Gelderland is a province of the Netherlands, located in the central eastern part of the country. With a land area of nearly 5,000 km2, it is the largest province of the Netherlands and shares borders with six other provinces and Germany; the capital is Arnhem. Other major regional centres in Gelderland are Ede, Zutphen, Tiel, Wageningen and Winterswijk. Gelderland had a population of just over two million in 2018; the province dates from states of the Holy Roman Empire and takes its name from the nearby German city of Geldern. According to the Wichard saga, the city was named by the Lords of Pont who fought and killed a dragon in 878 AD, they named the town they founded after the death rattle of the dragon: "Gelre!"The County of Guelders arose out of the Frankish pagus Hamaland in the 11th century around castles near Roermond and Geldern. The counts of Gelre acquired the Betuwe and Veluwe regions and, through marriage, the County of Zutphen, thus the counts of Guelders laid the foundation for a territorial power that, through control of the Rhine, Meuse and IJssel rivers, was to play an important role in the Middle Ages.
The geographical position of their territory dictated the external policy of the counts during the following centuries. Further enlarged by the acquisition of the imperial city of Nijmegen in the 13th century, the countship was raised to a duchy in 1339 by the Holy Roman Emperor, Louis IV. After 1379, the duchy was ruled by the counts of Egmond and Cleves; the duchy resisted Burgundian domination, but William, Duke of Jülich-Cleves-Berg was forced to cede it to Charles V in 1543, after which it formed part of the Burgundian-Habsburg hereditary lands. The duchy revolted with the rest of the Netherlands against Philip II of Spain and joined the Union of Utrecht. After the deposition of Philip II, its sovereignty was vested in the States of Gelderland, the princes of Orange were stadtholders. In 1672, the province was temporarily occupied by Louis XIV and, in 1713, the southeastern part including the ducal capital of Geldern fell to Prussia. Part of the Batavian Republic, of Louis Bonaparte’s Kingdom of Holland, of the French Empire, Gelderland became a province of the Kingdom of the Netherlands in 1815.
During the Second World War, it saw heavy fighting between Allied Paratroopers, British XXX Corps and the German II SS Panzer Corps, at the Battle of Arnhem. Gelderland can be divided into four geographical regions: the Veluwe in the north, the Rivierenland including the Betuwe in the southwest, the Achterhoek or Graafschap in the east and the city-region of Arnhem and Nijmegen in the centre-south. In 2015, the 54 municipalities in Gelderland were divided into four COROPs: These municipalities were merged with neighbouring ones: Angerlo was merged into Zevenaar Dinxperlo was merged into Aalten Gorssel was merged into Lochem Hoevelaken was merged into Nijkerk Lichtenvoorde was merged into Groenlo Warnsveld was merged into Zutphen Wehl was merged into Doetinchem Millingen aan de Rijn and Ubbergen were merged into Groesbeek These municipalities were merged and given a new name: Borculo, Eibergen and Ruurlo have become Berkelland Hengelo, Hummelo en Keppel, Steenderen and Zelhem have become Bronckhorst Bergh and Didam has become Montferland Gendringen and Wisch have become Oude IJsselstreek In the 2001 movie A Knight's Tale, the protagonist, William Thatcher pretends to be a knight known as "Ulrich von Lichtenstein from Gelderland".
Kootwijk is a small village in the municipality Barneveld, located in the middle of the Netherlands, in the province of Gelderland. Kootwijk is bypassed in the north by Rijksweg 1 / European route E30 at exit 18, where Provincial road N302 branches off to the north
KPN is a Dutch landline and mobile telecommunications company. KPN is based in Rotterdam, Netherlands; the company was called Koninklijke PTT Nederland, prior to that Staatsbedrijf der Posterijen, Telegrafie en Telefonie or PTT and was the publicly owned fixed-line operator of the Netherlands. KPN took on its present form on 1 January 1989. Before the spin-off of TPG, the company controlled the national Dutch postal services; the Dutch government progressively privatized KPN beginning in 1994, reducing its stake to 6.4% in 2005, completed the process in 2006, giving up its golden share veto rights. In 2001 KPN tried to merge with the Belgian telco Belgacom, it did not succeed because of the objections of the Belgian government. In 2001, Spanish Telefonica expressed an interest in buying KPN; the Japanese mobile telephone company NTT DoCoMo holds a 2% stake in KPN Mobile NV. From 2002 until 2007 KPN Mobile provided i-mode services on its mobile phone networks. I-mode as introduced by KPN's E-Plus in Germany in March 2002 and by KPN Mobile The Netherlands in April 2002 was the first mobile Internet service in Europe.
