2012 Summer Olympics
It took place in London and to a lesser extent across the United Kingdom from 25 July to 12 August 2012. The first event, the stage in womens football began on 25 July at the Millennium Stadium in Cardiff. 10,768 athletes from 204 National Olympic Committees participated, London is the first and only city thus far to host the modern Olympic Games three times, having previously done so in 1908 and in 1948. Construction for the Games involved considerable redevelopment, with an emphasis on sustainability, the main focus was a new 200-hectare Olympic Park, constructed on a former industrial site at Stratford, East London. The Games also made use of venues that already existed before the bid, the Games received widespread acclaim for their organisation, with the volunteers, the British military and public enthusiasm praised particularly highly. During the Games, Michael Phelps became the most decorated Olympic athlete of all time, saudi Arabia, Qatar, and Brunei entered female athletes for the first time, so that every currently eligible country has sent a female competitor to at least one Olympic Games. Womens boxing was included for the first time, thus the Games became the first at which every sport had female competitors and these were the final Olympic Games under the IOC presidency of Jacques Rogge. The final medal tally was led by the United States, followed by China, several world and Olympic records were set at the games. Furthermore, the focus on sporting legacy and post-games venue sustainability was seen as a blueprint for future Olympics. On 18 May 2004, as a result of a technical evaluation. All five submitted their candidate files by 19 November 2004 and were visited by the IOC inspection team during February, throughout the process, Paris was widely seen as the favourite, particularly as this was its third bid in recent years. London was initially seen as lagging behind Paris by a considerable margin and its position began to improve after the appointment of Lord Coe as the new head of London 2012 on 19 May 2004. In late August 2004, reports predicted a tie between London and Paris, on 6 June 2005, the IOC released its evaluation reports for the five candidate cities. They did not contain any scores or rankings, but the report for Paris was considered the most positive, London was close behind, having closed most of the gap observed by the initial evaluation in 2004. New York and Madrid also received positive evaluations. On 1 July 2005, when asked who would win, Jacques Rogge said, but my gut feeling tells me that it will be very close. Perhaps it will come down to a difference of say ten votes, on 6 July 2005, the final selection was announced at the 117th IOC Session in Singapore. Moscow was the first city to be eliminated, followed by New York, the final two contenders were London and Paris
London /ˈlʌndən/ is the capital and most populous city of England and the United Kingdom. Standing on the River Thames in the south east of the island of Great Britain and it was founded by the Romans, who named it Londinium. Londons ancient core, the City of London, largely retains its 1. 12-square-mile medieval boundaries. London is a global city in the arts, commerce, education, entertainment, fashion, finance, healthcare, media, professional services, research and development, tourism. It is crowned as the worlds largest financial centre and has the fifth- or sixth-largest metropolitan area GDP in the world, London is a world cultural capital. It is the worlds most-visited city as measured by international arrivals and has the worlds largest city airport system measured by passenger traffic, London is the worlds leading investment destination, hosting more international retailers and ultra high-net-worth individuals than any other city. Londons universities form the largest concentration of education institutes in Europe. In 2012, London became the first city to have hosted the modern Summer Olympic Games three times, London has a diverse range of people and cultures, and more than 300 languages are spoken in the region. Its estimated mid-2015 municipal population was 8,673,713, the largest of any city in the European Union, Londons urban area is the second most populous in the EU, after Paris, with 9,787,426 inhabitants at the 2011 census. The citys metropolitan area is the most populous in the EU with 13,879,757 inhabitants, the city-region therefore has a similar land area and population to that of the New York metropolitan area. London was the worlds most populous city from around 1831 to 1925, Other famous landmarks include Buckingham Palace, the London Eye, Piccadilly Circus, St Pauls Cathedral, Tower Bridge, Trafalgar Square, and The Shard. The London Underground is the oldest underground railway network in the world, the etymology of London is uncertain. It is an ancient name, found in sources from the 2nd century and it is recorded c.121 as Londinium, which points to Romano-British origin, and hand-written Roman tablets recovered in the city originating from AD 65/70-80 include the word Londinio. The earliest attempted explanation, now disregarded, is attributed to Geoffrey of Monmouth in Historia Regum Britanniae and this had it that the name originated from a supposed King Lud, who had allegedly taken over the city and named it Kaerlud. From 1898, it was accepted that the name was of Celtic origin and meant place belonging to a man called *Londinos. The ultimate difficulty lies in reconciling the Latin form Londinium with the modern Welsh Llundain, which should demand a form *lōndinion, from earlier *loundiniom. The possibility cannot be ruled out that the Welsh name was borrowed back in from English at a later date, and thus cannot be used as a basis from which to reconstruct the original name. Until 1889, the name London officially applied only to the City of London, two recent discoveries indicate probable very early settlements near the Thames in the London area
