Electoral fraud, sometimes referred to as election fraud, election manipulation or vote rigging, is illegal interference with the process of an election, either by increasing the vote share of the favored candidate, depressing the vote share of the rival candidates, or both. What constitutes electoral fraud varies from country to country. Many kinds of election fraud are outlawed in electoral legislations, but others are in violation of general laws, such as those banning assault, harassment or libel. Although technically the term'electoral fraud' covers only those acts which are illegal, the term is sometimes used to describe acts which are legal, but considered morally unacceptable, outside the spirit of an election or in violation of the principles of democracy. Show elections, containing only one candidate, are sometimes classified as electoral fraud, although they may comply with the law and are presented more as referendums. In national elections, successful electoral fraud can have the effect of a coup d'état or corruption of democracy.
In a narrow election, a small amount of fraud may be enough to change the result. If the outcome is not affected, the revelation of fraud can have a damaging effect, if not punished, as it can reduce voters' confidence in democracy. A list of threats to voting systems, or electoral fraud methods considered as sabotage are kept by the National Institute of Standards and Technology. Electoral fraud can occur in advance of voting; the legality of this type of manipulation varies across jurisdictions. Deliberate manipulation of election outcomes is considered a violation of the principles of democracy. In many cases, it is possible for authorities to artificially control the composition of an electorate in order to produce a foregone result. One way of doing this is to move a large number of voters into the electorate prior to an election, for example by temporarily assigning them land or lodging them in flophouses. Many countries prevent this with rules stipulating that a voter must have lived in an electoral district for a minimum period in order to be eligible to vote there.
However, such laws can be used for demographic manipulation as they tend to disenfranchise those with no fixed address, such as the homeless, Roma and some casual workers. Another strategy is to permanently move people into an electoral district through public housing. If people eligible for public housing are to vote for a particular party they can either be concentrated into one area, thus making their votes count for less, or moved into marginal electorates, where they may tip the balance towards their preferred party. One notable example of this occurred in the City of Westminster in England under Shirley Porter. Immigration law may be used to manipulate electoral demography. For instance, Malaysia gave citizenship to immigrants from the neighboring Philippines and Indonesia, together with suffrage, in order for a political party to "dominate" the state of Sabah. A method of manipulating primary contests and other elections of party leaders are related to this. People who support one party may temporarily join another party in order to elect a weak candidate for that party's leadership.
The goal is to defeat the weak candidate in the general election by the leader of the party that the voter supports. There were claims that this method was being utilised in the UK Labour Party leadership election in 2015, where Conservative-leaning Toby Young encouraged Conservatives to join Labour and vote for Jeremy Corbyn in order to "consign Labour to electoral oblivion". Shortly after, #ToriesForCorbyn trended on Twitter; the composition of an electorate may be altered by disenfranchising some classes of people, rendering them unable to vote. In some cases, states have passed provisions that raised general barriers to voter registration, such as poll taxes and comprehension tests, record-keeping requirements, which in practice were applied against minority populations to discriminatory effect. From the turn of the century into the late 1960s, most African Americans in the southern states of the former Confederacy were disenfranchised by such measures. Corrupt election officials may misuse voting regulations such as a literacy test or requirement for proof of identity or address in such a way as to make it difficult or impossible for their targets to cast a vote.
If such practices discriminate against a religious or ethnic group, they may so distort the political process that the political order becomes grossly unrepresentative, as in the post-Reconstruction or Jim Crow era until the Voting Rights Act of 1965. Felons have been disenfranchised in many states as a strategy to prevent African Americans from voting. Groups may be disenfranchised by rules which make it impractical or impossible for them to cast a vote. For example, requiring people to vote within their electorate may disenfranchise serving military personnel, prison inmates, hospital patients or anyone else who cannot return to their homes. Polling can be set for inconvenient days, such as midweek or on holy days of religious groups: for example on the Sabbath or other holy days of a religious group whose teachings determine that voting is a prohibited on such a day. Communities may be disenfranchised if polling places are situated in areas perceived by voters as unsafe, or are not provided within reasonable proximity.
