Radicalization is a process by which an individual, or group comes to adopt extreme political, social, or religious ideals and aspirations that reject or undermine the status quo or contemporary ideas and expressions of the nation. The outcomes of radicalization are shaped by the ideas of the society at large. Radicalization can be both violent and nonviolent, although most academic literature focuses on radicalization into violent extremism. There are multiple pathways that constitute the process of radicalization, which can be independent but are mutually reinforcing. Radicalization that occurs across multiple reinforcing pathways increases a group’s resilience and lethality. Furthermore, by compromising its ability to blend in with non-radical society and participate in a modern, national economy, radicalization serves as a kind of sociological trap that gives individuals no other place to go to satisfy their material and spiritual needs. There is no universally accepted definition of radicalization.
Therefore, no one definition can be presented here. One of the difficulties with defining radicalization appears to be the importance of the context to determine what is perceived as radicalization. Therefore, radicalization can mean different things to different people. Presented below is a list of definitions used by different governments; the UK Home Office, MI5’s parent agency, defines radicalization as “The process by which people come to support terrorism and violent extremism and, in some cases join terrorist groups.” The MI5 report closes by saying that no single measure will reduce radicalization in the UK and that the only way to combat it is by targeting the at risk vulnerable groups and trying to assimilate them into society. This may include helping young people find jobs, better integrating immigrant populations into the local culture, reintegrating ex-prisoners into society; the Royal Canadian Mounted Police defines radicalization as "the process by which individuals—usually young people—are introduced to an overtly ideological message and belief system that encourages movement from moderate, mainstream beliefs towards extreme views.
While radical thinking is by no means problematic in itself, it becomes a threat to national security when Canadian citizens or residents espouse or engage in violence or direct action as a means of promoting political, ideological or religious extremism. Sometimes referred to as “homegrown terrorism,” this process of radicalization is more referred to as domestic radicalization leading to terrorist violence; the Danish Security and Intelligence Service defines radicalization as “A process by which a person to an increasing extent accepts the use of undemocratic or violent means, including terrorism, in an attempt to reach a specific political/ideological objective.” Despite being composed of multifarious pathways that lead to different outcomes and sometimes diametrically opposed ideological purposes, radicalization can be traced to a common set of pathways that translate real or perceived grievances into extreme ideas and readiness to participate in political action beyond the status quo.
Shira Fishman, a researcher at the National Consortium for the Study of Terrorism and Responses to Terrorism, wrote "Radicalization is a dynamic process that varies for each individual, but shares some underlying commonalities that can be explored." Though there are many end products of the process of radicalization, to include all manner of extremist groups both violent and nonviolent, a common series of dynamics have been demonstrated in the course of academic inquiry. Jihadis have a "tried and tested model" of contact with different vulnerable, extremist individuals through online messaging services or social media platforms, rapidly manipulating them towards participating in violent action in their name, it was reported that Raffia Hayat of the Ahmadiyya Muslim association warned that jailed extremists attempt to recruit violent criminals into radical groups so they carry out attacks on the public once released. There have been several notable criticisms of radicalization theories for focusing disproportionately on Islam.
There have been concerns that converts to Islam are more susceptible to violent radicalization than individuals born into the faith. Dr. Abdul Haqq Baker developed the Convert's Cognitive Development Framework that describes how new converts conceptualize Islam and the stages where they are most vulnerable to radicalization. Right-wing terrorism is motivated by a variety of different right-wing ideologies, most prominently neo-fascism, neo-Nazism and white nationalism. Modern radical right-wing terrorism appeared in Western Europe and the United States in the 1970s, Eastern Europe following the dissolution of the Soviet Union. Groups associated with right-wing radicals include white power skinhead gangs, far-right hooligans, sympathizers. Examples of right-wing radicals include Jim Adkisson, the Aryan Nations, the Atomwaffen Division, Alexandre Bissonnette, Robert Bowers, Cliven Bundy, David Koresh, the Ku Klux Klan, David Lane, James Mason, Timothy McVeigh, The Order, Dylann Roof, Eric Rudolph, Cesar Sayoc, Brenton Tarrant.
