The Harvard Library system comprises about 76 libraries, with more than 18 million volumes. It is the oldest library system in the United States and the largest university library and largest private library system in the world. Based on number of items held, it is the fifth largest library in the United States. Harvard's library system grew due to donations from prominent individuals, John Harvard being one of them. John Harvard was a Puritan minister; these volumes were left to Harvard. The works in this collection soon became obsolete, as Harvard Library changed to an academic institute and found little need for the theological titles; the location of the library changed over time. It was in the Old College building. In 1676, the library was moved to Harvard Hall, where it remained until the building burnt down during the fire in 1764; the fire of 1764 destroyed the entire collection. After, a new Harvard Hall was built and 15,000 books were collected to create the new library; as time went on space became limited in Harvard Hall, the library was moved to Gore Hall in 1841.
Gore Hall was no longer suitable and the books were moved elsewhere in 1912. Around this time, the library spread into more than one building; some of the libraries were devoted to specialized topics. Over the next century the library grew to become the largest in America, but on January 24, 1764, a major fire destroyed all of Harvard's books and scientific instruments. All of the books in the library at the time of the fire were burned; the books, loaned out when the fire occurred were the only portion of the collection that remained. Books and donations were offered by friends of the college to replace its collections. An eccentric Englishman, Thomas Hollis V of Lincoln's Inn, began shipping thousands of specially chosen volumes to the University Library. Hollis continued to send books until his death in 1774 and he bequeathed £500 for a fund to continue buying books; this became Harvard's first endowed book fund, is still increasing the collections every year. Harvard Library's online catalog, HOLLIS, is named after him.
Some of the books have been digitized within the Google Books Library Project, begun as a project developed with leadership and oversight by former Director Sidney Verba. On August 1, 2012, a new Harvard Library organization began operations, designed to improve a fragmented system of 73 libraries across Harvard's Schools with one that promotes University-wide collaboration. Functions that occur within all libraries—Access Services, Technical Services and Preservation Services—were unified to enable greater focus on the needs of the user community; the new structure was developed from recommendations of the Task Force on University Libraries and the Library Implementation Working Group. By 1973, the Harvard Library had authored or published over 430 volumes in print, as well as nine periodicals and seven annual publications. Among these is a monthly newsletter, The Harvard Librarian, as well as a quarterly journal, the Harvard Library Bulletin; the latter was established in 1947, was dormant from 1960 until being revived in 1967.
The Harvard Library is the formal name for an administrative entity within the central administration of the University that has responsibility for central library services and policy. As of August 2013, Sarah Thomas is the current vice president for the Harvard Library and the Roy E. Larsen Librarian of the Faculty of Arts and Sciences; the Harvard Library consists of: Access Services connects the academic community to the vast array of library resources. Information and Technical Services is responsible for acquiring and providing access to tangible and online collections in all formats. Preservation and Digital Imaging Services is committed to ensuring that library materials remain secure and usable for contemporary and future scholars by conserving materials, digitizing collections, preserving library content in digital formats and providing robust education and outreach programs; the Harvard University Archives is the institutional archives of the University. It oversees the University's permanent records, collects Harvard-related manuscripts and historical materials, supervises records management across the University.
Finance supports the Library by providing accurate information that assists decision-making, maintaining the integrity of finance systems and completing financial transactions. Program Management ensures that potential projects and approved projects are managed in a considered and transparent way; the Office for Scholarly Communication provides for open access to works of scholarship produced by the Harvard community. Visiting Committee members are Harvard alumni who are appointed by the Corporation; the Committee oversees the strategy and administration of the Harvard Library on behalf of the Overseers. Bi-annual visits and regular updates by the Office of the Provost provide an opportunity for Visiting Committee members to understand and advise on the Harvard Library's progress; the Library Board is charged with reviewing the strategic plans of the Harvard Library and assessing its progress in meeting those plans, reviewing system-wide policies and standards and overseeing the progress of the central services.
