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Radiation therapy

Radiation therapy or radiotherapy abbreviated RT, RTx, or XRT, is a therapy using ionizing radiation as part of cancer treatment to control or kill malignant cells and delivered by a linear accelerator. Radiation therapy may be curative in a number of types of cancer if they are localized to one area of the body, it may be used as part of adjuvant therapy, to prevent tumor recurrence after surgery to remove a primary malignant tumor. Radiation therapy is synergistic with chemotherapy, has been used before and after chemotherapy in susceptible cancers; the subspecialty of oncology concerned with radiotherapy is called radiation oncology. Radiation therapy is applied to the cancerous tumor because of its ability to control cell growth. Ionizing radiation works by damaging the DNA of cancerous tissue leading to cellular death. To spare normal tissues, shaped radiation beams are aimed from several angles of exposure to intersect at the tumor, providing a much larger absorbed dose there than in the surrounding, healthy tissue.

Besides the tumour itself, the radiation fields may include the draining lymph nodes if they are clinically or radiologically involved with tumor, or if there is thought to be a risk of subclinical malignant spread. It is necessary to include a margin of normal tissue around the tumor to allow for uncertainties in daily set-up and internal tumor motion; these uncertainties can be caused by internal movement and movement of external skin marks relative to the tumor position. Radiation oncology is the medical specialty concerned with prescribing radiation, is distinct from radiology, the use of radiation in medical imaging and diagnosis. Radiation may be prescribed by a radiation oncologist with intent for adjuvant therapy, it may be used as palliative treatment or as therapeutic treatment. It is common to combine radiation therapy with surgery, hormone therapy, immunotherapy or some mixture of the four. Most common cancer types can be treated with radiation therapy in some way; the precise treatment intent will depend on the tumor type and stage, as well as the general health of the patient.

Total body irradiation is a radiation therapy technique used to prepare the body to receive a bone marrow transplant. Brachytherapy, in which a radioactive source is placed inside or next to the area requiring treatment, is another form of radiation therapy that minimizes exposure to healthy tissue during procedures to treat cancers of the breast and other organs. Radiation therapy has several applications in non-malignant conditions, such as the treatment of trigeminal neuralgia, acoustic neuromas, severe thyroid eye disease, pigmented villonodular synovitis, prevention of keloid scar growth, vascular restenosis, heterotopic ossification; the use of radiation therapy in non-malignant conditions is limited by worries about the risk of radiation-induced cancers. Different cancers respond to radiation therapy in different ways; the response of a cancer to radiation is described by its radiosensitivity. Radiosensitive cancer cells are killed by modest doses of radiation; these include most lymphomas and germ cell tumors.

The majority of epithelial cancers are only moderately radiosensitive, require a higher dose of radiation to achieve a radical cure. Some types of cancer are notably radioresistant, that is, much higher doses are required to produce a radical cure than may be safe in clinical practice. Renal cell cancer and melanoma are considered to be radioresistant but radiation therapy is still a palliative option for many patients with metastatic melanoma. Combining radiation therapy with immunotherapy is an active area of investigation and has shown some promise for melanoma and other cancers, it is important to distinguish the radiosensitivity of a particular tumor, which to some extent is a laboratory measure, from the radiation "curability" of a cancer in actual clinical practice. For example, leukemias are not curable with radiation therapy, because they are disseminated through the body. Lymphoma may be radically curable. Many of the common, moderately radioresponsive tumors are treated with curative doses of radiation therapy if they are at an early stage.

For example: non-melanoma skin cancer and neck cancer, breast cancer, non-small cell lung cancer, cervical cancer, anal cancer, prostate cancer. Metastatic cancers are incurable with radiation therapy because it is not possible to treat the whole body. Before treatment, a CT scan is performed to identify the tumor and surrounding normal structures; the patient receives small skin marks to guide the placement of treatment fields. Patient positioning is crucial at this stage as the patient will have to be set-up in the identical position during treatment. Many patient positioning devices have been developed for this purpose, including masks and cushions which can be molded to the patient; the response of a tumor to radiation therapy is related to its size. Due to complex radiobiology large tumors respond less well to radiation than smaller tumors or microscopic disease. Various strategies are used to overcome this effect; the most common technique is surgical resection prior to radiation therapy.