From 2008 to 2016, there were more right-wing terror attacks both attempted and accomplished in the US than Islamist and left-wing attacks combined. Right-wing populism by those who support ethnocentrism and oppose immigration creates a climate of "us versus them" leading to radicalization; the growth of white nationalism in a political climate of polarization has provided an opportunity for both on- and offline radicalization a
In botany, the radicle is the first part of a seedling to emerge from the seed during the process of germination. The radicle is the embryonic root of the plant, grows downward in the soil. Above the radicle is the embryonic hypocotyl, supporting the cotyledon, it is the embryonic root inside the seed. It is the first thing to emerge from a seed and down into the ground to allow the seed to suck up water and send out its leaves so that it can start photosynthesizing; the radicle emerges from a seed through the micropyle. Radicles in seedlings are classified into two main types; those pointing away from the seed coat scar or hilum are classified as antitropous, those pointing towards the hilum are syntropous. If the radicle begins to decay, the seedling undergoes preemergence damping-off; this disease appears on the radicle as darkened spots. It causes death of the seedling; the plumule is the baby shoot. It grows after the radicle. In 1880 Charles Darwin published a book about plants he had studied, The Power of Movement in Plants, where he mentions the radicle.
It is hardly an exaggeration to say that the tip of the radicle thus endowed acts like the brain of one of the lower animals. Plant perception
Radical: My Journey out of Islamist Extremism
Radical: My Journey out of Islamist Extremism is a 2012 memoir by the British activist and former Islamist Maajid Nawaz. First published in the UK, the book describes Nawaz's journey "from Muslim extremist to taking tea at Number 10".. The US edition contains a preface for a new, updated epilogue. Radical was described by The Daily Telegraph as a "horrifying reflection on modern Britain"; the book went on to become an Amazon bestseller. It was entered for the 2013 Orwell Prize for political writing of outstanding quality. In 2014, Morten Harket, lead singer of the Norwegian band A-ha, revealed that his single Brother is inspired by Radical; the book has been translated into Portuguese, published by Texto Publishers. In 2015, the author announced on Twitter. Born and raised in Essex, Nawaz found expression of his rebellious impulses in early life in hip hop and relationships with girls. A crisis of identity and news of a massacre of Muslims in Bosnia led him toward radical Islamist group Hizb ut-Tahrir.
He rose through the ranks of the organisation, became a rabble-rousing speaker and international recruiter. Nawaz travelled around the UK taking part in organisation of the party. While studying the Arabic language in Egypt he, along with other friends, was arrested by Hosni Mubarak's secret police. There he faced mental torture and solitary confinement. Mixing with different stripes of religious and liberal Muslims, Nawaz underwent an intellectual transformation. There, he sat with Islamists, assassins of Anwar Sadat, leaders of Muslim Brotherhood and Hizb ut Tahrir, liberal Muslims, men convicted for homosexuality and Muslims convicted for leaving Islam. On his release, he publicly renounced Islamist ideology and devoted his life to countering the Islamist view of the world; this move cost him his marriage, fellow activists abandoned him. Other sacrifices include estrangement from his family and his friends, loss of personal security, he built a network of supporters and colleagues, started a foundation, Quilliam, to challenge the rising tide of Islamism worldwide.
He makes use of recruitment tactics. Former UK Prime Minister Tony Blair described it as "a book for our times", notes that such a book could only be written by someone who has lived the experience of going in and out of extremism. Tina Brown, editor-in-chief of Newsweek termed it one of the essential books to understanding the path to radicalism. According to former Islamist and co-founder of Quilliam, Ed Husain, this book is more powerful than US drone strikes because it helps to suppress the ideas on which terrorism is built. According to Kate Allen, the director of Amnesty International UK, the book charts a redemptive journey from innocence, to bigotry, to radicalism, back. Historian Tom Holland admired the book and termed it to be a cross between Homeland and Skins; the Daily Telegraph wrote "Because of its violent, continent-crossing story, this book seems quite out of the ordinary, but in its underlying tone, I find it reassuringly familiar."The Daily Mail wrote: "His book gives us a rare insight into how a westernised teenager can so violently turn against his country - as well as a flavour of the immense courage he needed to overcome his past."The New Humanist in its review wrote: "Nawaz's book is much a companion piece to Ed Husain’s The Islamist, in that it is a much-needed insider’s account of Islamic extremism and, as such, it merits the description of "essential reading" for anyone seeking to understand what motivates bright, educated young men to embrace the fascist ideology of Islamism."The Indian Express wrote: "What a life, what a compelling storyteller.
