The United Nations is an intergovernmental organization, tasked to maintain international peace and security, develop friendly relations among nations, achieve international co-operation and be a centre for harmonizing the actions of nations. The headquarters of the UN is in Manhattan, New York City, is subject to extraterritoriality. Further main offices are situated in Geneva, Nairobi and The Hague; the organization is financed by voluntary contributions from its member states. Its objectives include maintaining international peace and security, protecting human rights, delivering humanitarian aid, promoting sustainable development and upholding international law; the UN is the largest, most familiar, most internationally represented and most powerful intergovernmental organization in the world. In 24 October 1945, at the end of World War II, the organization was established with the aim of preventing future wars. At its founding, the UN had 51 member states; the UN is the successor of the ineffective League of Nations.
On 25 April 1945, 50 governments met in San Francisco for a conference and started drafting the UN Charter, adopted on 25 June 1945 in the San Francisco Opera House, signed on 26 June 1945 in the Herbst Theatre auditorium in the Veterans War Memorial Building. This charter took effect on 24 October 1945; the UN's mission to preserve world peace was complicated in its early decades during the Cold War between the United States and Soviet Union and their respective allies. Its missions have consisted of unarmed military observers and armed troops with monitoring and confidence-building roles; the organization's membership grew following widespread decolonization which started in the 1960s. Since 80 former colonies had gained independence, including 11 trust territories, which were monitored by the Trusteeship Council. By the 1970s its budget for economic and social development programmes far outstripped its spending on peacekeeping. After the end of the Cold War, the UN shifted and expanded its field operations, undertaking a wide variety of complex tasks.
The UN has six principal organs: the General Assembly. The UN System agencies include the World Bank Group, the World Health Organization, the World Food Programme, UNESCO, UNICEF; the UN's most prominent officer is the Secretary-General, an office held by Portuguese politician and diplomat António Guterres since 1 January 2017. Non-governmental organizations may be granted consultative status with ECOSOC and other agencies to participate in the UN's work; the organization, its officers and its agencies have won many Nobel Peace Prizes. Other evaluations of the UN's effectiveness have been mixed; some commentators believe the organization to be an important force for peace and human development, while others have called the organization ineffective, biased, or corrupt. In the century prior to the UN's creation, several international treaty organizations such as the International Committee of the Red Cross was formed to ensure protection and assistance for victims of armed conflict and strife.
In 1914, a political assassination in Sarajevo set off a chain of events that led to the outbreak of World War I. As more and more young men were sent down into the trenches, influential voices in the United States and Britain began calling for the establishment of a permanent international body to maintain peace in the postwar world. President Woodrow Wilson became a vocal advocate of this concept, in 1918 he included a sketch of the international body in his 14-point proposal to end the war. In November 1918, the Central Powers agreed to an armistice to halt the killing in World War I. Two months the Allies met with Germany and Austria-Hungary at Versailles to hammer out formal peace terms. President Wilson wanted peace, but the United Kingdom and France disagreed, forcing harsh war reparations on their former enemies; the League of Nations was approved, in the summer of 1919 Wilson presented the Treaty of Versailles and the Covenant of the League of Nations to the US Senate for ratification.
On January 10, 1920, the League of Nations formally comes into being when the Covenant of the League of Nations, ratified by 42 nations in 1919, takes effect. However, at some point the League became ineffective when it failed to act against the Japanese invasion of Manchuria as in February 1933, 40 nations voted for Japan to withdraw from Manchuria but Japan voted against it and walked out of the League instead of withdrawing from Manchuria, it failed against the Second Italo-Ethiopian War despite trying to talk to Benito Mussolini as he used the time to send an army to Africa, so the League had a plan for Mussolini to just take a part of Ethiopia, but he ignored the League and invaded Ethiopia, the League tried putting sanctions on Italy, but Italy had conquered Ethiopia and the League had failed. After Italy conquered Ethiopia and other nations left the league, but all of them realised that they began to re-arm as fast as possible. During 1938, Britain and France tried negotiating directly with Hitler but this failed in 1939 when Hitler invaded Czechoslovakia.