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Heilmann locomotive

The Heilmann locomotives were a series of three experimental steam-electric locomotives produced in the 1890s for the French Chemins de Fer de l'Ouest. A prototype was built in 1894 and two larger locomotives were built in 1897; these locomotives can be considered the ancestors of diesel-electric locomotives, other self powered locomotives which use an electric transmission. In 1890 Jean Jacques Heilmann registered a patent for a self powered electric vehicle, his design used a balanced steam engine to drive the locomotive via an electrical transmission. Heilmann wished to create a machine suited for high-speed trains without the high costs of an electrified infrastructure, his earliest design was of a trainset consisting of a vehicle with a triple expansion steam engine and generator, a tender and three carriages. The entire train was to run on bogies, use a distributed traction system provided by 12 axle-mounted electric motors in the three carriages; the first real locomotive built to Heilmann's design was a prototype steam-electric locomotive, with boiler, steam engine and motors built into a single locomotive.

The steam engine and boiler were built at the Forges et Chantiers de la Méditerranée in Le Havre, the electrical equipment was designed and built at Brown, Boveri & Compagnie of Baden, whilst the locomotive frame and bogies were built at the Compagnie de Materiel de Chemins de Fer. The locomotive had a 600 to 800 metric horsepower two-cylinder horizontal compound steam engine with transversely mounted cylinders of 425 and 650 millimetres diameter by 300 mm stroke, it was supplied with steam by a Lentz-type boiler, operating at a pressure of 12.6 standard atmospheres. The engine had a fixed cutoff with no reversing mechanism, no speed governor excluding a centrifugal overspeed safety device; the firebox was of a stayless corrugated type. It had a grate area of 2.25 square metres. The boiler had a total surface area of 145 square metres; the steam engine drove directly a direct current dynamo, rated at 500 kW. The generator's field coils were energised by a separate bipolar dynamo capable of generating 100 A at 100 V, directly driven at 300 RPM by a 20 CV two cylinder vertical compound steam engine of similar design to the main engine.

This secondary generator's output was used to provide a supply for electric lighting in carriages. Electric speed and load control was obtained by reducing the main generator's field excitation current coming from the 10 kilowatts dynamo using a twelve step drum rheostat; the eight traction motors were connected in parallel. The motors were located in two four-axle bogies, with wheelset having a sealed axle mounted 80 to 100 metric horsepower electric motor. Braking was with disc brakes fitted on all wheels; the locomotive was a cab forward design. The first official tests of the locomotive began on 2 February 1894; the test train consisted of the locomotive, four new first class carriages, a dynamometer car, two vans containing one tonne of batteries between them. Speeds were increased over subsequent runs: the first run average 51.5 kilometres per hour, on the fourth run the average speed was 59.4 kilometres per hour, with speeds of 55 kilometres per hour on the 8‰ slopes, 70 kilometres per hour on level track.

On 9 May 1894, La Fusée Electrique made a trial run from Saint-Lazare station, Paris to Mantes-la-Jolie, hauling a train consisting eight carriages. The 53 kilometres journey took 55 minutes. A speed of 107 kilometres per hour was reported to have been achieved. Following the test run, the locomotive hauled a regular service train back to Paris. Trials showed; the locomotive was said to ride "like a Pullman carriage." Criticisms of the locomotive were that it was "too complicated, too costly, too heavy". These same arguments would be repeated with the introduction of main-line diesel-electric locomotives some half a century later; the locomotive completed around 2,000 kilometres of test runs. Two larger locomotives were ordered for further trials on the CF de l'Ouest. La Fusée Electrique had been dismantled by 1897, with the bogies being used for two 0-8-0 electric locomotives which were employed on the 4 kilometres underground railway between Saint-Germain Ouest and Grande-Ceinture. A ​1⁄10 scale model of the prototype locomotive made in 1903