A midfielder is an association football position. Midfielders are generally positioned on the field between their teams defenders and forwards, some midfielders play a disciplined defensive role, breaking up attacks, and are otherwise known as defensive midfielders. Others blur the boundaries, being mobile and efficient in passing, they are commonly referred to as deep-lying midfielders, play-makers, box-to-box. The number of midfielders on a team and their assigned roles depends on the teams formation, most managers assign at least one midfielder to disrupt the opposing teams attacks, while others may be tasked with creating goals, or have equal responsibilities between attack and defence. Midfielders are the players who typically travel the greatest distance during a match, central or centre midfielders are players whose role is divided roughly equally between attack and defence. When the opposing team has the ball, a midfielder may drop back to protect the goal or move forward. The 4–3–3 and 4–5–1 formations each use three central midfielders, the 4−4−2 formation may use two central midfielders, and in the 4–2–3–1 formation one of the two deeper midfielders may be a central midfielder. The term box-to-box midfielder refers to central midfielders who have abilities and are skilled at both defending and attacking. These players can track back to their own box to make tackles and block shots. A good box-to-box midfielder needs good passing, vision, control, stamina, tackling and marking in defence, left and right midfielders have a role balanced between attack and defence, similar to that of central midfielders, but they are positioned closer to the touchlines of the pitch. They may be asked to cross the ball into the penalty area to make scoring chances for their teammates. Common modern formations that include left and right midfielders are the 4−4−2, the 4−4−1−1, the 4–2–3–1, a notable example of a right midfielder is David Beckham. Defensive midfielders are players who focus on protecting their teams goal. These players may defend a zone in front of their teams defence, defensive midfielders may also move to the full-back or centre-back positions if those players move forward to join in an attack. Sergio Busquets described his attitude, The coach knows that I am an obedient player who likes to help out and if I have to run to the wing to cover someones position, great. A good defensive midfielder needs good positional awareness, anticipation of play, marking, tackling, interceptions, passing and great stamina. A holding or deep-lying midfielder stays close to their teams defence, a player in this role will try to protect their goal by disrupting the opponents attacking moves and stopping long shots on the goal. The holding midfielder may also have responsibilities when their team has the ball and this player will make mostly short and simple passes to more attacking members of their team but may try some more difficult passes depending on the teams strategy
Forward (association football)
Forwards are the players on an association football team who play nearest to the opposing teams goal, and are therefore most responsible for scoring goals. Their advanced position and limited defensive responsibilities mean forwards normally score more goals on behalf of their team than other players, modern team formations generally include one to three forwards, for example, the common 4–2–3–1 formation includes one forward. Unconventional formations may include more than three forwards, or none, the centre-forward is often a tall player, typically known as a target man, whose main function is to score the majority of goals on behalf of the team. Most modern centre-forwards operate in front of the strikers or central attacking midfielders. The present role of centre-forward is sometimes interchangeable with that of an attacking midfielder, a centre-forward usually must be strong, to win key headers and outmuscle defenders. The term centre-forward is taken from the football playing formation in which there were five forward players. The number would become synonymous with the centre-forward position. Strikers are known for their ability to peel off defenders and to run into space via the side of the defender and to receive the ball in a good goalscoring position. They are typically fast players with ball control and dribbling abilities. More agile strikers like Michael Owen have an advantage over taller defenders due to their short burst speed, a good striker should be able to shoot confidently with either foot, possess great power and accuracy, and have