When war broke out in 1939, the League closed down and its headquarters in Geneva remained empty throughout the war. The earliest concrete plan for a new world organization began under the aegis of the U. S. State Department in 1939; the text of the "Declaration by United Nations" was drafted at the White House on December 29, 1941, by President Franklin D. Roosevelt, Prime Minister Winston Churchill, Roosevelt aide Harry Hopkins
The Élysée Palace is the official residence of the President of the French Republic. Completed in 1722, it was built for Louis Henri de La Tour d'Auvergne, it was used as the office of the French President for the first time in 1848. The current building contains the presidential office and residency, as well as the meeting place of the Council of Ministers, it is located near the Champs-Élysées in the 8th arrondissement of Paris, the name Élysée deriving from Elysian Fields, the place of the blessed dead in Greek mythology. Important foreign visitors are hosted at a palatial residence; the architect Armand-Claude Molet possessed a property fronting on the road to the village of Roule, west of Paris, backing onto royal property, the Grand Cours through the Champs-Élysées. He sold this in 1718 to Louis Henri de La Tour d'Auvergne, Count of Évreux, with the agreement that Mollet would construct an hôtel particulier for the count, fronted by an entrance court and backed by a garden; the Hôtel d'Évreux was finished and decorated by 1722, though it has undergone many modifications since, it remains a fine example of the French classical style.
At the time of his death in 1753, Évreux was the owner of one of the most admired houses in Paris, it was bought by King Louis XV as a residence for the Marquise de Pompadour, his mistress. Opponents showed their distaste for the regime by hanging signs on the gates that read: "Home of the King's whore". After her death, it reverted to the crown. In 1773, it was purchased by Nicolas Beaujon, banker to the Court and one of the richest men in France, who needed a suitably sumptuous "country house" to house his fabulous collection of great masters paintings. To this end, he hired the architect Étienne-Louis Boullée to make substantial alterations to the buildings. Soon on display there were such well-known masterpieces as Holbein's The Ambassadors, Frans Hals' Bohemian, his architectural alterations and art galleries gave this residence international renown as "one of the premier houses of Paris". The palace and gardens were purchased from Beaujon by Bathilde d'Orléans, Duchess of Bourbon in 1787 for 1,300,000 livres.
It was the Duchess. She built a group of cottages in the gardens which she named the Hameau de Chantilly, after the Hameau at her father-in-law's Château de Chantilly. With the French Revolution, the Duchess fled the Élysée was confiscated, it was leased out. The gardens were used for eating and dancing, under the name Hameau de Chantilly. In 1803, the Élysée was sold to Joachim Murat, in 1808, to the Emperor, it became known as the Élysée-Napoléon. After the Battle of Waterloo, Napoléon returned to the Élysée, signed his abdication there on 22 June 1815, left the Élysée on the 25th. Russian Cossacks camped at the Élysée when they occupied Paris in 1814; the property was returned to its previous owner, the Duchesse de Bourbon, who sold it to her royal cousin, Louis XVIII, in 1816. Under the provisional government of the Second Republic, it took the name of the Élysée National and was designated the official residence of the President of the Republic. In 1853, following his coup d'état that ended the Second Republic, Napoléon III charged the architect Joseph-Eugène Lacroix with renovations.
Since Lacroix completed his work in 1867, the essential look of the Palais de l'Élysée has remained the same. In 1873, during the Third Republic, The Élysée became the official presidential residence. In 1899, Félix Faure became the only French President to die in the palace. In 1917, a chimpanzee escaped from a nearby ménagerie, entered the palace and was said to have tried to haul the wife of President Raymond Poincaré into a tree only to be foiled by Élysée guards. President Paul Deschanel, who resigned in 1920 because of mental illness, was said to have been so impressed by the chimpanzee's feat that, to the alarm of his guests, he took to jumping into trees during state receptions; the Élysée Palace was closed in June 1940, remained empty during World War II. It was reoccupied only in 1946 by Vincent Auriol, President of the provisional government first President of the Fourth Republic from 1947 to 1954. From 1959 to 1969, the Élysée was occupied by Charles de Gaulle, the first President of the Fifth Republic.