KPN owned KPNQwest, a telecommunications company owned by KPN and the American Qwest Communications International. The company was set to bring together the state-of-the-art fibre-optic networks of the two partners and the Internet services expertise and customer base of EUnet International; the company collapsed in a bankruptcy in 2002. KPN has operational synergies through joint ventures with TDC and Swisscom. In 2007 KPN acquired Getronics N. V. a worldwide ICT services company with more than 22,000 employees, doubled its former size. KPN is still divesting parts of Getronics, they sold a Dutch department of Getronics named Business Application Services to CapGemini for about €250,000,000. In August 2013, América Móvil offered to take over the remaining 70% stake of the Dutch telecommunications company for 7.2 billion Euros. América Móvil owns close to 30% of KPN; the Dutch Government has issued a warning on this proposed takeover of KPN by Mexican Billionaire Carlos Slim, as part of his ambition to expand his telecom empire.
The plans ended when the "Stichting Preferente Aandelen B KPN" exercised a call option to gain ~50% of the total shares, in order to put up a temporary protection wall against the hostile takeover. As of 2018, main share holders are: América Móvil 16.08% Franklin Mutual Series Funds 4.99% BlackRock 3.83% Norges Bank 2.91%Stichting Preferente Aandelen B KPN is a foundation which "was established to promote the interests of KPN, KPN its related companies and all stakeholders, including influences the continuity, independence or identity of KPN in conflict with the interests and threaten to keep much as possible." The foundation exercised a call option to gain 50% of the KPN shares in order to protect KPN against a hostile takeover. This stock was withdrawn on a special shareholder meeting held on 10 January 2014, as per the request of the foundation in November 2013. In the Netherlands, KPN has 6.3 million fixed-line telephone customers. Its mobile division, KPN Mobile, has more than 33 million subscribers in the Netherlands, Belgium and Spain under different brand names.
Through its ownership of several European Internet service providers, KPN provides Internet access to 2.1 million customers, it offers business network services and data transport throughout Western Europe. KPN operates a mobile services network for 3G and 4G technologies, it offers LTE-Advanced in limited locations on the 1800 MHz band, whereas the majority of KPN's 4G network operates in the 8/900 MHz bands, which will allow theoretic download speeds up to 200MBit/sec. Along with the completion of the 4G network, KPN is upgrading the 2G and 3G networks and capacity, using Huawei Single-RAN technology. Most of KPN's operations are in the Dutch telecommunication market. In the 2000s and early 2010s, KPN had multiple subsidiaries in European countries such as Belgium and France. Most of these international operations were sold off in the 2010s. In the Dutch telephone market, KPN is the owner of the fixed telephone operations network and is the market leader in mobile network operator under its own brand name and as a mobile virtual network operator under the brand names Telfort and Ortel Mobile.
In the Internet market, KPN provides Internet service under its own brand name and under the brand names Telfort and XS4ALL. Defunct subsidiary providers include Planet Internet, Het Net, Speedlinq, HCCNet, Demon Netherlands. In 2004, KPN started offering digital terrestrial television in the Netherlands as part of its multi-play services via its subsidiary KPN Digitenne. Since 1 May 2006, KPN offers Interactive Television, an IPTV service based on their DSL service, with the ability to receive Video On Demand and replay your missed TV episodes besides regular TV programming. KPN Retail is a Dutch subsidiary. In Belgium, KPN owned mobile provider Base. In 2015, it was sold to Telenet, a Belgian cable broadband service provider. In 2007 KPN purchased the Belgian fixed telephone and broadband operations of the Tele2-Versatel joint venture; these were sold again in December 2009 to Mobistar. In 2009, KPN bought a 33.3% share in MVNO Mobile Vikings, sold to Medialaan in 2015. In Germany, KPN owned mobile provider E-Plus, Germany's third largest mobile phone network.