In some cases, voters may be invalidly disenfranchised, true electoral fraud. For example, a legitimate vo
Mortgage fraud is a crime in which the intent is to materially misrepresent or omit information on a mortgage loan application in order to obtain a loan or to obtain a larger loan than could have been obtained had the lender or borrower known the truth. In United States federal courts, mortgage fraud is prosecuted as wire fraud, bank fraud, mail fraud, money laundering, with penalties of up to thirty years' imprisonment; as the incidence of mortgage fraud has risen over the past few years, states have begun to enact their own penalties for mortgage fraud. Mortgage fraud is not to be confused with predatory mortgage lending, which occurs when a consumer is misled or deceived by agents of the lender. However, predatory lending practices co-exist with mortgage fraud. Occupancy fraud: This occurs where the borrower wishes to obtain a mortgage to acquire an investment property, but states on the loan application that the borrower will occupy the property as the primary residence or as a second home.
If undetected, the borrower obtains a lower interest rate than was warranted. Because lenders charge a higher interest rate for non-owner-occupied properties, which have higher delinquency rates, the lender receives insufficient return on capital and is over-exposed to loss relative to what was expected in the transaction. In addition, lenders allow larger loans on owner-occupied homes compared to loans for investment properties; when occupancy fraud occurs, it is that taxes on gains are not paid, resulting in additional fraud. It is considered fraud because the borrower has materially misrepresented the risk to the lender to obtain more favorable loan terms. Income fraud: This occurs when a borrower overstates his/her income to qualify for a mortgage or for a larger loan amount; this was most seen with so-called "stated income" mortgage loans, where the borrower, or a loan officer acting for a borrower with or without the borrower's knowledge, stated without verification the income needed to qualify for the loan.
Because mortgage lenders today do not have "stated income" loans, income fraud is seen in traditional full-documentation loans where the borrower forges or alters an employer-issued Form W-2, tax returns and/or bank account records to provide support for the inflated income. All lenders obtain an official IRS transcript, it is considered fraud because in most cases the borrower would not have qualified for the loan had the true income been disclosed. The "mortgage meltdown" was caused, in part, when large numbers of borrowers in areas of increasing home prices lied about their income, acquired homes they could not afford, defaulted. Many of the past problems no longer exist. Employment fraud: This occurs when a borrower claims self-employment in a non-existent company or claims a higher position in a real company, to provide justification for a fraudulent representation of the borrower's income. Failure to disclose liabilities: Borrowers may conceal obligations, such as mortgage loans on other properties or newly acquired credit card debt, to reduce the amount of monthly debt declared on the loan application.
This omission of liabilities artificially lowers the debt-to-income ratio, a key underwriting criterion used to determine eligibility for most mortgage loans. It is considered fraud because it allows the borrower to qualify for a loan which otherwise would not have been granted, or to qualify for a bigger loan than what would have been granted had the borrower's true debt been disclosed. Fraud for profit: A complex scheme involving multiple parties, including mortgage lending professionals, in a financially motivated attempt to defraud the lender of large sums of money. Fraud for profit schemes include a straw borrower whose credit report is used, a dishonest appraiser who intentionally and overstates the value of the subject property, a dishonest settlement agent who might prepare two sets of HUD settlement statements or makes disbursements from loan proceeds which are not disclosed on the settlement statement, a property owner, all in a coordinated attempt to obtain an inappropriately large loan.
The parties involved share the ill-gotten gains and the mortgage goes into default. In other cases, naive "investors" are lured into the scheme with the organizer's promise that the home will be repaired, repairs and/or renovations will be made, tenants will located, rents will be collected, mortgage payments made and profits will be split upon sale of the property, all without the active participation of the straw buyer. Once the loan is closed, the organizer disappears, no repairs are made nor renters found, the "investor" is liable for paying the mortgage on a property, not worth what is owed, leaving the "investor" financially ruined. If undetected, a bank may lend hundreds of thousands of dollars against a property, worth far less and in large schemes with multiple transactions, banks may lend millions more than the properties are worth; the Robert Douglas Hartmann case is a notable example of this type of scheme. A detailed case study of the complex United States v. Quintero-Lopez case spans activity over 3½ years.