De Gaulle did not like its lack of privacy, oversaw the purchase of the luxurious Hôtel de Marigny to lodge foreign state officials in visits to France, saying, "I do not like the idea of meeting kings walking around my corridors in their pyjamas." In the 1970s, President Georges Pompidou had some of the original rooms in the palace redesigned by Pierre Paulin in the modern style, of which only the Salle à Manger Paulin survives. Socialist President François Mitterrand, who governed from 1981 to 1995, is said to have used its private apartments, preferring the privacy of his own home on the more bohemian Left Bank. A discreet flat in the nearby presidential annexe Palais de l'Alma housed his mistress Anne Pingeot, mo
Messan Agbéyomé Gabriel Kodjo is a Togolese politician who served as Prime Minister of Togo from 29 August 2000 to 27 June 2002. Kodjo was born in Tokpli, located in Yoto Prefecture, in 1954, he studied in France and received a degree in organizational management from the University of Poitiers in January 1983. Back in Togo, Kodjo was Commercial Director of SONACOM from 1985 to 1988 before President Gnassingbé Eyadéma appointed him to the government as Minister of Youth and Culture on 19 December 1988, he remained in that post until September 1991, when a transitional government led by Prime Minister Joseph Kokou Koffigoh took office. He was appointed as Minister of Territorial Administration and Security in September 1992, but Koffigoh dismissed him, along with another member of the Rally of the Togolese People, Minister of Communications and Culture Benjamin Agbéka, on 9 November 1992. Kodjo and Agbéka, with Eyadéma's support, refused to leave the government, despite protests and Koffigoh's intent to take the matter to the Supreme Court.
Kodjo served for more than six years as Director-General of the Autonomous Port of Lomé. In the March 1999 parliamentary election, he was elected to the National Assembly as the RPT candidate in the Third Constituency of Yoto Prefecture. Following the election, he was elected as President of the National Assembly in June 1999. After a little over a year in that position, President Eyadéma appointed Kodjo as Prime Minister on 29 August 2000, replacing Eugene Koffi Adoboli after Adoboli was defeated in a no-confidence vote. Kodjo said on 30 August 2001 that the Constitution should be changed to enable Eyadéma to run for a third term in 2003. Although Kodjo was speculated to be Eyadéma's intended successor after he became Prime Minister, he and Eyadéma came into conflict, he was dismissed as Prime Minister by Eyadéma on 27 June 2002 due to differences within the RPT. In an article published in Le Scorpion newspaper on 28 June, he criticized Eyadéma, he promptly left Togo, in early July 2002 he was declared wanted by a court for dishonoring the President and disrupting public order.
On 6 August 2002, the RPT Central Committee voted unanimously to expel Kodjo from the party, along with former National Assembly President Dahuku Péré, for high treason. After leaving Togo, Kodjo lived in exile in France, from there he continued his criticisms of Eyadéma; the Togolese government issued an international arrest warrant for Kodjo in mid-September 2002, accusing him of corruption and saying that he had fled Togo to avoid prosecution for it. The government complained about Radio France Internationale's broadcasting of an interview with Kodjo in September, which RFI had done despite government pressure, he denounced the amendment to eliminate presidential term limits, saying that it was Fambaré Ouattara Natchaba who made that proposal publicly and that he had supported the proposal at the time for internal reasons of the RPT. Following the disputed June 2003 presidential election, Kodjo said in an interview with the newspaper Motion d'information that, contrary to the official results, Eyadéma had lost the election.
Accusing Eyadéma of remaining in power through violence, Kodjo said that Eyadéma should admit defeat and leave politics in order to resolve the country's political troubles and prevent war. He returned to Togo on 8 April 2005, following Eyadéma's death, but was promptly imprisoned for alleged misappropriation of funds while serving as Director-General of the Autonomous Port of Lomé. In September 2005 he formed a new party, the Democratic Alliance for the Fatherland, together with Dahuku Péré, he ran for election to the position of President of the Togolese Football Federation, but at its extraordinary congress on 9 January 2007 he placed second behind Avlessi Adaglo Tata, receiving 14 votes from delegates against 24 for Tata. Kodjo announced in early August 2008 that he would stand as the candidate of a new party, the Organisation pour bâtir dans l'union un Togo solidaire, in the 2010 presidential election, he formally submitted his candidacy on 14 January 2010. Although the deadline for the submission of candidacies was 15 January, Kodjo was the first person to formally submit his candidacy.