John Neville (died 1420)

Sir John Neville was the eldest son of Ralph Neville, 1st Earl of Westmorland, a powerful nobleman in northern England, Margaret Stafford, his first wife. As heir apparent to the earldom of Westmorland, he was styled'Lord Neville'. John was born in or before 1387. Little is known of his upbringing or youth, but he was expected to inherit his father's powerful position in northern England. John acquired a castle at Kirkbymoorside, about 13 miles north of his father's caput of Sheriff Hutton. Ralph had been Warden of the West March since 1403, John took his place in 1414, he played a significant part in helping his father achieve the return of the young Henry Percy from Scotland, in order that Percy marry John's half-sister, Eleanor. However, sometime before 1396 his father had married Joan Beaufort, an illegitimate daughter of John of Gaunt, soon after, as a direct consequence, the earl commenced a long string of enfeoffments in favour of the children he was now having with Joan the eldest, Richard Earl of Salisbury.

This disinherited John who, seems to have "acquiesced" in the process as, on one occasion at least, he acted as a witness to one of the transfers. It is possible that Ralph did not intend to deprive John of as much as he did: Ralph made a will in 1404 which, many years John's son appears to have believed much favoured his side of the family; this will was in any case superseded by a much one, written after John had predeceased his father, which happened whilst he was in France, shortly before 20 May 1420. His demise led to a dispute between his sons and siblings for the distribution of the inheritance of the Earl of Westmorland; this created lasting divisions within the Neville family, resulting in the Neville–Neville feud, which subsumed into the Wars of the Roses. It has been suggested that John Neville is one of the figures represented in the Neville Book of Hours of c. 1431. John Neville married Elizabeth Holland, daughter of Thomas Holland, 2nd Earl of Kent, around 1394, they had three sons and one daughter: Ralph Neville, 2nd Earl of Westmorland Margaret Neville, who married Sir Thomas Lucy and left no issue John Neville, Baron Neville, second son, slain at the Battle of Towton.

His son succeeded to the earldom of Westmorland. Sir Thomas Neville of Brancepeth, third son, father of Sir Humphrey Neville of Brancepeth John de Neville, Lord Neville Sir John Neville, Captain of Verneuil, Keeper of Roxburgh Castle


Loughmore-Castleiney is an Ecclesiastical parish in the Roman Catholic Archdiocese of Cashel and Emly. It is located in Ireland; the area is made up of the villages of their hinterland. Loughmore is situated 1 kilometer from the N62 road halfway between the towns of Templemore and Thurles. Castleiney is 3 kilometers from Templemore; the GAA club Loughmore-Castleiney GAA is based in the parish. It has traditionally been associated with gaelic football but has a successful hurling team, it is one of the premier dual clubs in the county of Tipperary. Michéal Webster and Paul Ormonde from the club both are on the Tipperary GAA hurling team

Kate Bashabe

Kate Bashabe is a Rwandan businesswoman and is the founder of Kabash Fashion House and Kabash Cares helps charity. In 2010, Bashabe won the Miss MTN pageant and became an ambassador for MTN in the same year. While completing her high school education, she was juggling outsourcing her protocol services to several companies such as MTN, FERWACY and wedding ceremonies and corporate events. In 2011, Bashabe became the country sales and marketing manager at RAK ceramics. After working for RAK ceramics for two years in 2012,she started her own imports company, where she imported goods such as cars, home supplies on behalf of customers. A few months she decided to follow her childhood dreams in fashion and opened Kabash Fashion House. In 2013, she expanded and put up a second shop where she focused on interior design and African craft and artwork, all under the Kabash Fashion House label. Bashabe was invited to take part in an international exhibition event in the United States in 2016 by the Rwandan government as to promote Kabash brands overseas and expand her customer base.