the ability to pass the ball under pressure in breakaway situations. Deep-lying forwards have a history in the game, but the terminology to describe their playing activity has varied over the years. Originally such players were termed inside forwards, creative or deep-lying centre-forwards, in fact, a coined term, the nine-and-a-half, has been an attempt to become a standard in defining the position. In Italy, this role is known as a rifinitore or seconda punta, whereas in Brazil, it is known as segundo atacante. An outside forward plays as the forward on the right or left wing – as an outside right or outside left. As football tactics have largely developed, and wingers have dropped back to become midfielders, many commentators and football analysts still refer to the wing positions as outside right and outside left. However, in the British game they are counted as part of the midfield. It is a duty to beat opposing full-backs, deliver cut-backs or crosses from wide positions and, to a lesser extent, to beat defenders. They are usually some of the quickest players in the team, in their Dutch, Spanish and Portuguese usage, the defensive duties of the winger have been usually confined to pressing the opposition fullbacks when they have the ball
Arsenal Ladies Football Club is an English womens association football club affiliated with Arsenal Football Club. The club was founded in 1987 by Vic Akers, the kit manager for the Arsenal mens team and they won their first major honour, the Womens League Cup in 1991–92. Later in 1992 they won promotion to the FA Womens Premier League, as of 2010 they have won 12 of the 17 League titles, finishing as runners–up three times and won a record seven titles in a row between 2004 and 2010. As of 2016 Arsenal have won the FA Womens Cup fourteen times, Arsenal have represented England a total of seven times in the UEFA Womens Champions League, and had previously reached the semi-finals twice. On top of that Arsenal won the FA Womens Community Shield as well as the local London County FA Womens Cup, the end result was that the team won every single competition available to them, earning a unique sextuple. The wins that came against full-time professional players, whereas most of the Arsenal team had full-time jobs. Additionally, Arsenal won all 22 games they played in the Premier League that season, scoring 119 goals, in recognition of the achievement, the team were honoured with The Committee Award by the Sports Journalists Association in the 2007 Sports Journalists Awards. Arsenal were unable to retain their European crown in 2007–08, after being knocked out by Olympique Lyonnais in the quarter-finals, the Premier League Cup final was lost to Everton. They ended the season on a high, winning the league for the season in a row with 20 wins. Season 2008–09 saw the end of a five year unbeaten run in the League. During that spell, Arsenal won a record 51 league games in a row, Akers retired in the 2009 close season, being succeeded by Tony Gervaise. In February 2010, after eight months in charge, Gervaise resigned, in an unusual development, reserve coach Laura Harvey became first-team manager and Gervaise became reserve coach. The following month Arsenal were named as members of the FA WSL which commenced in the spring of 2011. Arsenal won the season, the eighth consecutive English title. Arsenal completed another treble by becoming inaugural WSL champions, winning the FA Cup. On 1 February 2013 Shelley Kerr was announced as Laura Harveys successor as manager of Arsenal Ladies, the club under her management won the FA Womens Cup twice and Continental Cup and finish third in the league during the 2013 season. On 1 June 2014, Arsenal Ladies won the 2014 FA Womens Cup 2 weeks after Arsenal won the 2014 FA Cup, founded as an amateur side, Arsenal Ladies turned semi-professional in 2002. Three of the current first team were in the England squad for the 2005 European Championship, former players Kelly Smith, Karen Carney and Alex Scott transferred to play for teams in the Womens Professional Soccer League in the USA
Laval Dynamites were a Canadian soccer team, founded in 1997. The men team was a member of the Canadian Professional Soccer League/Canadian Soccer League, the highest professional league in Canada. The team played as the Montreal Dynamites in 2001 and 2002, the team essentially moved to Trois-Rivières and became the Trois-Rivières Attak for the 2007 season. The Dynamites played their games at Centre Sportif Bois-de-Boulogne in the city of Laval. The teams colors were red and white, the men team was a sister organization of the womens Laval Dynamites team, which plays in the United Soccer Leagues W-League, the second tier of women’s soccer in the United States and Canada. The women team played 1997 to 2001, Montreal Dynamites joined the CPSL in 2001 as a expansion franchise along with Ottawa Wizards, Brampton Hitmen, and the Toronto Supra. Marchand served as the president, while Incollingo operated as the general manager, the organization hired the services of former Montreal Impact head coach Zoran Jankovic. The franchise debut on May 26,2001 in a match against league giants Toronto Olympians. The Dynamites would recover from their loss with a seven league game defeated streak to help