The provost chairs the Library Board (establis
Shirley Graham Du Bois
Shirley Graham Du Bois was an American author, playwright and activist for African-American and other causes. She won the Anisfield-Wolf prizes for her works, she was born Lola Shirley Graham, Jr. in Indianapolis, Indiana, in 1896, as the only daughter among six children. Her father was an African Methodist Episcopal minister, her mother was European, the family moved often. In June 1915, Shirley graduated from Clark High School in Spokane, Washington, she married her first husband, Shadrach T. McCants, in 1921, their son Robert was born in 1923, followed by David in 1925. They divorced in 1927. In 1926, Graham moved to France, to study music composition at the Sorbonne, she thought that this education might allow her to achieve better employment and be able to better support her children. Meeting Africans and Afro-Caribbean people in Paris introduced her to new music and cultures. In 1931, Graham entered Oberlin College as an advanced student and, after earning her B. A. in 1934, went on to do graduate work in music, completing a master's degree in 1935.
In 1936, Hallie Flanagan appointed Graham director of the Chicago Negro Unit of the Federal Theatre Project, part of President Franklin D. Roosevelt's Works Progress Administration, she wrote musical scores and did additional associated work. In the late 1940s, Graham became a member of Sojourners for Truth and Justice – an African-American organization working for global women's liberation. Around the same time, she joined the American Communist Party. In 1951, she married W. E. B. Du Bois, the second marriage for both, she was 54 years old. They emigrated to Ghana, where they received citizenship in 1961 and he died in 1963. In 1967, she was forced to leave after a military-led coup d'état, moved to Cairo, where she continued writing, her surviving son David Graham Du Bois worked as a journalist. Shirley Graham Du Bois died of breast cancer on March 1977, aged 80, in Beijing, China, she died as Tanzanian. She had moved from Ghana to Tanzania after Ghanaian president, Kwame Nkrumah, was overthrown on 24 February 1966, became close to Tanzanian president, Julius Nyerere, acquired Tanzanian citizenship.
After meeting Africans in Paris while studying at the Sorbonne in 1926, Graham composed the musical score and libretto of Tom Tom: An Epic of Music and the Negro, an opera. She used music and the book to express the story of Africans' journey to the North American colonies, through slavery and to freedom, it premiered in Ohio. The opera attracted 10,000 people to its premier at the Cleveland Stadium and 15,000 to the second performance. According to the Oxford Companion to African-American Literature, her theatre works included Deep Rivers, a musical. Due to the difficulty in getting musicals or plays produced and published, Graham turned to literature, she wrote in a variety of genres, specializing from the 1950s in biographies of leading African-American and world figures for young readers. She wanted to increase the number of books that dealt with notable African Americans in elementary school libraries. Owing to her personal knowledge of her subjects, her books on Paul Robeson and Kwame Nkrumah are considered interesting.
Other subjects included Frederick Douglass, Phillis Wheatley, Booker T. Washington. One of her last novels, Zulu Heart, included sympathetic portrayals of whites in South Africa despite racial conflicts. Selections from her correspondence with her husband appear in the three volume 1976 collection edited by Herbert Aptheker, Correspondence of W. E. B. Du Bois. Shirley Graham Du Bois is the subject of Race Woman: The Lives of Shirley Graham Du Bois. We are a race of artists. What are we doing about it? Biographies for young readers: with George D. Lipscomb, Dr. George Washington Carver, New York: Julian Messner, 1944, Paul Robeson, Citizen of the World, 1946. E. B. Du Bois, New York: Lippincott, 1971 Julius K. Nyerere, Teacher of Africa, New York: Julian Messner, 1975 Du Bois: A Pictorial Biography, Johnsons, 1978Novels: There Once Was a Slave, the Messner Prize-winning historical novel on the life of Frederick Douglass. "Shirley Graham" entry, The Greenwood Encyclopedia of African American Literature.
