suits up until the 1940s, which caused more drag in the water than their modern swimwear counterparts. Over the years, some design considerations have reduced swimming resistance, making the pool faster, namely: proper pool depth, elimination of currents, increased lane width, energy-absorbing racing lane lines and gutters, the use of other innovative hydraulic and illumination designs; the 1924 Olympics was the first to use the standard 50 meter pool with marked lanes. In freestyle events, swimmers dove from the pool walls, but diving blocks were incorporated at the 1936 Olympics; the flip turn was developed in the 1950s. Lane design created in the early 1970s has cut down turbulence in water, aiding in the more dynamic pool used today. Freestyle means "any style" for individual swims and any style but breaststroke, butterfly, or backstroke for both the individual medley, medley relay competitions.
The wall has to be touched upon completion. Some part of the swimmer must be above water at any time, except for the first 15 meters after the start and every turn; this rule was introduced to prevent swimmers from using the faster underwater swimming to their advantage, or swimming entire laps underwater. The exact FINA rules are: Freestyle means that in an event so designated the swimmer may swim any style, except that in individual medley or medley relay events, freestyle means any style other than backstroke, breaststroke, or butterfly Some part of the swimmer must touch the wall upon completion of each length and at the finish Some part of the swimmer must break the surface of the water throughout the race, except it shall be permissible for the swimmer to be submerged during the turn and for a distance of not more than 15 meters after the start and each turn. By that point the head must have broken the surface. There are nine competitions used in freestyle swimming, both using either a long course or a short course pool.
The United States employs short course yards. In the United States, it is common for swimmers to compete in a 25-yard pool during the Fall and Spring, switch over to a 50-meter pool format during the Summer. 50 m freestyle 100 m freestyle 200 m freestyle 400 m freestyle 800 m freestyle 1500 m freestyle 4×50 m freestyle relay 4 × 100 m freestyle relay 4 × 200 m freestyle relay Young swimmers have the option to swim a 25 yard/meter freestyle event. Freestyle is part of the medley over the following distances: 100 m individual medley 200 m individual medley 400 m individual medley 4 × 100 m medley relay In the long distance races of the 800 meter and 1500 meter, some meets hosted by FINA only
Swimming is an individual or team sport that requires the use of one's entire body to move through water. The sport takes place in open water. Competitive swimming is one of the most popular Olympic sports, with varied distance events in butterfly, breaststroke and individual medley. In addition to these individual events, four swimmers can take part in either a freestyle or medley relay. A medley relay consists of four swimmers; the order for a medley relay is: backstroke, breaststroke and freestyle. Swimming each stroke requires a set of specific techniques. There are regulations on what types of swimsuits, caps and injury tape that are allowed at competitions. Although it is possible for competitive swimmers to incur several injuries from the sport, such as tendinitis in the shoulders or knees, there are multiple health benefits associated with the sport. Evidence of recreational swimming in prehistoric times has been found, with the earliest evidence dating to Stone Age paintings from around 10,000 years ago.
Written references date from 2000 BC, with some of the earliest references to swimming including the Iliad, the Odyssey, the Bible, the Quran and others. In 1538, Nikolaus Wynmann, a Swiss professor of languages, wrote the first book about swimming, The Swimmer or A Dialogue on the Art of Swimming. Swimming emerged as a competitive recreational activity in the 1830s in England. In 1828, the first indoor swimming pool, St George's Baths was opened to the public. By 1837, the National Swimming Society was holding regular swimming competitions in six artificial swimming pools, built around London; the recreational activity grew in popularity and by 1880, when the first national governing body, the Amateur Swimming Association was formed, there were over 300 regional clubs in operation across the country. In 1844 two Native American participants at a swimming competition in London introduced the front crawl to a European audience. Sir John Arthur Trudgen picked up the hand-over stroke from some South American natives and debuted the new stroke in 1873, winning a local competition in England.