In parts you’ll need to remind yourself that what reads like an engrossing, fast-paced, action-packed thriller, a piece of fiction, is in fact a real-life account". According to American online magazine International Policy Digest, Radical is a "mesmerizing tale of personal struggle" but "does remarkably little to sufficiently articulate a comprehensive remedy to the problem" of Islamism that Nawaz described. IPD notes how the US version of Radical is devoid of any serious discussion of the role US foreign policy might have played in fanning Islamist extremism. In August 2012, Nawaz presented his story at Edinburgh International Book Festival. In May 2015, Nawaz talked about his journey out of Islamist extremism at World Affairs Councils, Houston. In May 2015, Nawaz talked to Oliver Bullough at Hay Festival about radical extremism. In July 2015, Nawaz talked about his transformation from Essex boy into an Islamist, at Aspen Ideas Festival. Ed Husain Islamism Islam and the Future of Tolerance Regressive left Amazon link Huffington Post audio interview
Radical is a mixtape by the alternative hip hop collective, Odd Future. It was released on May 7, 2010; the mixtape features Odd Future members Tyler, The Creator, Hodgy Beats, Left Brain and Jasper Dolphin, as well as newly introduced members Earl Sweatshirt, Domo Genesis, Mike G and Taco rapping over some of their favorite beats. Matt Martians, Frank Ocean and Syd tha Kyd are the only musical members of Odd Future who didn't appear on the mixtape. However, Sydney was involved in the recording and mastering process and contributes brief vocals on the track "Swag Me Out". Notes "Blade" contains uncredited vocals by The Creator and Jasper Dolphin. "Orange Juice" contains uncredited vocals by Jasper Dolphin. "Swag Me Out" contains uncredited vocals by Syd tha Kyd. Official website
Radical feminism is a perspective within feminism that calls for a radical reordering of society in which male supremacy is eliminated in all social and economic contexts. Radical feminists view society as fundamentally a patriarchy in which men dominate and oppress women. Radical feminists seek to abolish the patriarchy in order to "liberate everyone from an unjust society by challenging existing social norms and institutions." This includes opposing the sexual objectification of women, raising public awareness about such issues as rape and violence against women, challenging the concept of gender roles. Shulamith Firestone wrote in The Dialectic of Sex: The Case for Feminist Revolution: "he end goal of feminist revolution must be, unlike that of the first feminist movement, not just the elimination of male privilege but of the sex distinction itself: genital differences between human beings would no longer matter culturally."Early radical feminism, arising within second-wave feminism in the 1960s viewed patriarchy as a "transhistorical phenomenon" prior to or deeper than other sources of oppression, "not only the oldest and most universal form of domination but the primary form" and the model for all others.
Politics derived from radical feminism ranged from cultural feminism to more syncretic politics that placed issues of class, etc. on a par with patriarchy as sources of oppression. Radical feminists locate the root cause of women's oppression in patriarchal gender relations, as opposed to legal systems or class conflict. Radical feminists assert that society is a patriarchy in which the class of men are the oppressors of the class of women, they propose that the oppression of women is the most fundamental form of oppression, one that has existed since the inception of humanity. As radical feminist Ti-Grace Atkinson wrote in her foundational piece "Radical Feminism": The first dichotomous division of this mass is said to have been on the grounds of sex: male and female... it was because half the human race bears the burden of the reproductive process and because man, the ‘rational’ animal, had the wit to take advantage of that, that the childbearers, or the'beasts of burden,' were corralled into a political class: equivocating the biologically contingent burden into a political penalty, thereby modifying these individuals’ definition from the human to the functional, or animal.