E-Plus was sold to Telefónica Germany
World War II
World War II known as the Second World War, was a global war that lasted from 1939 to 1945. The vast majority of the world's countries—including all the great powers—eventually formed two opposing military alliances: the Allies and the Axis. A state of total war emerged, directly involving more than 100 million people from over 30 countries; the major participants threw their entire economic and scientific capabilities behind the war effort, blurring the distinction between civilian and military resources. World War II was the deadliest conflict in human history, marked by 50 to 85 million fatalities, most of whom were civilians in the Soviet Union and China, it included massacres, the genocide of the Holocaust, strategic bombing, premeditated death from starvation and disease, the only use of nuclear weapons in war. Japan, which aimed to dominate Asia and the Pacific, was at war with China by 1937, though neither side had declared war on the other. World War II is said to have begun on 1 September 1939, with the invasion of Poland by Germany and subsequent declarations of war on Germany by France and the United Kingdom.
From late 1939 to early 1941, in a series of campaigns and treaties, Germany conquered or controlled much of continental Europe, formed the Axis alliance with Italy and Japan. Under the Molotov–Ribbentrop Pact of August 1939, Germany and the Soviet Union partitioned and annexed territories of their European neighbours, Finland and the Baltic states. Following the onset of campaigns in North Africa and East Africa, the fall of France in mid 1940, the war continued between the European Axis powers and the British Empire. War in the Balkans, the aerial Battle of Britain, the Blitz, the long Battle of the Atlantic followed. On 22 June 1941, the European Axis powers launched an invasion of the Soviet Union, opening the largest land theatre of war in history; this Eastern Front trapped most crucially the German Wehrmacht, into a war of attrition. In December 1941, Japan launched a surprise attack on the United States as well as European colonies in the Pacific. Following an immediate U. S. declaration of war against Japan, supported by one from Great Britain, the European Axis powers declared war on the U.
S. in solidarity with their Japanese ally. Rapid Japanese conquests over much of the Western Pacific ensued, perceived by many in Asia as liberation from Western dominance and resulting in the support of several armies from defeated territories; the Axis advance in the Pacific halted in 1942. Key setbacks in 1943, which included a series of German defeats on the Eastern Front, the Allied invasions of Sicily and Italy, Allied victories in the Pacific, cost the Axis its initiative and forced it into strategic retreat on all fronts. In 1944, the Western Allies invaded German-occupied France, while the Soviet Union regained its territorial losses and turned toward Germany and its allies. During 1944 and 1945 the Japanese suffered major reverses in mainland Asia in Central China, South China and Burma, while the Allies crippled the Japanese Navy and captured key Western Pacific islands; the war in Europe concluded with an invasion of Germany by the Western Allies and the Soviet Union, culminating in the capture of Berlin by Soviet troops, the suicide of Adolf Hitler and the German unconditional surrender on 8 May 1945.
Following the Potsdam Declaration by the Allies on 26 July 1945 and the refusal of Japan to surrender under its terms, the United States dropped atomic bombs on the Japanese cities of Hiroshima and Nagasaki on 6 and 9 August respectively. With an invasion of the Japanese archipelago imminent, the possibility of additional atomic bombings, the Soviet entry into the war against Japan and its invasion of Manchuria, Japan announced its intention to surrender on 15 August 1945, cementing total victory in Asia for the Allies. Tribunals were set up by fiat by the Allies and war crimes trials were conducted in the wake of the war both against the Germans and the Japanese. World War II changed the political social structure of the globe; the United Nations was established to foster international co-operation and prevent future conflicts. The Soviet Union and United States emerged as rival superpowers, setting the stage for the nearly half-century long Cold War. In the wake of European devastation, the influence of its great powers waned, triggering the decolonisation of Africa and Asia.