Upon learning that he was first, Kodjo declared that it was "a good sign" and that he would be "the first" to be declared the winner of the election. Text of the letter sent by Kodjo to the press on 27 June 2002. Agbeyome's O. B. U. T. S website
Vichy is a city in the Allier department of Auvergne-Rhône-Alpes in central France, in the historic province of Bourbonnais. It is a spa and resort town and in World War II was the seat of government of Vichy France from 1940 to 1944; the term Vichyste indicated collaboration with the Vichy regime carrying a pejorative connotation. Today, the town's inhabitants are called Vichyssois. Up until the 18th century, they were more properly known as les Vichois, which stems from the Occitan name of the town, Vichèi; the writer Valery Larbaud uses the term Vicaldiens after the Ancient Roman Latin name for the community, aquae calidae. The city enjoys an inland oceanic climate that incorporates some characteristics of a mountain climate because of the nearby Massif Central and Alps. Heavy snows in the Massif Central make roads impassable, but Vichy is low enough — about 249 metres above sea level — that the climate is more continental than mountain. Rainfall is moderate around Vichy. Vichy lies on the banks of the Allier River.
The source of the Allier is in the nearby Massif Central plateau which lies only a few miles to the south, near the region's capital, Clermont-Ferrand. The historical existence of volcanic activity in the Massif Central is somewhat visually evident. Volcanic eruptions have happened for at least 150,000 years, but all volcanoes there have been dormant for at least 112 years. Volcanic activity in the area is the direct cause of the many thermal springs that exist in and around Vichy; this city is accessible from departmental road 2209, former route nationale 209, the RD 906e, former RD 906 from Thiers, the RD 1093 from Randan or the RD 6 from Charmeil. Vichy is situated 20 km from 35 km from the A89 autoroute; this city has no expressways. The expressway A719 and the northwest and west loops will be the first to directly connect to Vichy; the inclusion of access to the A719 expressway, opened in 1997, in order to avoid the crossing of the town of Gannat, is opened in 2015. In 2014, only regional two-lane highways pass through the urban ring of Vichy.
The RD 2209 is the principal axis of circulation for loaded trucks, from the west or the north. The RD 67 is a loop to the north of the city created to limit traffic jams. Vichy is served by the following train lines: TER and Intercités to destinations: Paris Gare de Lyon/Clermont-Ferrand, Clermont-Ferrand/Lyon Part-Dieu and by TER, Vichy/Pont-de-Dore/Arlanc. MobiVie is the network of urban transport for 6 communes of Vichy Val d'Allier intercommunality; this network is composed of nine lines as of 2014. "Mobival" is an on-call transportation service for its neighborhood. This service offers the local communes a reliable transportation service for areas that are not served by the MobiVie network. Created in October 2004, it has 10 lines. Vichy is 5 kilometres from Vichy — Charmeil Airport, 90 kilometres from the larger Clermont-Ferrand Auvergne Airport. In 52 BC, on returning from their defeat at the Battle of Gergovia by the Gallic legions of Vercingetorix, the Romans established a township at their crossing on the Flumen Elaver.
These Roman settlers had acknowledged the therapeutic value of the springs in the area and were eager to exploit them. During the first two centuries AD, Vichy was prosperous because of these thermal springs. At the end of the 3rd century, the Roman Emperor Diocletian undertook a vast administrative reorganization and land-survey. At that time the hypothetical and reconstructed place name Vippiacus first appeared which, by phonetic evolution, became Vichèi in Occitan. On 2 September 1344, John II of France ceded the noble fiefdom of Vichy to Duke of Bourbon. On 6 December 1374, the last part of Vichy was acquired by Duke of Bourbon. At that point Vichy was incorporated into the House of Bourbon. In 1410, a Celestinian monastery was founded with twelve monks. A building located above the Celestinian Spring is still visible. In 1527, the House of Bourbon was incorporated into the French Kingdom. By the end of the 16th century, the mineral baths had obtained a reputation for having quasi-miraculous curing powers and attracted patients from the noble and wealthy classes.