Appraisal fraud: Occurs when a home's appraised value is deliberately overstated or understated. When overstated, more money can be obtained by the borrower in the form of a cash-out refinance, by the seller in a purchase transaction, or by the organizers of a for-profit mortgage fraud scheme. Appraisal fraud includes cases where the home's value is deliberately understated to get a lower price on a foreclosed home, or in a fraudulent attempt to induce a lender to decrease the amount owed on the mortg
Cybercrime, or computer-oriented crime, is a crime that involves a computer and a network. The computer may have been used in the commission of a crime. Cybercrimes can be defined as: "Offences that are committed against individuals or groups of individuals with a criminal motive to intentionally harm the reputation of the victim or cause physical or mental harm, or loss, to the victim directly or indirectly, using modern telecommunication networks such as Internet and mobile phones". Cybercrime may threaten a nation's security and financial health. Issues surrounding these types of crimes have become high-profile those surrounding hacking, copyright infringement, unwarranted mass-surveillance, child pornography, child grooming. There are problems of privacy when confidential information is intercepted or disclosed, lawfully or otherwise. Debarati Halder and K. Jaishankar further define cybercrime from the perspective of gender and defined'cybercrime against women' as "Crimes targeted against women with a motive to intentionally harm the victim psychologically and physically, using modern telecommunication networks such as internet and mobile phones".
Internationally, both governmental and non-state actors engage in cybercrimes, including espionage, financial theft, other cross-border crimes. Cybercrimes crossing international borders and involving the actions of at least one nation state is sometimes referred to as cyberwarfare. A report, published in 2014, estimated that the annual damage to the global economy was $445 billion. $1.5 billion was lost in 2012 to online credit and debit card fraud in the US. In 2018, a study by Center for Strategic and International Studies, in partnership with McAfee, concludes that close to $600 billion, nearly one percent of global GDP, is lost to cybercrime each year. Computer crime encompasses a broad range of activities. Computer fraud is any dishonest misrepresentation of fact intended to let another to do or refrain from doing something which causes loss. In this context, the fraud will result in obtaining a benefit by: Altering in an unauthorized way; this requires little technical expertise and is common form of theft by employees altering the data before entry or entering false data, or by entering unauthorized instructions or using unauthorized processes.
This is difficult to detect. These types of crime result in the loss of private information or monetary information. Government officials and information technology security specialists have documented a significant increase in Internet problems and server scans since early 2001, but there is a growing concern among government agencies such as the Federal Bureau of Investigations and the Central Intelligence Agency that such intrusions are part of an organized effort by cyberterrorists, foreign intelligence services, or other groups to map potential security holes in critical systems. A cyberterrorist is someone who intimidates or coerces a government or an organization to advance his or her political or social objectives by launching a computer-based attack against computers, networks, or the information stored on them. Cyberterrorism in general can be defined as an act of terrorism committed through the use of cyberspace or computer resources; as such, a simple propaganda piece in the Internet that there will be bomb attacks during the holidays can be considered cyberterrorism.
There are hacking activities directed towards individuals, organized by groups within networks, tending to cause fear among people, demonstrate power, collecting information relevant for ruining peoples' lives, blackmailing etc. Cyberextortion occurs when a website, e-mail server, or computer system is subjected to or threatened with repeated denial of service or other attacks by malicious hackers; these hackers demand money in return for promising to stop the attacks and to offer "protection". According to the Federal Bureau of Investigation, cybercrime extortionists are attacking corporate websites and networks, crippling their ability to operate and demanding payments to restore their service. More than 20 cases are reported each month to the FBI and many go unreported in order to keep the victim's name out of the public domain. Perpetrators use a distributed denial-of-service attack. However, other cyberextortion techniques exist such as doxing bug poaching. An example of cyberextortion was the attack on Sony Pictures of 2014.