His stroke is still regarded as the most powerful to use today. Captain Matthew Webb was the first man to swim the English Channel, in 1875. Using the breaststroke technique, he swam the channel 21.26 miles in 45 minutes. His feat was not replicated or surpassed for the next 36 years, until T. W. Burgess made the crossing in 1911. Other European countries established swimming federations; the first European amateur swimming competitions were in 1889 in Vienna. The world's first women's swimming championship was held in Scotland in 1892. Men's swimming became part of the first modern Olympic Games in 1896 in Athens. In 1902, the Australian Richmond Cavill introduced freestyle to the Western world. In 1908, the world swimming association, Fédération Internationale de Natation, was formed. Women's swimming was introduced into the Olympics in 1912. Butterfly was developed in the 1930s and was at first a variant of breaststroke, until it was accepted as a separate style in 1952. Competitive swimming became popular in the 19th century.
The goal of high level competitive swimming is to break personal or world records while beating competitors in any given event. Swimming in competition should create the least resistance in order to obtain maximum speed. However, some professional swimmers who do not hold a national or world ranking are considered the best in regard to their technical skills. An athlete goes through a cycle of training in which the body is overloaded with work in the beginning and middle segments of the cycle, the workload is decreased in the final stage as the swimmer approaches competition; the practice of reducing exercise in the days just before an important competition is called tapering. Tapering is used to give the swimmer's body some rest without stopping exercise completely. A final stage is referred to as "shave and taper": the swimmer shaves off all exposed hair for the sake of reducing drag and having a sleeker and more hydrodynamic feel in the water. Additionally, the "shave and taper" method refers to the removal of the top layer of "dead skin", which exposes the newer and richer skin underneath.
This helps to "shave" off mere milliseconds on your time. Swimming is an event at the Summer Olympic Games, where male and female athletes compete in 16 of the recognized events each. Olympic events are held in a 50-meter pool, called a long course pool. There are forty recognized individual swimming events in the pool; the international governing body for competitive swimming is the Fédération Internationale de Natation, better known as FINA. In open water swimming, where the events are swum in a body of open water, there are 5 km, 10 km and 25 km events for men and women. However, only the 10 km event is included in the Olympic schedule, again for both women. Open-water competitions are separate to other swimming competitions with the exception of the World Championships and the Olympics. In competitive swimming, four major styles have been established; these have been stable over the last 30–40 years with minor improvements. They are: Butterfly Backstroke
Natalie Anne Coughlin Hall is an American competition swimmer and twelve-time Olympic medalist. While attending the University of California, she became the first woman to swim the 100-meter backstroke in less than one minute—ten days before her 20th birthday in 2002. At the 2008 Summer Olympics, she became the first U. S. female athlete in modern Olympic history to win six medals in one Olympiad, the first woman to win a 100-meter backstroke gold in two consecutive Olympics. At the 2012 Summer Olympics, she earned a bronze medal in the 4×100-meter freestyle relay, her total of twelve Olympic medals ties her with Jenny Thompson and Dara Torres for the most all-time medals by a female swimmer. Coughlin's success has earned her the World Swimmer of the Year Award once and American Swimmer of the Year Award three times, she has won a total of sixty medals in major international competition, twenty-five gold, twenty-two silver, thirteen bronze spanning the Olympics, the World, the Pan Pacific Championships, the Pan American Games.
Coughlin was born in Vallejo, the daughter of Jim and Zennie Coughlin. She is of Irish and one quarter Filipino ancestry. Coughlin first began swimming at Vallejo Aquatics Club when she was 8 years old, where she was coached by Tuffy Williams, she attended St. Catherine of Siena School in Vallejo, for kindergarten through eighth grade, Carondelet High School in Concord, California. While in high school in 1998, she became the first swimmer to qualify for the Summer National in all fourteen events. Coughlin broke two individual national high school records in the 200-yard individual medley and the 100-yard backstroke, she graduated from Carondelet High School in 2000. Coughlin attended the University of California, where she swam for coach Teri McKeever's California Golden Bears swimming and diving team in National Collegiate Athletic Association competition from 2001 to 2003. During her three years as a Cal Bears swimmer, she won eleven individual NCAA national championships, a twelfth NCAA relay title.