Radical feminists argue that, because of patriarchy, women have come to be viewed as the "other" to the male norm, as such have been systematically oppressed and marginalized. They further assert. Patriarchal theory is not defined as a belief that all men always benefit from the oppression of all women. Rather, it maintains that the primary element of patriarchy is a relationship of dominance, where one party is dominant and exploits the other for the benefit of the former. Radical feminists believe that men use social systems and other methods of control to keep women suppressed. Radical feminists seek to abolish patriarchy by challenging existing social norms and institutions, believe that eliminating patriarchy will liberate everyone from an unjust society. Ti-Grace Atkinson maintained that the need for power fuels the male class to continue oppressing the female class, arguing that "the need men have for the role of oppressor is the source and foundation of all human oppression"; the influence of radical-feminist politics on the women's liberation movement was considerable.
Redstockings co-founder Ellen Willis wrote in 1984 that radical feminists "got sexual politics recognized as a public issue", created second-wave feminism's vocabulary, helped to legalize abortion in the USA, "were the first to demand total equality in the so-called private sphere", "created the atmosphere of urgency" that led to the passage of the Equal Rights Amendment. The influence of radical feminism can be seen in the adoption of these issues by the National Organization for Women, a feminist group, focused entirely on economic issues; the ideology of radical feminism in the United States developed as a component of the women's liberation movement. It grew due to the influence of the civil rights movement, that had gained momentum in the 1960s, many of the women who took up the cause of radical feminism had previous experience with radical protest in the struggle against racism. Chronologically, it can be seen within the context of second wave feminism that started in the early 1960s.
The primary players and the pioneers of this second wave of feminism included Shulamith Firestone, Kathie Sarachild, Ti-Grace Atkinson, Carol Hanisch, Judith Brown. Many local women's groups in the late sixties, such as the UCLA Women's Liberation Front, offered diplomatic statements of radical feminism's ideologies. UCLA's WLF co-founder Devra Weber recalls, "the radical feminists were opposed to patriarchy, but not capitalism. In our group at least, they opposed so-called male dominated national liberation struggles"; these women helped secure the bridge that translated radical protest for racial equality over to the struggle for women's rights. They took up the cause and advocated for a variety of women's issues, including abortion, the Equal Rights Amendment, access to credit, equal pay. Most women of color did not
Goblin is the debut studio album by American rapper Tyler, the Creator. It was released on May 2011, by XL Recordings. Goblin continues Tyler's dialogues with his fictional therapist Dr. TC, first heard on his 2009 mixtape, Bastard; the album's songs were produced entirely from Tyler himself, along with a contribution from fellow Odd Future member Left Brain. The album features guest appearances from Odd Future members Frank Ocean, Hodgy Beats, Jasper Dolphin, Domo Genesis, Mike G and Syd; the album cover features Buffalo Bill at age 19. Goblin was supported by three singles: "Sandwitches", "Yonkers" and "She"; the single "Yonkers" is considered responsible for garnering the significant internet and industry buzz surrounding Odd Future at the time of the album's release. The album received positive reviews from critics, debuting at number five on the US Billboard 200. After the release of Bastard, Tyler signed to British independent label XL Recordings and announced Goblin after the release of "Yonkers".
Close friend and fellow Odd Future member Earl Sweatshirt was notably not featured on the album due to attending Coral Reef Academy in Samoa at the time. Goblin continues the horrorcore subject matter first displayed on Bastard. Fictional therapist, Dr. TC, appears throughout the album; the second track, "Yonkers", features a gritty beat with a large bass sound, reminiscent of the production of Wu-Tang Clan leader RZA. Tyler claims to have made the instrumental in eight minutes as a parody of New York City beats; the third track, "Radicals", talks about youthful rebellion. The chorus contains the chanted lines "Kill people, burn shit, fuck school", used by Tyler on Earl Sweatshirt's song "Pigions" from his 2010 mixtape, Earl. Pranav Trewn of Stereogum commented on the song, stating " isn't an anthem of retaliation, but rather self-immolation. "Bitch Suck Dick" is an over-the-top trap parody featuring stereotypical misogynistic lyrics from Jasper Dolphin and Taco, similar to Bastard's "Tina" and Wolf's "Trashwang".