The U. S. Department of Defense notes that the cyberspace has emerged as a national-level concern through several recent events of geostrategic significance. Among those are included, the attack on Estonia's infrastructure in 2007 by Russian hackers. "In August 2008, Russia again conducted cyberattacks, this time in a coordinated and synchronized kinetic and non-kinetic campaign against the country of Georgia. The December 2015 Ukraine power grid cyberattack has been attributed to Russia and is considered the first successful cyberattack on a power grid. Fearing that such attacks may become the norm in future warfare among nation-states, the concept of cyberspace operations impacts and will be adapted by warfighting military commanders in the future; these crimes are committed by a selected group of criminals. Unlike crimes using the computer as a tool, these crimes require t
Art theft is for the purpose of resale or for ransom. Stolen art is sometimes used by criminals as collateral to secure loans. Only a small percentage of stolen art is recovered—estimates range from 5 to 10%; this means. Many thieves are motivated by the fact that valuable art pieces are worth millions of dollars and weigh only a few kilograms at most. Transport for items such as paintings is trivial, assuming the thief is willing to inflict some damage to the painting by cutting it off the frame and rolling it up into a tube carrier. While most high-profile museums have tight security, many places with multimillion-dollar art collections have disproportionately poor security measures; that makes them susceptible to thefts that are more complicated than a typical smash-and-grab, but offer a huge potential payoff. Thieves sometimes target works based on their own familiarity with the artist, rather than the artist's reputation in the art world or the theoretical value of the work. For the thieves, it is difficult to sell the most famous and valuable works without getting caught, because any interested buyer will certainly know the work is stolen and advertising it risks someone contacting the authorities.
It is difficult for the buyer to display the work to visitors without it being recognized as stolen, thus defeating much of the point of owning the art. Many famous works have instead been held for ransom from the legitimate owner or returned without ransom, due to the lack of black-market customers. Returning for ransom risks a sting operation. For those with substantial collections, such as the Marquess of Cholmondeley at Houghton Hall, the risk of theft is neither negligible nor negotiable. Jean-Baptiste Oudry's White Duck was stolen from the Cholmondeley collection at Houghton Hall in 1990; the canvas is still missing. Museums can take numerous measures to prevent the theft of artworks include having enough guides or guards to watch displayed items, avoiding situations where security-camera sightlines are blocked, fastening paintings to walls with hanging wires that are not too thin and with locks; the Smithsonian Institution sponsors the National Conference on Cultural Property Protection, held annually in Washington, D. C.
The conference is aimed at professionals in the field of cultural property protection. Since 1996, the Netherlands-based Museum Security Network has disseminated news and information related to issues of cultural property loss and recovery. Since its founding the Museum Security Network has collected and disseminated over 45,000 reports about incidents with cultural property; the founder of the Museum Security Network, Ton Cremers, is recipient of the National Conference on Cultural Property Protection Robert Burke Award. 2007 saw the foundation of the Association for Research into Crimes against Art. ARCA is a nonprofit think tank dedicated principally to raising the profile of art crime as an academic subject. Since 2009, ARCA has offered an unaccredited postgraduate certificate program dedicated to this field of study; the Postgraduate Certificate Program in Art Crime and Cultural Heritage Protection is held from June to August every year in Italy. A few American universities, including New York University offer courses on art crime.
In the public sphere, the FBI Art Crime Team, London's Metropolitan Police, New York Police Department's special frauds squad and a number of other law enforcement agencies worldwide maintain "squads" dedicated to investigating thefts of this nature and recovering stolen works of art. According to Robert King Wittman, a former FBI agent who led the Art Crime Team until his retirement in 2008, the unit is small compared with similar law-enforcement units in Europe, most art thefts investigated by the FBI involve agents at local offices who handle routine property theft. "Art and antiquity crime is tolerated, in part, because it is considered a victimless crime," Wittman said in 2010. In response to a growing public awareness of art theft and recovery, a number of not-for-profit and private companies now act both to record information about losses and oversee recovery efforts for claimed works of art. Among the most notable are: IFAR Commission for Looted Art in Europe Holocaust Claims Conference Art Loss Register Art Recovery GroupIn January 2017, Spain's Interior Ministry announced that police from 18 European countries, with the support of Interpol and Unesco, had arrested 75 people involved in an international network of art traffickers.