She was recognized as the NCAA Swimmer of the Year for three consecutive years, she was a two-time recipient of the Honda Sports Award for Swimming and Diving, recognizing her as the outstanding college female swimmer in 2001–02 and 2002–03. Sports Illustrated magazine named her its college Female Athlete of the Year. Coughlin was inducted into the Cal Athletic Hall of Fame in 2014. Coughlin graduated from Berkeley with a degree in psychology in the spring of 2005. At the ninth World Aquatics Championships in Fukuoka, Coughlin won three medals—one gold, one silver, one bronze, she won her gold medal in the 100-meter backstroke with Diana Mocanu taking the silver and Antje Buschschulte taking the bronze. Coughlin won her silver medal in the women's 4×100-meter medley relay, teaming up with Megan Quann, Mary Descenza, Erin Phenix. Coughlin won her bronze medal in the 50-meter backstroke. At the ninth Pan Pacific Championships in Yokohama, Coughlin won six medals—four golds and two silvers. Coughlin won one of her gold medals in the women's 100-meter backstroke with a time of 59.72, another in the women's 100-meter butterfly with a time of 57.88.
Coughlin won her third gold medal in the women's 100-meter freestyle with a time of 53.99. She won her fourth gold medal in the women's 4×200-meter freestyle relay with Elizabeth Hill, Diana Munz, Lindsay Benko, she won her silver medals as a member of the second-place U. S. relay teams in 4 × 100-meter medley events. At the tenth World Aquatics Championships in Barcelona, Coughlin won two medals, including a gold and a silver. Coughlin won her gold medal in the women's 4×100-meter freestyle relay and a silver medal in the 4×100-medley relay. Coughlin won the gold medal at the 2004 Olympics in the women's 100-meter backstroke event and won a silver medal as a member of the U. S. women's 4 × 100-meter freestyle relay team with Amanda Weir and Jenny Thompson. She broke a world record and won gold as a member of the 4×200-meter freestyle relay, a silver in the 4×100-meter medley relay, a bronze in the 100-meter freestyle. At the eleventh World Aquatics Championships in Montreal, Coughlin won five medals, including a gold and 2 silvers and 2 bronzes.
Coughlin won a gold medal in the women's 200 m freestyle relay and silver medals in the 100 meter medley relay and the 100 m freestyle. She won bronze medals in the 100 m backstroke and the 100m freestyle relay At the 2007 World Aquatics Championships, Coughlin won five medals: two gold, two silver, one bronze. In her first event, the 4×100-meter freestyle relay, Coughlin won a silver medal along with Lacey Nymeyer, Amanda Weir, Kara Lynn Joyce; the following day, in the 100-meter butterfly, she placed third in the final with a time of 57.34, an American record. In the 100-meter backstroke final, held the following day, she broke her own world record set in 2002 with a time of 59.44. After a day of rest, Coughlin was back in the pool to swim the lead-off leg in the 4×200-meter freestyle relay. Swimming in lane eight, Coughlin set the American record with a time of 1:56.43, to break Katie Hoff's one-day-old record of 1:57.09. Dana Vollmer, Lacey Nymeyer, Katie Hoff each extended the lead and the final time of 7:50.09 was a world record.
The following day, Coughlin finished in 4th place in the 100-meter freestyle despite setting the championship record in the semi-finals. In her last event, the 4×100-meter medley relay, Coughlin won a silver medal along with Tara Kirk, Rachel
The Louisville Cardinals teams play in the Atlantic Coast Conference, beginning in the 2014 season. While playing in the Big East Conference from 2005 through 2013, the Cardinals captured 17 regular season Big East titles and 33 Big East Tournament titles totaling 50 Big East Championships across all sports. With their 2013 Sugar Bowl appearance against the Florida Gators, the Cardinals football team became the only football team in the Commonwealth of Kentucky to have appeared in and won two Bowl Championship Series bowls, having defeated Wake Forest 24–13 in the 2007 Orange Bowl and Florida 33–23 in the 2013 Sugar Bowl. On November 28, 2012, Louisville received and accepted an invitation to join the Atlantic Coast Conference and became a participating member in all sports in 2014. Since 2000 Louisville is the only NCAA team to win a BCS bowl game, it is one of only six schools that has appeared more than once in each of the following events—a BCS bowl game, the men's and women's basketball Final Fours, the College World Series—and Louisville's span of seven school years is the shortest among these schools.