On the album's final track, "Golden", it's revealed that Dr. TC is just Tyler's conscience, everyone he was interacting with were a figment of his imagination. On October 8, 2010, Tyler and Hodgy released "Sandwitches" on Odd Future's official website for free. On February 10, 2011, Tyler released the music video for the first single, "Yonkers", from the album. An extended version with an extra verse was released on iTunes four days along with an extended version of the released track "Sandwitches". On February 16, Tyler and Hodgy performed "Sandwitches" on Late Night with Jimmy Fallon, making it the first television appearance for any Odd Future member. One month on March 16, 2011, Tyler and Hodgy performed the tracks "Yonkers" and "Sandwitches" on the mtvU Woodie Awards with the rest of Odd Future. On that same day, a preview of "Tron Cat" was released online as promotion for the album. In March, the album cover was posted online featuring a colored picture of Buffalo Bill when he was 19, it was featured as a backdrop for Tyler's MTV performance.
On March 24, Tyler posted the track list on his Twitter, the track "Sandwitches" was to be included on the album. Goblin was released as a deluxe edition with alternate artwork and packaging, a poster, a second disc containing three bonus tracks. Tyler released the deluxe edition cover of the album on his Flickr on April 4, 2011. On April 21, Tyler posted several pictures from the filming of a new music video, followed by an announcement that the video is finished on the next day. On April 22, Tyler released a promo video involving himself portraying a character named Thurnis Haley, a golfer. On April 28, "Tron Cat" was leaked online. On May 3, Tyler and Hodgy performed "Sandwitches" and "Analog" on BBC, along with them performing "65" off of the upcoming MellowHype album; the third single to be released from the album was "She" featuring Frank Ocean. The music video for "She" was released June 3, 2011. Goblin received positive reviews from critics. At Metacritic, which assigns a normalized rating out of 100 to reviews from mainstream publications, the album received an average score of 72, based on 37 reviews.
Jon Dolan from Rolling Stone complimenting the album's "lush, left-field R&B-tinged tracks" along with its "early-Eminem evil" lyrics. David Jeffries of AllMusic commenting that "Tyler's production is as attractive as contrasting his disgusting rhymes and gruff voice with subdued, sometimes serene beats that echo and creep." Brad Wete of Entertainment Weekly said, "Too bad Kanye—who's a fan—already used the title last fall, because Goblin is one Beautiful Dark Twisted Fantasy." Slant Magazine critic Huw Jones praising its production and stating that "Goblin could well be one of the decade's most significant releases...a masterpiece for those capable of stomaching it." The reviewer Jen Long from the BBC enjoyed Tyler's lyrical "run of shock tactics reminiscent of Eminem", many criticized the similarity. Joshua Errett of Now said that someone should have informed Tyler that "Eminem did this 15 years ago." Louis Pattison of NME said, "It's an album that leaves you in no doubt that Odd Future's leader is a rare talent."Evan Rytlewski of The A.
V. Club said, "Brash and unwieldy as it seems on the surface, Goblin is a deliberately created work of art, one of the densest and most provocative statements that independent rap has produced in years." Scott Plagenhoef of Pitchfork said, "His fantasies and lack of filter are still huge roadblocks for many if not most listeners. They're depraved and despicable, tied in part to a long and unfortunate legacy of gangster and street rap. They're one aspect of a l
"Radical chic" is a term coined by journalist Tom Wolfe in his 1970 essay "Radical Chic: That Party at Lenny's" to describe the adoption and promotion of radical political causes by celebrities and high society. The concept has been described as "an exercise in double-tracking one's public image: on the one hand, defining oneself through committed allegiance to a radical cause, but on the other, demonstrating this allegiance because it is the fashionable, au courant way to be seen in moneyed, name-conscious Society." Unlike dedicated activists, revolutionaries, or dissenters, those who engage in "radical chic" remain frivolous political agitators. They are ideologically invested in their cause of choice only so far as it advances their social standing. "Terrorist chic" is a modern expression with similar connotations. This derivative, however, de-emphasizes the class satire of Wolfe's original term, instead accentuating concerns over the semiotics of radicalism. In languages such as American English and Italian the term has become used to indicate people identifying themselves as socialists or radical leftists while conducting upper-class lifestyles.