The pan-European operation had begun in October, 2016 and led to the recovery of about 3,500 stolen items including archaeological artifacts and other artwork. The ministry did not provide the locations of the arrests. From 1933 through the end of World War II, the Nazi regime maintained a policy of looting art for sale or for removal to museums in the Third Reich. Hermann Göring, head of the Luftwaffe took charge of hundreds of valuable pieces stolen from Jews and other victims of the Holocaust. In early 2011, about 1,500 art masterpieces, assumed to have been stolen by the Nazis during and before World War II, were confiscated from a private home in Munich, Germany; the confiscation was not made public until November 2013. With an estimated value of $1 billion, their discovery is considered "astounding", includes works by Pablo Picasso, Henri Matisse, Marc Chagall, Paul Klee, Max Beckmann and Emil Nolde, all of which were considered lost; the looted Modernist art, was banned by the Nazis when they came to power, on the grounds that it was "un-German"
Burglary called breaking and entering and sometimes housebreaking, is an unlawful entry into a building or other location for the purposes of committing an offence. That offence is theft, but most jurisdictions include others within the ambit of burglary. To engage in the act of burglary is to burgle in British English, a term back-formed from the word burglar, or to burglarize in American English. At common law, burglary was defined by Sir Matthew Hale as: The breaking and entering the house of another in the night time, with intent to commit a felony therein, whether the felony be committed or not. Breaking can be either actual, such as by forcing open a door, or constructive, such as by fraud or threats. Breaking does not require that anything be "broken" in terms of physical damage occurring. A person who has permission to enter part of a house, but not another part, commits a breaking and entering when they use any means to enter a room where they are not permitted, so long as the room was not open to enter.
Entering can involve either physical entry by a person, or the insertion of an instrument to remove property. Insertion of a tool to gain entry may not constitute entering by itself. Note that there must be a breaking and an entering for common-law burglary. Breaking without entry or entry without breaking is not sufficient for common-law burglary. Although listed as an element, the common law required that "entry occur as a consequence of the breaking". For example, if a wrongdoer opens a window with a pry bar—but notices an open door, which he uses to enter the dwelling, there is no burglary under common law; the use of the pry bar would not constitute an entry if a portion of the prybar "entered" the residence. Under the instrumentality rule the use of an instrument to effect a breaking would not constitute an entry. However, if any part of the perpetrator's body entered the residence in an attempt to gain entry, the instrumentality rule did not apply. Thus, if the perpetrator uses the prybar to pry open the window and used his hands to lift the opened window, an "entry" would have taken place when he grasped the bottom of the window with his hands.
House includes a temporarily unoccupied dwelling, but not a building used only as a habitation. Night time is defined as hours between half an hour after half an hour before sunrise; this element is expressed as the intent to commit a felony “therein”. The use of the word “therein” adds nothing and does not limit the scope of burglary to those wrongdoers who break and enter a dwelling intending to commit a felony on the premises; the situs of the felony does not matter, burglary occurs if the wrongdoer intended to commit a felony at the time he broke and entered. The common-law elements of burglary vary between jurisdictions; the common-law definition has been expanded in most jurisdictions, such that the building need not be a dwelling or a building in the conventional sense, physical breaking is not necessary, the entry does not need to occur at night, the intent may be to commit any felony or theft. The etymology originates from one of the Germanic languages. According to one textbook, "The word burglar comes from the two German words burg, meaning "house", laron, meaning "thief".
Another suggested etymology is from the Latin word burgare, "to break open" or "to commit burglary", from burgus, meaning "fortress" or "castle", with the word passing through French and Middle English, with influence from the Latin latro, "thief". The British verb "burgle" is a late back-formation. In Canada and entering is prohibited by section 348 of the Criminal Code and is a hybrid offence. Breaking and entering is defined as trespassing with intent to commit an indictable offence; the crime is referred to in Canada as break and enter, which in turn is shortened to B and E. There is no crime of burglary as such in Finland. In the case of breaking and entering, the Finnish penal code states that A person who unlawfully enters domestic premises by force, stealth or deception, or hides or stays in such premises shall be sentenced for invasion of domestic premises to a fine or to imprisonment for at most six months. However, if theft is committed during unlawful entering a person is guilty of theft or aggravated theft depending on the circumstances of the felony.
Aggravated theft: If in the theft the offender breaks into an occupied residence,and the theft is aggravated when assessed as a whole, the offender shall be sentenced for aggravated theft to imprisonment for at least four months and at most four years. In Sweden, burglary does not exist as an offence in itself. If a person breaks into any premise, they are technically guilty of either unlawful intrusion or breach of domiciliary peace, depending on the premise in question. Breach of domiciliary peace is applicable only when a person "unlawfully intrudes or remains where another has his living quarters"; the only punishments available for any of these offences are fines, unless the offences are considered gross. In such cases, the maximum punishment is two years' imprisonment. However, if the person who has forced themself into a house steals anything, they are guilty of theft. However, the section regarding gross theft states "in assessing whether the crime is gross, special consideration shall be given to whether the unlawful appropriation took place after intrusion into a dwelling."