It is the first school to win a BCS bowl game, appear in the men's and women's basketball Final Fours, appear in the College World Series in the same school year, doing so in 2012–13. The Cardinals have seen substantial athletic and institutional growth, spending more than $150 million for sporting facility upgrades while maintaining strong fan support and Title IX compliance. U of L fields 13 women's teams and 10 men's teams; the total sales of U of L merchandise, tripling since 2001, now rank 32nd nationally. U of L finished the 2015–16 year ranked 29th in the NACDA Learfield Sports Directors' Cup; the 2015–16 season began with Louisville ranked 24th through the final fall standings. Team Established: 1909 All Time Record: 1,825–1,466–10 Playing Facility: Jim Patterson Stadium Head Coach: Dan McDonnell NCAA Tournament Appearances: 12 Last NCAA Appearance: 2018 College World Series Appearances: 4 Super Regional Appearances: 7 Conference Titles: 10 Conference Tournament Titles: 2 Drafted Players: 50 Players In The MLB system: 5The 2006 Baseball Cardinals broke the Big East Conference Tournament record with a.409 batting average.
In 2007, the Cardinals finished the season with a 47–24 record and ranked as high as 6th in some major polls while advancing to the College World Series for the first time in school history. Team Established: 1911 All Time Record: 1,825–915 Playing Facility: KFC Yum! Center Court: Denny Crum Court Head Coach: Chris Mack NCAA Men's Basketball Championships: 3 NCAA Final Fours: 10 NCAA Tournament Appearances: 43 Last NCAA Tournament Appearance: 2019 Conference Regular Season Championships: 23 Conference Tournament Champions: 19 NIT Appearances: 15 All-Americans: 21 Drafted Players: 70 Players In The NBA: 6 UofL's basketball tradition was established by Muhlenberg County native, Coach Bernard "Peck" Hickman; the Cards never had a losing season in Hickman's 23 years, prior to his arrival the team had only had 11 winning seasons. In 1956, Hickman's team won the NIT considered a national championship on a par with the NCAA tournament. After retiring, Hickman became the school's Athletics Director and hired John Wooden assistant and future Hall of Famer Denny Crum, who led the team to two NCAA Division I basketball championships and six Final Fours.
The men's basketball team ranks fifth in all-time NCAA Tournament wins and has been in the top-five in average attendance each year since the 1982–83 season. Perennial rivals include the University of Kentucky, University of Cincinnati, the University of Memphis; the team was established in 1975. All Time Record: 876–491 Playing facility: KFC Yum! Center Head coach: Jeff Walz Conference titles: 8 Conference Tournament titles: 7 NCAA appearances: 22 Last NCAA appearance: 2019 All-Americans: 6 Drafted players: 19 Final Four appearances: 3 The cheerleading squads have won multiple championships with the large co-ed squad winning 15 National Cheerleaders Association Collegiate National championships, the all-female squad winning nine championships and the small co-ed cheerleading squad winning seven championships; the University of Louisville Spirit Groups hold more national titles than any other sport offered at the university. The Cardinal Bird Mascot falls under the jurisdiction of the University of Louisville Spirit Groups.
The "Bird" competes with the cheerleaders in national competitions and makes regular appearances in the Louisville Metro Area. Men's CC 2006: Finished 15th at NCAA Championships 2007: Finished 9th at NCAA ChampionshipsConference titles: 2 Women's CC Conference titles: 1 Team Es
The United States of America known as the United States or America, is a country composed of 50 states, a federal district, five major self-governing territories, various possessions. At 3.8 million square miles, the United States is the world's third or fourth largest country by total area and is smaller than the entire continent of Europe's 3.9 million square miles. With a population of over 327 million people, the U. S. is the third most populous country. The capital is Washington, D. C. and the largest city by population is New York City. Forty-eight states and the capital's federal district are contiguous in North America between Canada and Mexico; the State of Alaska is in the northwest corner of North America, bordered by Canada to the east and across the Bering Strait from Russia to the west. The State of Hawaii is an archipelago in the mid-Pacific Ocean; the U. S. territories are scattered about the Pacific Ocean and the Caribbean Sea, stretching across nine official time zones. The diverse geography and wildlife of the United States make it one of the world's 17 megadiverse countries.