Most countries whose industries had been damaged moved towards economic expansion. Political integration in Europe, emerged as an effort to end pre-war enmities and create a common identity; the start of the war in Europe is held to be 1 September 1939, beginning with the German invasion of Poland. The dates for the beginning of war in the Pacific include the start of the Second Sino-Japanese War on 7 July 1937, or the Japanese invasion of Manchuria on 19 September 1931. Others follow the British historian A. J. P. Taylor, who held that the Sino-Japanese War and war in Europe and its colonies occurred and the two wars merged in 1941; this article uses the conventional dating. Other starting dates sometimes used for World War II include the Italian invasion of Abyssinia on 3 October 1935; the British historian Antony Beevor views the beginning of World War II as the Battles of Khalkhin Gol fought between Japan and the fo
Apeldoorn is a municipality and city in the province of Gelderland in the centre of the Netherlands. It is a regional centre; the municipality of Apeldoorn, including villages like Beekbergen, Loenen and Hoenderloo, had a population of 160,852 in 2017. The western half of the municipality lies on the Veluwe ridge, the eastern half lies in the IJssel valley. John Berends of the CDA is the mayor of Apeldoorn; the oldest known reference to Apeldoorn called Appoldro, dates from the 8th century. The settlement came into being at the point where the old road from Amersfoort to Deventer crossed that from Arnhem to Zwolle. A 1740 map refers to it as Appeldoorn. Close by is the favourite country-seat of the royal family of the Netherlands called the palace het Nieuwe Loo, it was a hunting lodge of the dukes of Gelderland, but in its present form dates chiefly from the time of the Stadtholder William III of England. The younger sister of Princess Beatrix, Princess Margriet, lives nearby the palace Het Loo, with her husband Pieter van Vollenhoven.
Apeldoorn was a insignificant place until the major building projects of the 19th century and those of the period following World War II. The Protestant church was restored after a fire in 1890; the Roman Catholic Mariakerk is a national monument. Apeldoorn possesses large paper-mills,many offices, a newspaper company, some hospitals and nursing homes. With over 95,000 people working in the municipality, Apeldoorn is one of the most important employment centres in the eastern Netherlands. Apeldoorn has several important educational institutes, such as the Saxion University of Applied Sciences, the Wittenborg University of Applied Sciences, the Netherlands Police Academy and the Theological University of Apeldoorn. In 2008 the largest paper mill of what was left of "Van Gelder Papier" after reorganizations went bankrupt, in 1996 a devastating fire destroyed the remnants of the last part of the original factory, other parts of the production facility that remained are now in use as production facility by AFP, Loparex B.
V. and Owens Corning Veil Netherlands B. V. On the entire industrial estate now known as "Van Gelder Park" are now located a local head office of Rabobank and it houses the main police and fire department offices among with some other local companies like Futurumshop sporting goods, Akos engineering and Werklust load lifters, On the west side of this estate at the Laan van Westenenk there are still the buildings of one of the largest news printing companies of the region, moved to this location in 1993, but they closed in 2016 after reorganization, the buildings are now in use by other companies. Apeldoorn has been well known in the past as a town of paper making and clothing wash company's because of the clean filtered groundwater that seeps through the sand of the ice age formed ”stuwwallen” down to the “Ijselvallei” on the east of Apeldoorn. Apeldoorn has now a considerable meat processing industry with production and storage facilities of among others. V. HSL Locistics but this will be as of January 2018 merged with GVT Logistics, Sandd, HCA Holland Colours, Royal Reesink N.
V. UPS, DHL, FedEx, Royal Talens,VDL Weweler, I. T. S. BV. Beekman transport, Kisjes transport and container rental. In August 2018 PostNL opened a large package sorting center at the Oude Apeldoornseweg, newly build at the industrial area now known as “FizzionParc” but once was known as an industrial estate of Philips Data Systems, the new PostNL location will provide work for around 400 employees. On November 27, 2018 a rapid spreading fire destroyed the largest store of “Karwei” DIY centers in The Netherlands, located at the Laan van de Dierenriem in Apeldoorn, no one was injured. Apeldoorn is known for its large number of used car dealers. Apeldoorn had until a few years ago a production facility that produced basic materials for medicine production operated by Akzo Diosynth, but production was seized here, the terrain located at the Vlijtseweg is now renamed after the product, produced here before that, Zwitsal, it is now known as “Zwitsal Apeldoorn” and the former facility now houses lots of new local businesses like beer brewery “De Vlijt”.