For theft, the punishment is imprisonment of at most two year
A lottery is a form of gambling that involves the drawing of numbers at random for a prize. Lotteries are outlawed by some governments, while others endorse it to the extent of organizing a national or state lottery, it is common to find some degree of regulation of lottery by governments. Though lotteries were common in the United States and some other countries during the 19th century, by the beginning of the 20th century, most forms of gambling, including lotteries and sweepstakes, were illegal in the U. S. and most of Europe as well as many other countries. This remained so until well after World War II. In the 1960s casinos and lotteries began to re-appear throughout the world as a means for governments to raise revenue without raising taxes. Lotteries come in many formats. For example, the prize can be a fixed amount of cash or goods. In this format there is risk to the organizer. More the prize fund will be a fixed percentage of the receipts. A popular form of this is the "50–50" draw where the organizers promise that the prize will be 50% of the revenue.
Many recent lotteries allow purchasers to select the numbers on the lottery ticket, resulting in the possibility of multiple winners. The first recorded signs of a lottery are keno slips from the Chinese Han Dynasty between 205 and 187 BC; these lotteries are believed to have helped to finance major government projects like the Great Wall of China. From the Chinese "The Book of Songs" comes a reference to a game of chance as "the drawing of wood", which in context appears to describe the drawing of lots; the first known European lotteries were held during the Roman Empire as an amusement at dinner parties. Each guest would receive a ticket, prizes would consist of fancy items such as dinnerware; every ticket holder would be assured of winning something. This type of lottery, was no more than the distribution of gifts by wealthy noblemen during the Saturnalian revelries; the earliest records of a lottery offering tickets for sale is the lottery organized by Roman Emperor Augustus Caesar. The funds were for repairs in the City of Rome, the winners were given prizes in the form of articles of unequal value.
The first recorded lotteries to offer tickets for sale with prizes in the form of money were held in the Low Countries in the 15th century. Various towns held public lotteries to raise money for town fortifications, to help the poor; the town records of Ghent and Bruges indicate that lotteries may be older. A record dated 9 May 1445 at L'Ecluse refers to raising funds to build walls and town fortifications, with a lottery of 4,304 tickets and total prize money of 1737 florins. In the 17th century it was quite usual in the Netherlands to organize lotteries to collect money for the poor or in order to raise funds for all kinds of public usages; the lotteries proved popular and were hailed as a painless form of taxation. The Dutch state-owned Staatsloterij is the oldest running lottery; the English word lottery is derived from the Dutch noun "lot" meaning "fate". The first recorded Italian lottery was held on 9 January 1449 in Milan organized by the Golden Ambrosian Republic to finance the war against the Republic of Venice.
However, it was in Genoa that Lotto became popular. People used to bet on the name of Great Council members, who were drawn by chance, five out of ninety candidates every six months; this kind of gambling was called Semenaiu. When people wanted to bet more than twice a year, they began to substitute the candidates names with numbers and modern lotto was born, to which both modern legal lotteries and the illegal Numbers game can trace their ancestry. King Francis I of France discovered the lotteries during his campaigns in Italy and decided to organize such a lottery in his kingdom to help the state finances; the first French lottery, the Loterie Royale, was held in 1539 and was authorized with the edict of Châteaurenard. This attempt was a fiasco, since the tickets were costly and the social classes which could afford them opposed the project. During the two following centuries lotteries in France were forbidden or, in some cases, tolerated. Although the English first experimented with raffles and similar games of chance, the first recorded official lottery was chartered by Queen Elizabeth I, in the year 1566, was drawn in 1569.