sustain a postseason berth. As their season progressed the team ran into financial difficulties resulting in a decrease in player salaries, and the release of Jocelyn Roy, despite the cutbacks Montreal managed to finish fourth in the overall standings, thus qualifying for the playoffs along with two of the other expansion clubs. In the playoffs the Dynamites faced St. Catharines Wolves, but were defeated by a score of 2–1 with the goal coming from Selaidopolous. At the CPSL Awards banquet Jankovic received the CPSL Coach of the Year award, for the 2002 season Jankovic resigned from his position to coach ARS Laurentides, and Mohamed Hilen was appointed his successor. Hillen retained the majority of the roster, but added Vladimir Edouard. Near the conclusion of the season Hilen announced his resignation as coach to accept a technical director position for ARS Laval for a three year term. He was replaced by general manager Victor Petkov, who coached the New Hampshire Ramblers. Montreal would finish second in the Eastern Conference and secure a postseason berth, the club was eliminated early on in a wildcard match against the Metro Lions in a 3–1 defeat. In 2003, the moved to Laval, Quebec a suburb of Montreal and had a change of name to Laval Dynamites. The franchise brought in former Moroccan international Jawad El Andaloussi, overall the season was a disappointment for Laval as they failed to qualify for the postseason for the first time in the clubs history, missing the final playoff spot by one point
WFC Fulham, previously known as Fulham LFC, was a Ladies Football Club formerly associated with Fulham Football Club. The team were dissolved as of 16 May 2006, but were later re-established with independence from Fulham F. C, the club dissolved for a second time in June 2010 when sponsors pulled out following a second successive relegation. Fulham became the first Ladies football team in Europe to turn professional in April 2000. However, club chairman Mohamed Al-Fayed reverted the club to semi-professional status three years later, Fulham L. F. C. were seen as the successor club to Friends of Fulham, winners of the FA Womens Cup in 1985 and twice runners-up in 1989 and 1990. After they moved to become what is now AFC Wimbledon Ladies, re-established a womens team, with womens football becoming very popular by the early 1990s. Star players like Rachel Yankey and Katie Chapman were supplemented by high-profile overseas imports like Marianne Pettersen. In the 2001–02 season, they won the FA Womens Premier League Southern Division, the London County Cup, the FA Womens Premier League Cup, Fulham won the treble of FA Womens Cup, League Cup and Premier League in 2002–03, scoring 68 goals and conceding just 13. During the 2005–06 season, having lost most of their squad, they struggled in the league. On 16 May 2006, Fulham FC announced that they were withdrawing the team from the Womens Premier League, the decision to dissolve the team was made on financial grounds, with Fulham officially laying the blame on a poor media coverage and poor league attendance. Fulham did announce plans to continue its Girls Development Centre, a similar fate befell several other ladies teams at around the same time. As there was no remaining connection with Fulham FC, it was decided to alter the name to Fulham WFC and then WFC Fulham. The new committee was presented with a number of problems to solve. Season 2006–2007 saw the club survive, albeit with the relegation of the first team from the Premier League National Division, the team bounced straight back by winning the Premier League Southern Division in 2007–08, thanks largely to the goals of Ann-Marie Heatherson. In 2008–09, WFC Fulham finished 12th and were relegated from the National Division, another relegation into the Combination League followed in 2009–10 and the club folded due to the withdrawal of their sponsors. A new official Fulham ladies team restarted in 2014, for details of all former players, see Category, Fulham L. F. C
Birmingham City L.F.C.
Birmingham City Ladies F. C. is an English womens football club affiliated with Birmingham City F. C. As founding members of the FA Womens Super League in 2011, the team plays their home games at Damson Park, the home of Solihull Moors F. C. The club was formed in 1968 by a group of fans who played local friendly matches until 1970. They joined the Heart of England League in 1970, and played in the league until 1973 when it underwent a major restructure, the club were successful during this period, winning these leagues five times during the entire 1970s and 1980s, amongst other trophies. They reached the semi-final of the Womens FA Cup in 1974 and 1988, the club ran into difficult times during the 1990s, with many staff and player changes. In an effort to regain stability they created an academy of young players, after two seasons, Birmingham were promoted to the top flight of womens football in England, joining the FA Womens Premier League National Division in 2002. Also in 2001–02 Birmingham upset Doncaster Belles 4–3 in the FA Womens Premier League Cup semi-final, in the final at Adams Park, Wycombe, Birmingham were thrashed 7–1 by full-time professional Fulham Ladies. In March 2003, local sports reporter Gary Newbon criticised womens football, the