Apenheul is a zoo which hosts a number of different types of apes and monkeys, some of which are free to walk around the visitors. It is situated at the western edge of Apeldoorn and can be reached by local bus 2, 3 and 5. There is an amusement park situated in Apeldoorn, called the Koningin Juliana Toren, it lies on the road to Hoog Soeren. It is called the Koningin Juliana Toren because of the tower, built in 1910 and was named after Queen Juliana; the local hospital is the Gelre Hospital "Lukas", offering secondary health care to Apeldoorn and the surrounding towns. Apeldoorn railway station is, among regular national and international services, the terminus for the Veluwse Stoomtrein Maatschappij, a preserved steam railway that r
Telefunken was a German radio and television apparatus company, founded in Berlin in 1903, as a joint venture of Siemens & Halske and the Allgemeine Elektricitäts-Gesellschaft. The name "Telefunken" appears in: the product brand name "Telefunken". H. System Telefunken, founded 1903 in Berlin as a subsidiary of Siemens & Halske. H.. KG" in Heilbronn, Germany. L." The company Telefunken USA was incorporated in early 2001 to provide restoration services and build reproductions of vintage Telefunken microphones. Around the start of the 20th century, two groups of German researchers worked on the development of techniques for wireless communication; the one group at AEG, led by Adolf Slaby and Georg Graf von Arco, developed systems for the Kaiserliche Marine. Their main competitor was the British Marconi Company; when a dispute concerning patents arose between the two companies, Kaiser Wilhelm II urged both parties to join efforts, creating Gesellschaft für drahtlose Telegraphie System Telefunken joint venture on 27 May 1903, with the disputed patents and techniques invested in it.
On 17 April 1923, it was renamed The Company for Wireless Telegraphy. Telefunken was the company's telegraphic address; the first technical director of Telefunken was Count Georg von Arco. Telefunken became a major player in the radio and electronics fields, both civilian and military. During World War I, they supplied radio sets and telegraphy equipment for the military, as well as building one of the first radio navigation systems for the Zeppelin force; the Telefunken Kompass Sender operated from 1908 to 1918, allowing the Zeppelins to navigate throughout the North Sea area in any weather. Starting in 1923, Telefunken built broadcast transmitters and radio sets. In 1928, Telefunken made history by designing the V-41 amplifier for the German Radio Network; this was the first two-stage, "Hi-Fi" amplifier. Over time, Telefunken perfected their designs and in 1950 the V-72 amplifier was developed; the TAB V-72 soon became popular with recording facilities. The V-72S was the only type of amplifier found in the REDD.37 console used by the Beatles at Abbey Road Studios on many of their early recordings.
In 1932, record players were added to the product line. In 1941, Siemens transferred its Telefunken shares to AEG as part of the agreements known as the "Telefunken settlement", AEG thus became the sole owner and continued to lead Telefunken as a subsidiary. During the Second World War, Telefunken was a supplier of vacuum tubes and radio relay systems, developed Funkmess facilities and directional finders, as part of the German air defence against aerial bombing. During the war, manufacturing plants were developed in west of Germany or relocated. Thus, under AEG, turned into the smaller subsidiary, with the three divisions realigning and data processing technology, elements as well as broadcast and phono. Telefunken was the originator of the FM radio broadcast system. Telefunken, through the subsidiary company Teldec, was for many decades one of the largest German record companies, until Teldec was sold to WEA in 1988. In 1959, Telefunken established a modern semiconductor works in Heilbronn, where in April 1960 production began.
The works was expanded several times, in 1970 a new 6-storey building was built at the northern edge of the area. At the beginning of the 1970s it housed 2,500 employees. In 1967, Telefunken was merged with AEG, renamed to AEG-Telefunken. In the beginning of the 1960s, Walter Bruch developed the PAL-colour television system for the company, in use by most countries of the western Hemisphere. PAL is established i.e. in the United Kingdom and, except France, many other European countries - in Brazil, South Africa and Australia. The mainframe computer TR 4 was developed at Telefunken in Backnang, the TR 440 model was developed at Telefunken in Konstanz, including the first ball-based mouse named Rollkugel in 1968; the computers were in use at many German university computing centres from the 1970s to around 1985. The development and manufacture of large computers was separated in 1974 to the Konstanz Computer Company; the production of mini- and process computers was integrated into the automatic control engineering division of AEG.