Ed. Hans Ostrom and J. David Macey, Jr. Westport, Connecticut: Greenwood Press, 2005, pp. 652–53. Thompson, Robert Dee. A socio-biography of Shirley Graham-Du Bois: a life in the struggle. University of California, Santa Cruz, 1997 Shirley Graham Du Bois profile, African American Registry Shirley Graham Du Bois Papers, Schlesinger Library on the History of Women in America, Radcliffe Institute, Harvard University Shirley Graham Du Bois bibliography, amazon.com. FBI files on Shirley Graham Du Bois Hin
A global cuisine is a cuisine, practiced around the world. A cuisine is a characteristic style of cooking practices and traditions associated with a specific region, country or culture. To become a global cuisine, a local, regional or national cuisine must spread around the world, its food served worldwide. There have been significant improvements and advances during the last century in food preservation, storage and production, today many countries and regions have access to their traditional cuisines and many other global cuisines. Japanese cuisine has spread throughout the world, representative dishes such as sushi and ramen, among others are popular. In many cases, Japanese food reinvented to fit the taste buds of the local populace. For instance, the California roll is a popular dish in the United States, a modification of the Japanese makizushi, a type of sushi. In South Korea, both the Japanese curry and the ramen have been imported and popularized in the form of instant food. Tonkatsu and tempura, which are derived from Western food, are now considered and marketed as uniquely Japanese, as well as the Japanese curry, which derived from the Indian curry.
In many countries including the United States, United Kingdom and Brazil, Japanese restaurants have become popular. Among these countries, Hong Kong, China, Singapore and Indonesia are key consumers, according to recent research; the market of Japanese ingredients is growing, with brands such as Ajinomoto, Kikkoman and Kewpie mayonnaise, are establishing production base in other Asian countries, such as China and Indonesia. Chinese cuisine has become widespread throughout many other parts of the world — from Asia to the Americas, Western Europe and Southern Africa. In recent years, connoisseurs of Chinese cuisine have sprouted in Eastern Europe and South Asia. American Chinese cuisine and Canadian Chinese food are popular examples of local varieties. Local ingredients would be adopted while maintaining the preparation technique. Traditional Chinese cuisines include Anhui, Fujian, Jiangsu, Shandong and Zhejiang, all of which are defined and termed per the respective regions within China where they developed.
These regional cuisines are sometimes referred to as the "eight culinary traditions of China." A number of different styles contribute to Chinese cuisine, but the best known and most influential are the Szechuan, Shandong and Guangdong cuisines. These styles are distinctive from one another due to factors such as available resources, geography, cooking techniques and lifestyle. Many Chinese traditional regional cuisines rely on basic methods of food preservation such as drying, salting and fermentation. Further information: Outline of Indian cuisines and List of Indian dishes Indian cuisine has contributed to shaping the history of international relations. Spices were traded around Europe and Asia, it has had the created influence on international cuisines those from Southeast Asia, the British Isles and the Caribbean. The use of Indian spices and vegetable produce have helped shaped the cuisines of many countries around the world. Indian cuisine consists of the foods and dishes of India, is characterized by the extensive use of various Indian spices and vegetables grown across India, herbs and fruits, is known for the widespread practice of vegetarianism in Indian society.
Indian regional cuisine is categorized at the regional level, but at provincial levels. Cuisine differences derive from various local cultures, geographical locations, economics. Indian cuisine is seasonal, utilizes fresh produce; the cuisine of India is diverse with each state having an different food platter. The development of these cuisines have been shaped by Hindu and Jain beliefs, in particular vegetarianism, a common dietary trend in Indian society. There has been Islamic influence from the years of Mughal and Delhi Sultanate rule, as well as Persian interactions on North Indian and Deccani cuisine. Indian cuisine has been and is still evolving, as a result of the nation's cultural interactions with other societies. Historical incidents such as foreign invasions, trade relations and colonialism have played an important role in introducing certain food types and eating habits to the country. For instance, potato, a staple of North Indian diet was brought to India by the Portuguese, who introduced chiles and breadfruit among other things.