Government officials, such as Fouet and Chomel, began to classify the curing properties of the mineral baths. Marie de Rabutin-Chantal, marquise de Sévigné was a patient in 1676 and 1677 and would popularize Vichy's Thermal Baths through the written descriptions in her letters; the Vichy waters were said to have cured the paralysis in her hands, thus enabling her to take up letter-writing. In 1761 and 1762, Adélaïde and Victoire of France, the daughters of Louis XV, came to Vichy for the first time and returned in 1785; the bath facilities seemed uncomfortable to them because of the muddy surroundings and insufficient access. When they returned to Versailles, they as
Directorate-General for External Security
The General Directorate for External Security is France's external intelligence agency. The French equivalent to the United Kingdom's MI6 and the United States' CIA, the DGSE operates under the direction of the French Ministry of Defence and works alongside its domestic counterpart, the DGSI, in providing intelligence and safeguarding national security, notably by performing paramilitary and counterintelligence operations abroad; as with most other intelligence agencies, details of its operations and organization are not made public. The DGSE's head office is in the 20th arrondissement of Paris; the DGSE—like the intelligence services of other states—has a record of both failures and accomplishments. It engages in a significant amount of economic espionage; the DGSE can trace its roots back to November 27, 1943, when a central external intelligence agency, known as the DGSS, was founded by politician Jacques Soustelle. The name of the agency was changed on October 26, 1944 for DGER; as this beginning was marred by numerous cases of nepotism and political feuds, Soustelle was removed from his position as Director.
Former free-fighter André Dewavrin aka "Colonel Passy" was tasked to reform the DGER. The SDECE combined under one head a variety of separate agencies – some, such as the best-known Deuxième Bureau aka 2e Bureau, created by the military circa 1871-1873 in the wake of the birth of the French Third Republic. During the WWII, from July 1940 to November 27, 1943 more was created a wartime intelligence agency known as the BCRA, with André Dewavrin as its head. On April 2, 1982, the new socialist government of François Mitterrand reformed the SDECE and renamed this agency DGSE; the SDECE had remained independent until the mid-1960s, when it was discovered to have been involved in the kidnapping and presumed murder of Mehdi Ben Barka, a Moroccan revolutionary living in Paris. Following this scandal, it is said, the agency was placed under the control of the French Ministry of Defence, but in reality, foreign intelligence activities in France have always been supervised by the military since 1871. Exceptions related to telecommunications interception and cyphering and code-breaking, which were carried on by the police in territorial France, by the Ministry of Foreign Affairs abroad.
And economic and financial intelligence, which first were carried on by the Ministry of Foreign Affairs, from 1915 on by the Ministry of Commerce until the aftermath of WWII, when the SDECE of the Ministry of Defence took over the specialty in partnership with the Ministry for the Economy and Finance. In 1992, most of the defence responsibilities of the DGSE, no longer suitable to the post-Cold War context, were transferred to the Military Intelligence Directorate, a new military agency. Combining the skills and knowledge of five military groups, the DRM was created to close the intelligence gaps of the 1991 Gulf War; the SDECE and DGSE have been shaken by numerous scandals. In 1968, for example, Philippe Thyraud de Vosjoli, an important officer in the French intelligence system for 20 years, asserted in published memoirs that the SDECE had been penetrated by the Soviet KGB in the 1950s, he indicated that there had been periods of intense rivalry between the French and U. S. intelligence systems.
In the early 1990s a senior French intelligence officer created another major scandal by revealing that the DGSE had conducted economic intelligence operations against American businessmen in France. Dominique Poirier, ex-employee of the DGSE, confirms in a thick and detailed book about the DGSE he published in May 2018 that the priority targets of this agency are the United States and its allies, he tells about missions and operations against the United States in particular in which he took part. Furthermore, not only Dominique Poirier reveals from first-hand knowledge a close cooperation of the DGSE with Russian foreign intelligence, which he say would date back to the 1970s as far as he could know it, but he brings upon numerous clues and evidences of the existence of a secret and long-lasting special relationship between France and Russia. A major scandal for the service in the late Cold War was the sinking of the Rainbow Warrior in 1985; the Rainbow Warrior was sunk by operatives in what the service named Opération Satanique, killing one of the crew.