When AEG was bought by Daimler in 1985, "Telefunken" was dropped from the company name. In 1995, Telefunken was sold to Tech Sym Corporation for $9 million. However, Telefunken remained a German company. In the 1970s and early 1980s, Telefunken was instrumental in the development of high quality audio noise reduction sy
An Alexanderson alternator is a rotating machine invented by Ernst Alexanderson in 1904 for the generation of high-frequency alternating current for use as a radio transmitter. It was one of the first devices capable of generating the continuous radio waves needed for transmission of amplitude modulation by radio, it was used from about 1910 in a few "superpower" longwave radiotelegraphy stations to transmit transoceanic message traffic by Morse code to similar stations all over the world. Although obsolete by the early 1920s due to the development of vacuum-tube transmitters, the Alexanderson alternator continued to be used until World War II, it is on the list of IEEE Milestones as a key achievement in electrical engineering. After radio waves were discovered in 1887, the first generation of radio transmitters, the spark gap transmitters, produced strings of damped waves, pulses of radio waves which died out to zero quickly. By the 1890s it was realized. Efforts were made to invent transmitters that would produce continuous waves, a sinusoidal alternating current at a single frequency.
In an 1891 lecture, Frederick Thomas Trouton pointed out that, if an electrical alternator were run at a great enough cycle speed it would generate continuous waves at radio frequency. Starting with Elihu Thomson in 1889, a series of researchers built high frequency alternators, Nikola Tesla and Pyke, Parsons and Ewing, Siemens, B. G. Lamme, but none was able to reach the frequencies required for radio transmission, above 20 kHz. In 1904, Reginald Fessenden contracted with General Electric for an alternator that generated a frequency of 100,000 hertz for continuous wave radio; the alternator was designed by Ernst Alexanderson. The Alexanderson alternator was extensively used for long-wave radio communications by shore stations, but was too large and heavy to be installed on most ships. In 1906 the first 50-kilowatt alternators were delivered. One was to Reginald Fessenden at Brant Rock, another to John Hays Hammond, Jr. in Gloucester and another to the American Marconi Company in New Brunswick, New Jersey.
Alexanderson would receive a patent in 1911 for his device. The Alexanderson alternator followed Fessenden's rotary spark-gap transmitter as the second radio transmitter to be modulated to carry the human voice; until the invention of vacuum-tube oscillators in 1913 such as the Armstrong oscillator, the Alexanderson alternator was an important high-power radio transmitter, allowed amplitude modulation radio transmission of the human voice. The last remaining operable Alexanderson alternator is at the VLF transmitter Grimeton in Sweden and was in regular service until 1996, it continues to be operated for a few minutes on Alexanderson Day, either the last Sunday in June or first Sunday in July every year. Starting in 1942 four stations were operated by US Navy: the station at Haiku, Hawaii until 1958, Bolinas until 1946, Tuckerton. Two alternators were shipped to Hawaii in 1942, one each from Marion, MA and Bolinas, CA. Haiku received one; the other went to Guam but returned to Haiku after World War 2.
Haiku began operation of the first 200 kW alternator in 1943. The second alternator went into operation at Haiku in 1949. Both alternators were sold for salvage in 1969 to Kreger Company of California; the Marion station was transferred in 1949 to the US Air Force and used until 1957 for the transmission of weather forecasts to the arctic as well as for the Basen to Greenland and Iceland. One of the alternators was scrapped in 1961 and another one was handed over to the US office of standard, it now resides in a Smithsonian Institution warehouse; the two machines in Brazil were never used because of organizational problems there. They were returned to Radio Central after 1946; the Alexanderson alternator works to an AC electric generator, but generates higher-frequency current, in the low frequency radio frequency range. The rotor has no conductive windings or electrical connections; the space between the teeth is filled with nonmagnetic material, to give the rotor a smooth surface to decrease aerodynamic drag.
The rotor is turned at a high speed by an electric motor. The machine operates by variable reluctance; the periphery of the rotor is embraced by a circular iron stator with a C-shaped cross-section, divided into narrow poles, the same number as the rotor has, carrying two sets of coils. One set of coils is energized with direct current and produces a magnetic field in the air gap in the stator, which passes axially through the rotor; as the rotor turns, alternately either an iron section of the disk is in the gap between each pair of stator poles, allowing a high magnetic flux to cross the gap, or else a non-magnetic slot is in the stator gap, allowing less magnetic flux to pass. Thus the magnetic flux through the stator varies sinusoidally at a rapid rate; these changes in flux induce a radio-frequency voltage in a second set of coils on the stator. The RF collector coils are all interconnected by an output transformer, whose secondary winding is connected to the anten