Spices were traded in exchange for rubber and opium from Malacca. It has influenced other cuisines across the world those from Southeast Asia, the British Isles and the Caribbean; the nowadays Eastern Europe cuisine encompass types of food from all around the world. Check the links below for more specific information on Western Europe cuisine: Haute cuisine Nouvelle cuisine Cuisine of Menorca Georgia offers a Mediterranean cuisine with a authentic twist. Georgian cuisine includes more than 80 varieties of local cheeses that are mixed with pastries and local pizza style cheese breads, is famous for an abundant usage of walnuts in sauces, salads, or other meat dishes, local dumplings like Khinkali, regional delicacies like Sinori. Georgia is the birthplace of wine and its table culture is connected to the philosophical toast making rituals tha
John Harvard (statue)
John Harvard is a sculpture in bronze by Daniel Chester French in Harvard Yard, Massachusetts honoring John Harvard, whose deathbed bequest to the "schoale or Colledge" undertaken by the Massachusetts Bay Colony was so gratefully received that it was ordered "that the Colledge agreed upon to bee built at Cambridg shalbee called Harvard Colledge." There being nothing to indicate what John Harvard had looked like, French used a Harvard student collaterally descended from an early Harvard president as inspiration. The statue's inscription—JOHN HARVARD • FOUNDER • 1638—is the subject of an arch polemic, traditionally recited for visitors, questioning whether John Harvard justly merits the honorific founder. According to a Harvard official, the founding of the college was not the act of one but the work of many, John Harvard is therefore considered not the founder, but rather a founder, of the school, though the timeliness and generosity of his contribution have made him the most honored of these.
Tourists rub the toe of John Harvard's left shoe for luck, in the mistaken belief that doing so is a Harvard student tradition. The New York Times described the statue at its unveiling: The young clergyman is represented sitting, holding an open on his knee; the costume is the simple clerical garb of the seventeenth century... low shoes, silk hose, loose knee breeches, a tunic belted at the waist, while a long cloak, thrown back, falls in broad, picturesque folds. John Harvard's gift to the school was £780 and—perhaps more importantly—his 400-volume scholar's library: Partly under the chair, within easy reach, lie a pile of books; that he had died of tuberculosis, at about age thirty, was one of the few things known about John Harvard at the time of the statue's composition. Historian Laurel Ulrich suggests that John Harvard's general composition may have been inspired by Hendrik Goltzius' engraving of Clio, that the figure's collar, buttons and mustache may have been taken from a portrait of Plymouth Colony Governor Edward Winslow.
On June 27, 1883, at the Commencement Day dinner of Harvard alumni a letter was read from "a generous benefactor, General Samuel James Bridge, an adopted alumnus of the college": To the President and Fellows of Harvard College. Gentlemen, — I have the pleasure of offering you an ideal statue in bronze, representing your founder, the Rev. John Harvard, to be designed by Daniel C. French of Concord... I am assured that the same can be in place by June 1, 1884. Bridge specified an "ideal" statue because there was nothing to indicate what John Harvard had looked like. "In looking about for a type of the early comers to our shores," he wrote, "I chose a lineal descendant of them for my model in the general structure of the face. He has more of what I want than anybody I know." The commission weighed on French as the figure neared completion. "I am sometimes scared by the importance of this work. It is a subject that one might not have in a lifetime," wrote the sculptor—who thirty years would create the statue of Abraham Lincoln for the Lincoln Memorial—"and a failure would be inexcusable.
As a general thing, my model looks pretty well to me, but there are dark days."French's final model was ready the following May and realized in bronze by the Henry-Bonnard Bronze Company over the next several months. The cost was more than $20,000; the statue was installed—"looking wistfully into the western sky", said Harvard president Charles W. Eliot—at the western end of Memorial Hall on the triangular city block known as the Delta. At its October 15, 1884 unveiling Ellis gave "a singularly felicitous address, telling the story of the life of John Harvard, who passes so mysteriously across the page of our early history." In 1920 French wrote to Harvard president Abbott Lawrence Lowell desiring that the statue be relocated. That year the Lampoon imagined the frustrations of the metallic, immobile John Harvard surrounded by Harvard undergraduates— Great men arise / Before my eyes / From yonder pile I foundedWhile I must sit / Quite out of it / My jealousy unbounded —though twelve years David McCord portrayed the founder as satisfied in his stationarity: "Is that you, John Harvard?" / I said to his statue."Aye, that's me," said John, / "And after you're gone."