The operation was ordered by François Mitterrand. New Zealand was outraged that its sovereignty was violated by an ally, as was the Netherlands since the killed Greenpeace activist was a Dutch citizen and the ship had Amsterdam as its port of origin; the agency was conventionally run by French military personnel until 1999, when former diplomat Jean-Claude Cousseran was appointed its head. Cousseran had served as an ambassador to Turkey and Syria, as well as a strategist in the Ministry of Foreign Affairs. Cousseran reorganized the agency to improve the flow of information, following a series of reforms drafted by Bruno Joubert, the agency's director of strategy at that time; this came during a period when the French government was formed as a cohabitation between left and right parties. Cousseran, linked to the Socialist Party, was therefore obliged to appoint Jean-Pierre
France the French Republic, is a country whose territory consists of metropolitan France in Western Europe and several overseas regions and territories. The metropolitan area of France extends from the Mediterranean Sea to the English Channel and the North Sea, from the Rhine to the Atlantic Ocean, it is bordered by Belgium and Germany to the northeast and Italy to the east, Andorra and Spain to the south. The overseas territories include French Guiana in South America and several islands in the Atlantic and Indian oceans; the country's 18 integral regions span a combined area of 643,801 square kilometres and a total population of 67.3 million. France, a sovereign state, is a unitary semi-presidential republic with its capital in Paris, the country's largest city and main cultural and commercial centre. Other major urban areas include Lyon, Toulouse, Bordeaux and Nice. During the Iron Age, what is now metropolitan France was inhabited by a Celtic people. Rome annexed the area in 51 BC, holding it until the arrival of Germanic Franks in 476, who formed the Kingdom of Francia.
The Treaty of Verdun of 843 partitioned Francia into Middle Francia and West Francia. West Francia which became the Kingdom of France in 987 emerged as a major European power in the Late Middle Ages following its victory in the Hundred Years' War. During the Renaissance, French culture flourished and a global colonial empire was established, which by the 20th century would become the second largest in the world; the 16th century was dominated by religious civil wars between Protestants. France became Europe's dominant cultural and military power in the 17th century under Louis XIV. In the late 18th century, the French Revolution overthrew the absolute monarchy, established one of modern history's earliest republics, saw the drafting of the Declaration of the Rights of Man and of the Citizen, which expresses the nation's ideals to this day. In the 19th century, Napoleon established the First French Empire, his subsequent Napoleonic Wars shaped the course of continental Europe. Following the collapse of the Empire, France endured a tumultuous succession of governments culminating with the establishment of the French Third Republic in 1870.
France was a major participant in World War I, from which it emerged victorious, was one of the Allies in World War II, but came under occupation by the Axis powers in 1940. Following liberation in 1944, a Fourth Republic was established and dissolved in the course of the Algerian War; the Fifth Republic, led by Charles de Gaulle, remains today. Algeria and nearly all the other colonies became independent in the 1960s and retained close economic and military connections with France. France has long been a global centre of art and philosophy, it hosts the world's fourth-largest number of UNESCO World Heritage Sites and is the leading tourist destination, receiving around 83 million foreign visitors annually. France is a developed country with the world's sixth-largest economy by nominal GDP, tenth-largest by purchasing power parity. In terms of aggregate household wealth, it ranks fourth in the world. France performs well in international rankings of education, health care, life expectancy, human development.
France is considered a great power in global affairs, being one of the five permanent members of the United Nations Security Council with the power to veto and an official nuclear-weapon state. It is a leading member state of the European Union and the Eurozone, a member of the Group of 7, North Atlantic Treaty Organization, Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development, the World Trade Organization, La Francophonie. Applied to the whole Frankish Empire, the name "France" comes from the Latin "Francia", or "country of the Franks". Modern France is still named today "Francia" in Italian and Spanish, "Frankreich" in German and "Frankrijk" in Dutch, all of which have more or less the same historical meaning. There are various theories as to the origin of the name Frank. Following the precedents of Edward Gibbon and Jacob Grimm, the name of the Franks has been linked with the word frank in English, it has been suggested that the meaning of "free" was adopted because, after the conquest of Gaul, only Franks were free of taxation.
Another theory is that it is derived from the Proto-Germanic word frankon, which translates as javelin or lance as the throwing axe of the Franks was known as a francisca. However, it has been determined that these weapons were named because of their use by the Franks, not the other way around; the oldest traces of human life in what is now France date from 1.8 million years ago. Over the ensuing millennia, Humans were confronted by a harsh and variable climate, marked by several glacial eras. Early hominids led a nomadic hunter-gatherer life. France has a large number of decorated caves from the upper Palaeolithic era, including one of the most famous and best preserved, Lascaux. At the end of the last glacial period, the climate became milder. After strong demographic and agricultural development between the 4th and 3rd millennia, metallurgy appeared at the end of the 3rd millennium working gold and bronze, iron. France has numerous megalithic sites from the Neolithic period, including the exceptiona
First Ivorian Civil War
The First Ivorian Civil War was a conflict in the Ivory Coast that began in 2002. Although most of the fighting ended by late 2004, the country remained split in two, with a rebel-held north and a government-held south. Hostility increased and raids on foreign troops and civilians rose; as of 2006, the region was tense, many said the UN and the French military failed to calm the civil war. The Ivory Coast national football team was credited with helping to secure a temporary truce when it qualified for the 2006 FIFA World Cup and brought warring parties together; the United Nations Operation in Côte d'Ivoire began after the civil war calmed, but peacekeepers have faced a complicated situation and are outnumbered by civilians and rebels. A peace agreement to end the conflict was signed on 4 March 2007; the Ivorian elections took place in October 2010 after being delayed six times. Fighting resumed on 24 February 2011 over the impasse on the election results, with the New Force rebels capturing Zouan-Hounien, clashes in Abobo and around Anyama The civil war revolves around a number of issues.