clubs high-profile manager of the time, Marcus Bignot, signed big name players including Rachel Yankey and Alex Scott for the 2004–05 season and Birmingham finished fourth. The club ran into problems when Karren Brady of Birmingham Citys men reneged on a letter of intent to provide funding. The female club had to let players go before the start of the 2005–06 season. They were only able to continue after a players parent donated £10,000, also in 2005, the clubs junior sides joined the newly formed Centre of Excellence league in the Central Warwickshire area. Birmingham won their eighth consecutive Birmingham FA County Cup in 2008 before a number of established players either retired from the game or moved on to other clubs and they began to rebuild and finished 2008–09 in fifth place. Also in 2005 the club left Redditch Uniteds The Valley Stadium for Stratford Towns DCS Stadium, in March 2010 the club was announced as a founder member of the FA WSL. The clubs successful application was underwritten by Birmingham Citys controversial new owner Carson Yeung, in December 2010, Birmingham City announced the signing of several international players to their WSL squad. The club became members of the newly formed FA WSL in 2011 and came close to winning it at the first attempt. They also reached the Continental Cup Final but once again found Arsenal in the way at Burton Albion F. C. The season was notable for the exploits of Rachel Williams who scored the leagues first ever hat-trick, finished as leading scorer. Due to their 2nd-place finish in the 2011 FA WSL Birmingham qualified for a place in the 2012–13 UEFA Womens Champions League round of 32 for the first time in their history
New Jersey Wildcats
The New Jersey Wildcats are an American women’s soccer team, founded by Vincent Baldino in 1996. The team is a member of the United Soccer Leagues W-League, the team plays in the Northeast Division of the Eastern Conference against the D. C. United Women, New Jersey Rangers, Long Island Rough Riders, New York Magic, the team plays its home games in the stadium at Mercer County Community College in West Windsor, New Jersey,11 miles northeast of downtown Trenton, New Jersey. The clubs colors are white and blue, note, Flags indicate national team as defined under FIFA eligibility rules. Players may hold more than one non-FIFA nationality, note, Flags indicate national team as defined under FIFA eligibility rules. Players may hold more than one non-FIFA nationality
Notts County Ladies F.C.
Notts County Ladies Football Club is a womens football club based in Nottingham, England. They currently play in the FA WSL, the top tier in the English womens football league system, like the clubs male affiliate Notts County FC, they play their home games at Meadow Lane. Notts County Ladies were created in 2014 when Lincoln Ladies were controversially relocated from Lincoln to Nottingham, the club were originally formed in Lincoln in 1995 and also spent a period known as Lincoln City Ladies while affiliated to Lincoln City. Sincil Bank and other smaller venues staged the clubs matches during their time in Lincoln, the club was named OOH Lincoln Ladies from 2008 until 2010, due to sponsorship from Ray Trews OOH Media PLC. Lincoln Ladies FC were founded in 1995 and began playing in the East Midlands Combination League, the club was promoted in each of the following seasons, bar one, until reaching the FA Womens Premier League Northern Division in 2002. This feat was achieved with the core group of players. The team finished as league runners-up in four seasons and reached the semi-final of the FA Womens Cup in 2007–08. A five-year sponsorship deal with former Lincoln City F. C. board member Ray Trew in June 2008 led to the change of name to OOH Lincoln Ladies. In November 2009 the club announced a bid to join the FA WSL, if successful the club planned to divide home games between Sincil Bank and current home, Ashby Avenue. On 22 March 2010 Lincoln were announced as one of the eight FA WSL teams for the inaugural 2011 season, in August 2010 the club signed Jess Clarke and Sophie Bradley for their FA WSL campaign. In the same week Sue Smith also joined from Leeds United, weeks before the start of the new competition, Lincoln made another major signing with the capture of Casey Stoney from Chelsea. Lincoln Ladies FC ground-shared with Lincoln United F. C. at Ashby Avenue after summer 2009, before that the club spent three seasons playing in Collingham, Nottinghamshire at the Station Road ground, which became a fortress. In 2002–03 the club played their games at Sincil Bank. On 7 January 2013 the club announced that they would play their fixtures for the 2013 FA WSL at Sincil Bank, Lincoln Ladies FC claimed to have had one of the largest fanbases of any female club in England. The FA Womens Cup semi-final in 2008 attracted 3,000 fans to Sincil Bank, by the last two seasons in Lincoln,2012 and 2013, average home attendances had slumped to 526 and 269 respectively. On 26 April 2013, the club said it would become Notts County Ladies from the 2014 season onwards and this has not been without controversy. There has been talk of creating a new team in Lincoln as a consequence. A link with a club was necessary to meet the criteria for the new two tier FA WSL