Sometime in the 1990s tour guides began encouraging visitors to emulate a "student tradition"—nonexistent—of rubbing the toe of John Harvard's left shoe for luck, so that while the statue as a whole is darkly weathered the toe now "gleams throbbingly bright, as though from an excruciating inflammation of the bronze." It is, traditional for seniors, as they process to gradu
Adrienne Cecile Rich was an American poet and feminist. She was called "one of the most read and influential poets of the second half of the 20th century", was credited with bringing "the oppression of women and lesbians to the forefront of poetic discourse." Rich criticized rigid forms of feminist identities, valorized what she coined the "lesbian continuum". Her first collection of poetry, A Change of World, was selected by renowned poet W. H. Auden for the Yale Series of Younger Poets Award. Auden went on to write the introduction to the published volume, she famously declined the National Medal of Arts, protesting the vote by House Speaker Newt Gingrich to end funding for the National Endowment for the Arts. Adrienne Rich was born in Baltimore, the elder of two sisters, her father, renowned pathologist Arnold Rice Rich, was the chairman of pathology at The Johns Hopkins Medical School. Her mother, Helen Elizabeth Rich, was a composer, her father was from a Jewish family, her mother was Southern Protestant.
Adrienne Rich's early poetic influence stemmed from her father who encouraged her to read but to write her own poetry. Her interest in literature was sparked within her father's library where she read the work of writers such as Ibsen, Blake, Keats and Tennyson, her father was ambitious for Adrienne and "planned to create a prodigy." Adrienne Rich and her younger sister were home schooled by their mother until Adrienne began public education in the fourth grade. The poems Sources and After Dark document her relationship with her father, describing how she worked hard to fulfill her parents' ambitions for her—moving into a world in which she was expected to excel. In years, Rich went to Roland Park Country School, which she described as a "good old fashioned girls' school gave us fine role models of single women who were intellectually impassioned." After graduating from high school, Rich gained her college diploma at Radcliffe College, where she focused on poetry and learning writing craft, encountering no women teachers at all.
In 1951, her last year at college, Rich's first collection of poetry, A Change of World, was selected by the senior poet W. H. Auden for the Yale Series of Younger Poets Award. Following her graduation, Rich received a Guggenheim Fellowship to study at Oxford for a year. Following a visit to Florence, she chose not to return to Oxford, spent her remaining time in Europe writing and exploring Italy. In 1953, Rich married Alfred Haskell Conrad, an economics professor at Harvard University she met as an undergraduate, she said of the match: "I married in part because I knew no better way to disconnect from my first family. I wanted what I saw as a full woman's life, whatever was possible." They settled in Cambridge and had three sons. In 1955, she published her second volume, The Diamond Cutters, a collection she said she wished had not been published; that year she received the Ridgely Torrence Memorial Award from the Poetry Society of America. Her three children were born in 1955, 1957 and 1959.
The 1960s began a period of change in Rich's life: she received the National Institute of Arts and Letters award, her second Guggenheim Fellowship to work at the Netherlands Economic Institute, the Bollingen Foundation grant for the translation of Dutch poetry. In 1963, Rich published her third collection, Snapshots of a Daughter-in-Law, a much more personal work examining her female identity, reflecting the increasing tensions she experienced as a wife and mother in the 1950s, marking a substantial change in Rich's style and subject matter. In her 1982 essay "Split at the Root: An Essay on Jewish Identity", Rich states: "The experience of motherhood was to radicalize me." The book met with harsh reviews. She comments, "I was seen as'bitter' and'personal'. I realised I'd gotten slapped over the wrist, I didn't attempt that kind of thing again for a long time."Moving her family to New York in 1966, Rich became involved with the New Left and became involved in anti-war, civil rights, feminist activism.