The phrase "radical chic" originated in a 1970 New York article by Tom Wolfe, titled "Radical Chic: That Party at Lenny's", reprinted in his books Radical Chic & Mau-Mauing the Flak Catchers and The Purple Decades. In the essay, Wolfe used the term to satirize composer Leonard Bernstein and his friends for their absurdity in hosting a fundraising party for the Black Panthers—an organization whose members and goals were incongruous with those of Bernstein's elite circle. Wolfe's concept of radical chic was intended to lampoon individuals who endorsed leftist radicalism to affect worldliness, assuage white guilt, or garner prestige, rather than to affirm genuine political convictions. Subject is how culture's patrician classes – the wealthy, fashionable intimates of high society – have sought to luxuriate in both a vicarious glamour and a monopoly on virtue through their public espousal of street politics: a politics, moreover, of minorities so removed from their sphere of experience and so absurdly, opposed to the islands of privilege on which the cultural aristocracy maintain their isolation, that the whole basis of their relationship is wildly out of kilter from the start....
In short, Radical Chic is described as a form of developed decadence. The concept of "fashionable" espousal of radical causes by members of wealthy society in this case had been argued against by Bernstein's wife, Felicia Montealegre, prior to the publication of "Radical Chic: That Party at Lenny's", a fact Wolfe details in it; the essay appeared in the June 8, 1970 issue of New York, 20 weeks after the actual fund raiser at the Bernstein residence was held on January 14. The first report of the event--which raised money in support of the Panther 21--appeared the following day in a piece by The New York Times style reporter Charlotte Curtis, in attendance. Curtis wrote in part: "Leonard Bernstein and a Black Panther leader argued the merits of the Black Panther party's philosophy before nearly 90 guests last night in the Bernsteins' elegant Park Avenue duplex." According to Wolfe, the release of the story worldwide was followed by strong criticism of the event: "The English milked the story for all it was worth and seemed to derive one of the great cackles of the year from it."The negative reaction prompted publication of an op-ed in the Times on January 16 entitled "False Note on Black Panthers", critical of the Black Panther Party and Bernstein: Emergence of the Black Panthers as the romanticized darlings of the politico-cultural jet set is an affront to the majority of black Americans....
The group therapy plus fund-raising soiree at the home of Leonard Bernstein, as reported in this newspaper yesterday, represents the sort of elegant slumming that degrades patrons and patronized alike. It might be dismissed as guilt-relieving fun spiked with social consciousness, except for its impact on those blacks and whites working for complete equality and social justice. Felicia Montealegre wrote and delivered a response to this op-ed to the Times offices. In her response she wrote: As a civil libertarian, I asked a number of people to my house on Jan. 14 in order to hear the lawyer and others involved with the Panther 21 discuss the problem of civil liberties as applicable to the men now waiting trial, to help raise funds for their legal expenses.... It was for this serious purpose that our meeting was called; the frivolous way in which it was reported as a "fashionable" event is unworthy of the Times, offensive to all people who are committed to humanitarian principles of justice. Terrorist chic is a more specific variation of the term.
It refers to the appropriation of symbols and aesthetics related to radical militants in the context of pop culture or fashion. When such imagery is deployed subversively, the process exemplifies aestheticization of propaganda. Regardless, because terrorist chic derives its iconography from groups and individuals associated with violent conflict or terrorism, the term carries a greater pejorative tone than "radical chic." Instances of terrorist chic have variously been interpreted as morally irresponsible, earnestly counter-cultural hip, or benignly apolitical. According to Henry K. Miller of the New Statesman, the most well-known example is the ubiquitous appearance of Marxist revolu