Paleo-Indians migrated from Siberia to the North American mainland at least 12,000 years ago. European colonization began in the 16th century; the United States emerged from the thirteen British colonies established along the East Coast. Numerous disputes between Great Britain and the colonies following the French and Indian War led to the American Revolution, which began in 1775, the subsequent Declaration of Independence in 1776; the war ended in 1783 with the United States becoming the first country to gain independence from a European power. The current constitution was adopted in 1788, with the first ten amendments, collectively named the Bill of Rights, being ratified in 1791 to guarantee many fundamental civil liberties; the United States embarked on a vigorous expansion across North America throughout the 19th century, acquiring new territories, displacing Native American tribes, admitting new states until it spanned the continent by 1848. During the second half of the 19th century, the Civil War led to the abolition of slavery.
By the end of the century, the United States had extended into the Pacific Ocean, its economy, driven in large part by the Industrial Revolution, began to soar. The Spanish–American War and World War I confirmed the country's status as a global military power; the United States emerged from World War II as a global superpower, the first country to develop nuclear weapons, the only country to use them in warfare, a permanent member of the United Nations Security Council. Sweeping civil rights legislation, notably the Civil Rights Act of 1964, the Voting Rights Act of 1965 and the Fair Housing Act of 1968, outlawed discrimination based on race or color. During the Cold War, the United States and the Soviet Union competed in the Space Race, culminating with the 1969 U. S. Moon landing; the end of the Cold War and the collapse of the Soviet Union in 1991 left the United States as the world's sole superpower. The United States is the world's oldest surviving federation, it is a representative democracy.
The United States is a founding member of the United Nations, World Bank, International Monetary Fund, Organization of American States, other international organizations. The United States is a developed country, with the world's largest economy by nominal GDP and second-largest economy by PPP, accounting for a quarter of global GDP; the U. S. economy is post-industrial, characterized by the dominance of services and knowledge-based activities, although the manufacturing sector remains the second-largest in the world. The United States is the world's largest importer and the second largest exporter of goods, by value. Although its population is only 4.3% of the world total, the U. S. holds 31% of the total wealth in the world, the largest share of global wealth concentrated in a single country. Despite wide income and wealth disparities, the United States continues to rank high in measures of socioeconomic performance, including average wage, human development, per capita GDP, worker productivity.
The United States is the foremost military power in the world, making up a third of global military spending, is a leading political and scientific force internationally. In 1507, the German cartographer Martin Waldseemüller produced a world map on which he named the lands of the Western Hemisphere America in honor of the Italian explorer and cartographer Amerigo Vespucci; the first documentary evidence of the phrase "United States of America" is from a letter dated January 2, 1776, written by Stephen Moylan, Esq. to George Washington's aide-de-camp and Muster-Master General of the Continental Army, Lt. Col. Joseph Reed. Moylan expressed his wish to go "with full and ample powers from the United States of America to Spain" to seek assistance in the revolutionary war effort; the first known publication of the phrase "United States of America" was in an anonymous essay in The Virginia Gazette newspaper in Williamsburg, Virginia, on April 6, 1776. The second draft of the Articles of Confederation, prepared by John Dickinson and completed by June 17, 1776, at the latest, declared "The name of this Confederation shall be the'United States of America'".
The final version of the Articles sent to the states for ratification in late 1777 contains the sentence "The Stile of this Confederacy shall be'The United States of America'". In June 1776, Thomas Jefferson wrote the phrase "UNITED STATES OF AMERICA" in all capitalized letters in the headline of his "original Rough draught" of the Declaration of Independence; this draft of the document did not surface unti
The butterfly is a swimming stroke swum on the chest, with both arms moving symmetrically, accompanied by the butterfly kick. While other styles like the breaststroke, front crawl, or backstroke can be swum adequately by beginners, the butterfly is a more difficult stroke that requires good technique as well as strong muscles, it is the newest swimming style swum in competition, first swum in 1933 and originating out of the breaststroke. The peak speed of the butterfly is faster than that of the front crawl, or freestyle due to the synchronous pull/push with both arms and legs, done quite fast, yet since speed drops during the recovery phase, it is overall slower than front crawl over longer distances. Another reason it is slower is because of the different physical exertion it puts on the swimmer compared to the freestyle, its name was taken from the butterfly. The breaststroke and front crawl can all be swum even if the swimmer's technique is flawed; the butterfly, however, is unforgiving of mistakes in style.