Her husband took a teaching position at City College of New York. In 1968, she signed the "Writers and Editors War Tax Protest" pledge, vowing to refuse tax payments in protest against the Vietnam War, her collections from this period include Necessities of Life and The Will to Change, which reflect radical political content and interest in poetic form. From 1967 to 1969, Rich lectured at Swarthmore College and taught at Columbia University School of the Arts as an adjunct professor in the Writing Division. Additionally, in 1968, she began teaching in the SEEK program in City College of New York, a position she continued until 1975. During this time, Rich received the Eunice Tietjens Memorial Prize from Poetry Magazine. Militant and Conrad hosted anti-war and Black Panther fundraising parties at their apartment. Shortly afterward, in October, Conrad shot himself, widowing Rich. In 1971, she was the recipient of the Shelley Memorial Award from the Poetry Society of America and spent the next year and a half teaching at Brandeis University as the Hurst Visiting Professor of Creativ
History of women in the United States
This is a piece on history of women in the United States since 1776, of the Thirteen Colonies before that. The study of women's history has been a major scholarly and popular field, with many scholarly books and articles, museum exhibits, courses in schools and universities; the roles of women were long ignored in popular histories. By the 1960s, women were being presented as successful as male roles. An early feminist approach underscored their inferior status at the hands of men. In the 21st century writers have emphasized the distinctive strengths displayed inside the community of women, with special concern for minorities among women; the experiences of women during the colonial era varied from colony to colony, but there were some overall patterns. Most of the British settlers were from England and Wales, with smaller numbers from Scotland and Ireland. Groups of families settled together in New England, while families tended to settle independently in the Southern colonies; the American colonies absorbed several thousands of Swedish settlers.
After 1700, most immigrants to Colonial America arrived as indentured servants—young unmarried men and women seeking a new life in a much richer environment. After the 1660s, a steady flow of black slaves arrived, chiefly from the Caribbean. Food supplies were much more abundant than in Europe, there was an abundance of fertile land that needed farm families. However, the disease environment was hostile in the malaria-ridden South, where a large portion of the arrivals died within five years; the American-born children were immune from the fatal forms of malaria. The first English people to arrive in America were the members of the Roanoke Colony who came to North Carolina in July 1587, with 17 women, 91 men, 9 boys as the founding colonists. On August 18, 1587, Virginia Dare was born, her mother was the daughter of John White, governor of the Roanoke colony. It is not known. Jamestown, the first English settlement in America, was established in 1607 in; the first Africans since those in Lucas Vasquez de Allyon's unsuccessful colony in 1526–1527 were brought to Jamestown in 1619.
At first they came from Central Africa and there were twenty of them, including three women. At first they were treated as indentured servants until the 1654 case of Anthony Johnson v. John Casor Also in 1619, 90 young single women from England went to Jamestown to become wives of the men there, with the women being auctioned off for 150 pounds of tobacco each, as, the cost of each woman's travel to America; such voyagers were called "tobacco brides". There were many such voyages to America for this purpose, with the tobacco brides promised free passage and trousseaus for their trouble. In New England, the Puritan settlers from England brought their strong religious values and organized social structure with them, they believed a woman should dedicate herself to rearing God-fearing children to the best of her ability. There were ethnic differences in the treatment of women. Among Puritan settlers in New England, wives never worked in the fields with their husbands. In German communities in Pennsylvania, many women worked in fields and stables.
German and Dutch immigrants granted women more control over property, not permitted in the local English law. Unlike English colonial wives and Dutch wives owned their own clothes and other items and were given the ability to write wills disposing of the property brought into the marriage; the New England regional economy grew in the 17th century, thanks to heavy immigration, high birth rates, low death rates, an abundance of inexpensive farmland. The population grew from 3000 in 1630 to 14,000 in 1640, 33,000 in 1660, 68,000 in 1680, 91,000 in 1700. Between 1630 and 1643, about 20,000 Puritans arrived, settling near Boston; the average size of a completed family 1660–1700 was 7.1 children. About 27 percent of the population comprised men between 60 years old; the benefits of economic growth were distributed, with farm laborers better off at the end of the colonial period. The growing population led to shortages of good farm land on which young families could establish themselves. In the towns and cities, there was strong entrepreneurship, a steady increase in the specialization of labor.
Wages for men went up before 1775. The region bordered New France. Women were sometimes captured. In the numerous French and Indian Wars the British government poured money in to purchase supplies, build roads and pay colonial soldiers; the coastal ports began to specialize in fishing, international trade and shipbuilding—and after 1780 in whaling. Combined with a growing urban markets for farm products, these factors allowed the economy to flourish despite the lack of technological innovation. Tax-supported schooling for girls began as early as 1767 in New England, it was optional and some towns proved reluctant. Northampton, for example, was a late adopter because it had many rich families who domin