This lottery was designed to raise money for the "reparation of the havens and strength of the Realme, towardes such other publique good workes". Each ticket holder won a prize, the total value of the prizes equalled the money raised. Prizes were in the form of other valuable commodities; the lottery was promoted by scrolls posted throughout the country showing sketches of the prizes. Thus, the lottery money received was an interest free loan to the government during the three years that the tickets were sold. In years, the government sold the lottery ticket rights to brokers, who in turn hired agents and runners to sell them; these brokers became the modern day stockbrokers for various commercial ventures. Most people could not afford the entire cost of a lottery ticket, so the brokers would sell shares in a ticket. Many private lotteries were held, including raising money for The Virginia Company of London to support its settlement in America at Jamestown; the English State Lottery ran from 1694 until 1826.
Thus, the English lotteries ran for over 250 years, until the government, under constant pressure from the opposition in p
Shoplifting is the unnoticed theft of goods from an open retail establishment. Shoplifting involves a person concealing a store item on their person, in pockets or under clothes and leaving the store without paying for it. With clothing, shoplifters may leave the store wearing the clothes; the terms "shoplifting" and "shoplifter" are not defined in law. The crime of shoplifting falls under the legal classification of larceny. Shoplifting is distinct from robbery or armed robbery. In the retail industry, the word shrinkage or shrink, can be used to refer to merchandise lost by shoplifting, but the word includes loss by other means, such as waste, uninsured damage to products, theft by store employees. Shoplifters range from amateurs acting on impulse, to career criminals who habitually engage in shoplifting as a form of income. Career criminals may use several individuals to shoplift, with some participants distracting store employees while another participant steals items. Amateurs steal products for personal use, while career criminals steal items to resell them in the underground economy.
Other forms of shoplifting include swapping price labels of different items, return fraud or eating a grocery store's food without paying for it. Shoplifted items are those with a high price in proportion to their size, such as disposable razor blades, alcoholic beverages and cigarettes. Retailers have reported. Stores use a number of strategies to reduce shoplifting, including storing small, expensive items in locked glass cases; some stores have security guards at the exit, who check receipts. Stores combat shoplifting by training employees how to detect potential shoplifters; the first documented shoplifting started to take place in 16th-century London. By the early 19th century, shoplifting was believed to be a female activity. In the 1960s, shoplifting began to be redefined again, this time as a political act. Researchers divide shoplifters into two categories: "boosters", professionals who resell what they steal, "snitches", amateurs who steal for their personal use. Shoplifting is the act of knowingly taking goods from an establishment in which they are displayed for sale, without paying for them.
Shoplifting involves concealing items on the person or an accomplice, leaving the store without paying. However, shoplifting can include price switching, refund fraud, "wardrobing", "grazing". Price switching is now an extinct form of shoplifting for two reasons. Firstly, the labels will split apart upon attempted removal, secondly all retail cashiers now scan items at the register, rather than relying on price stickers. Retailers report that shoplifting has a significant effect on their bottom line, stating that about 0.6% of all inventory disappears to shoplifters. Criminal theft involves taking possession of property illegally. In self-service shops, customers are allowed by the property owner to take physical possession of the property by holding or moving it; this leaves areas of ambiguity that could criminalize some people for simple mistakes, such as accidental putting of a small item in a pocket or forgetting to pay. For this reason penalties for shoplifting are lower than those for general theft.
Few jurisdictions have specific shoplifting legislation with which to differentiate it from other forms of theft, so reduced penalties are at a judge's discretion. Most retailers are aware of the serious consequences of making a false arrest, will only attempt to apprehend a person if their guilt is beyond a reasonable doubt. Depending on local laws, arrests made by anyone other than law enforcement officers may be illegal; some shoplifters are amateurs who do not steal from stores and who do not use shoplifting as a form of income. Researchers call these amateurs "snitches,". In several countries, criminal flash mobs made up of teenagers and young adults, enter stores with the intention of stealing merchandise while accomplices distract staff. However, there are groups who make their living from shoplifting and other crimes, they tend to be more skilled career criminals. Researchers call professional thieves "boosters," as they tend to resell what they steal on the black market. Shoplifting is subject to prosecution.
In the United Kingdom, theft is defined as "dishonestly appropriate property belonging to another with the intention of permanently depriving the other of it. It is one of the most common crimes. Shoplifting peaks between 3 p.m. and 4 p.m. and is lowest from 6 a.m. and 7 a.m. In the United States, shoplifting increases during the Christmas season, arrest rates increase during spring break. Rutgers University criminologist Ronald V. Clarke says shoplifters steal "hot products" that a