After achieving success in her career, Bashabe decided to give back to her community. In 2017, she organized a charity event where local artists performed live going to fund impoverished children in Rwanda; the funds collected during the initiative were directed into supporting over 500 young Rwandan students. She set up Kabash Cares in 2018. Kabash Cares is an initiative that sponsors needy students financially and materially

ABC Radio Perth

ABC Radio Perth is a radio station located in Perth, Western Australia, operated by the Australian Broadcasting Corporation, broadcasting at 720 kHz AM. It is the flagship ABC Local Radio station in Western Australia. 6WF transmitted its first broadcast on Wednesday 4 June 1924. It was owned by Westralian Farmers Co-operative, operated from a studio in the Westralian Farmers building in Perth; the Premier of Western Australia, Philip Collier made a speech on-air to mark the opening of the station. The station was equipped with a transmitter, the most powerful allowed under Commonwealth regulations, it was intended as a source of "information and entertainment to rural areas". The station's original broadcast footprint covered most of the state of Western Australia. In 1929 the radio station was sold to the Australian Broadcasting Company; as a result, the radio station moved from the Westralian Farmers buildings to the ESA Bank building on the corner of Hay and Milligan Streets in Perth. When the Australian Broadcasting Commission was founded in 1932, 6WF became part of the national network.

The station moved again in 1937 to the Stirling Institute building located in the Supreme Court Gardens, St Georges Terrace. Despite the fact the building had been built 21 years earlier as a temporary structure it became the home of 6WF for the next 23 years. In 1960 a specially built 23 studio building complex was completed at 191 Adelaide Terrace and the station moved there during that year; this building was to provide the home for the Western Australian Symphony Orchestra for a number of years, running alongside three separate radio stations. These buildings lasted 45 years. A site was commissioned and the radio station moved to its new offices and studios in East Perth in March 2005; the Adelaide Terrace site was sold to property developers in 2008 who have proposed demolishing the structure and erecting residential buildings. The transmission tower was demolished in January 2011. ABC Radio Perth produces news bulletins unique to Western Australia, which are broadcast between 5:00am and 10:00pm on weekdays, between 6:00am and 1:00pm on weekends.

National bulletins are broadcast outside these times. The station broadcasts national news magazine programs - AM, The World Today and PM. Throughout the day and evening, ABC Radio Perth broadcasts a variety of talk shows. Breakfast on weekdays, presented by Eoin Cameron from 2002 until March 2016, has been the highest rating breakfast program on Perth radio. ABC Radio Perth broadcasts a range of sports coverage syndicated through the network under the name ABC Radio Grandstand, including Australian rules football and cricket; the station is one of two. The station broadcasts West Australian Football League matches. ABC Radio Perth and ABC Local Radio stations in Western Australia produce less content than their counterparts in the rest of Australia; this is because Western Australia's time zone is two hours behind Australian Eastern Standard Time, or three hours behind Australian Eastern Daylight Time, most national programs are broadcast live across Australia, at a time earlier in Australian Western Standard Time.

Unlike all other state capital ABC Local Radio stations, 720 ABC Perth does not produce a weekday evening program, or any weekend programs except for Saturday Breakfast. A weekday early morning program was produced, but terminated as a result of funding cuts in November 2013 and replaced with a program compiling content produced during the day. ABW – ABC television station located in the same building "The 6WF Story – Part 1 of 3". WA TV History. 20 August 2012. Retrieved 6 October 2012. "The 6WF Story – Part 2 of 3". WA TV History. 20 August 2012. Retrieved 6 October 2012. "The 6WF Story – Part 3 of 3". WA TV History. 20 August 2012. Retrieved 6 October 2012. ABC Radio Perth