Many swimmers and coaches consider it the most difficult swimming style. The main difficulty for beginners is the synchronous over-water recovery when combined with breathing, since both arms, the head and part of the chest have to be lifted out of the water for these tasks. Once efficient technique has been developed, it becomes a fast stroke. Australian Sydney Cavill, son of the "swimming professor" Frederick Cavill, was 220 yards amateur champion of Australia at the age of 16 and is credited as the originator of the butterfly stroke, he followed his famous brothers to America and coached notable swimmers at San Francisco's Olympic Club. In late 1933 Henry Myers swam a butterfly stroke in competition at the Brooklyn Central YMCA; the butterfly style evolved from the breaststroke. David Armbruster, swimming coach at the University of Iowa, researched the breaststroke considering the problem of drag due to the underwater recovery. In 1934 Armbruster refined a method to bring the arms forward over the water in a breaststroke.
He called this style "butterfly". While the butterfly was difficult, it brought a great improvement in speed. One year in 1935, Jack Sieg, a swimmer from the University of Iowa, developed a kick technique involving swimming on his side and beating his legs in unison, similar to a fish tail, modified the technique afterward to swim it face down, he called. Armbruster and Sieg found that combining these techniques created a fast swimming style consisting of butterfly arms with two dolphin kicks per cycle. Richard Rhodes claims that Volney Wilson invented the'Dolphin' after studying fish, used it to win the 1938 US Olympic Trials, earning him a disqualification; the entire style is referred to as butterfly, but sometimes still called dolphin when referring to the dolphin kick. This new style was faster than a regular breaststroke. Using this technique Jack Sieg swam 100 yards in 1:00.2. However, the dolphin fishtail kick violated the breaststroke rules was not allowed. Therefore, the butterfly arms with a breaststroke kick were used by a few swimmers in the 1936 Summer Olympics in Berlin for the breaststroke competitions.
In 1938 every breaststroke swimmer was using this butterfly style, yet this stroke was considered a variant of the breaststroke until 1952, when it was accepted by FINA as a separate style with its own set of rules. The 1956 Summer Olympics were the first Olympic games where the butterfly was swum as a separate competition, 100 m and 200 m; the butterfly technique with the dolphin kick consists of synchronous arm movement with a synchronous leg kick. Good technique is crucial to swim this style effectively; the wave-like body movement is very significant in creating propulsion, as this is the key to easy synchronous over-water recovery and breathing. In the initial position, the swimmer lies on the breast, the arms are stretched to the front, the legs are extended to the back; the butterfly stroke has three major parts, the pull, the push, the recovery. These can be further subdivided. From the initial position, the arm movement starts similarly to the breast stroke. At the beginning the hands sink a little bit down with the palms facing outwards and down at shoulder width the hands move out to create a Y.
This is called catching the water. The pull movement follows a semicircle with the elbow higher than the hand and the hand pointing towards the center of the body and downward to form the traditionally taught "keyhole"; the push pushes the palm backward through the water underneath the body at the beginning and at the side of the body at the end of the push. The swimmer only pushes the arms 1/3 of the way to the hips, making it easier to enter into the recovery and making the recovery shorter and making the breathing window shorter; the movement increases speed throughout the pull-push phase until the hand is the fastest at the end of the push. This step is crucial for the recovery; the speed at the end of the push is used to help with the recovery. The recovery swings the arms sideways across the water surface to the front, with the elbows straight; the arms should be swung forward from the end of the underwater movement, the extension of the triceps in combination with the butterfly kick will allow the arm to be brought forwards relaxed yet quickly.
In contrast to the front crawl recovery, this arm recovery is a ballistic shot. The only other way of lifting th