First, the end of the 33-year presidency of Félix Houphouët-Boigny forced the nation to grapple with the democratic process for the first time. Houphouët-Boigny had been president since the country's independence, so the nation's political system was bound to his personal charisma, political and economic competence; the political system was forced to deal with open, competitive elections without Houphouët-Boigny from 1993 onward. The large number of foreigners in Ivory Coast, Ivorians of somewhat recent foreign descent, created an important issue of voting rights. Twenty-six percent of the population was of foreign origin from Burkina Faso, a poorer country to the north. Many of these had been Ivorian citizens for two generations or more, some of them, of Mandinka heritage, can be considered native to the northern part of what is now known as Ivory Coast; these ethnic tensions had been suppressed under the strong leadership of Houphouët-Boigny, but surfaced after his death. The term Ivoirity coined by Henri Konan Bédié to denote the common cultural identity of all those living in Ivory Coast came to be used by nationalist and xenophobic politics and press to represent the population of the southeastern portion of the country Abidjan.
Discrimination toward people of Burkinabé origin made neighbor countries Burkina Faso, fear a massive migration of refugees. An economic downturn due to a deterioration of the terms of trade between Third World and developed countries worsened conditions, exacerbating the underlying cultural and political issues. Unemployment forced a part of the urban population to return to the fields, which they discovered had been exploited. Violence was turned against African foreigners; the prosperity of Ivory Coast had attracted many Africans from West Africa, by 1998 they constituted 26% of the population, 56% of whom were Burkinabés. In this atmosphere of increasing racial tension, Houphouët-Boigny's policy of granting nationality to Burkinabés resident in Ivory Coast was criticized as being to gain their political support. In 1995, the tensions turned violent when Burkinabés were killed in plantations at Tabou, during ethnic riots. Ethnic violence had existed between owners of lands and their hosts in the west side of the country, between Bete and Baoule and Lobi.
Since independence, people from the center of the country, have been encouraged to move to fertile lands of the west and south-west of the country where they have been granted superficialities to grow cocoa and comestibles. Years some Bete have come to resent these successful farmers. Voting became difficult for these immigrants; the catalyst for the conflict was the law drafted by the government and approved in a referendum before the elections of 2000 which required both parents of a presidential candidate to be born within Ivory Coast. This excluded the northern presidential candidate Alassane Ouattara from the race. Ouattara represented the predominantly Muslim north the poor immigrant workers from Mali and Burkina Faso working on coffee and cocoa plantations. Forces involved in the conflict include: Official government forces, the National Army called loyalists and equipped since 2003 The Young Patriots: nationalist groups aligned with President Laurent Gbagbo Mercenaries recruited by president Gbagbo: Belarusian pilots Former combatants of Liberia, including under-17 youths, forming the so-called "Lima militia" New Forces, ex-northern rebels, who held 60% of the country Mercenaries Liberian militiamen and ex-RUF fighters from Sierra Leone Liberian government forces, including the Anti-Terrorist Unit, under the command of Benjamin Yeaten, Sam Bockarie, Gilbert Williams, Kuku Dennis.
The involvement of the Liberians on the side of the Ivorian rebels was motivated by desire for loot, most Liberian soldiers who volunteered to fight in Ivory Coast did not know who they fighting against. French military forces: troops sent within the framework of Operation Unicorn and under UN mandate, 3000 men in February 2003 and 4600 in November 2004. Troops, many of whom originated from the north of the country, mutinied in the early hours of 19 September 2002, they launched attacks including Abidjan. By midday they had control of the north of the country, their principal claim relates to the definition of