Coast FM (West Cornwall)
West Cornwall's Coast FM is a local radio station for West Cornwall. It contains a combination of local news, weather and talk; the station launched from its studios in Penzance on 5 November 2016 as a re-brand of Penwith Radio. Under the'Character of service' section of the station's key commitments, it states that the station "offers a local voice, broadcasting a service which acts as a barometer of local opinion, provides companionship for people, enabling them to feel more connected and less isolated."Monetary backing is provided by advertisements and sponsorship from local businesses and organisations, as well as national grant funding. The station is a community interest company. Coast FM's programming format involves two main categories: Mainstream Programming: During daytime on weekdays and weekend mornings, which consists of charted and popular music from 50s-today, formatted local information such as the "What's On Diary", "Surf Report" and "Time Saver Travel". Specialist Programming: From 6pm on weekdays and from 12pm on weekends.
This is freeform and caters to those with more specific interests or musical tastes. The programming section of the station's key commitments states " broadcasts a range of programmes specific to its West Cornwall audience; these programmes reflect local interests with discussion, interviews and invite interaction from listeners throughout"Weekday daytime programmes include:'Coast FM Breakfast' at 7am,'Coast FM's Decade of the Day' at 9am,'Coast to Coast' at 10am,'Coast Lunch' at 12pm,'Coast Afternoon' at 2pm and'Coasting Home' at 5pm. The station broadcasts from its two twin studios at the Penwith Centre in Parade Street, Penzance; as Penwith Radio, the station was based in Wharfside Shopping Centre, where it had been since 1 May 2009. Penwith Community Radio began with pre-recorded podcasts, the first played on 26 January 2008. Live internet broadcasts began on 1 May 2009, with the breakfast show, presented by Steve West. "We had 22,000 hits on our website over the first few days of May, I believe that about 5,000 people logged on to us at some time or other from as far afield as Australia" Julian Horner, the original station manager commented.
On 4 May 2012, it was announced on Ofcom's official website that the radio station had secured a full FM licence. On 22 March 2014, the station announced its FM frequencies. A statement on the radio station's website said it will "...broadcast on 96.5 FM to Penzance and the surrounding area, including Hayle and towards The Lizard, for St Just, Pendeen and the surrounding rural area on 97.2 FM." The station started broadcasting test transmissions on 14 August 2014 and launched onto FM as Penwith Radio on Saturday 30 August 2014 at 10am. Steve West hosted a pre-launch warm-up show from 8am, Nick Dent took over from Steve for the FM launch party until 2pm. On 19 May 2012, from 6:00 am, there was a special'Good Morning Penwith with Martin Holland' with live reports at the historic start of the 2012 Olympic Torch Relay from Land's End. Presenters reported live from along the route and for the first time, Penwith Radio collaborated with two other Cornish community radio stations, Source FM and Radio St Austell Bay to cover more of the torch relay.
Penwith's coverage was simulcast on both other community stations. This was one of the first times. Clarinettist Acker Bilk recorded his final interview with Penwith Radio's John Chapman before passing away from cancer at the age of 85. Presenter John Chapman commented: "Because of Acker’s illness at the time of the interview his voice is soft at times and I had to carry and lead the conversation but it is an hour’s life story and we have got the last one he did." The interview was broadcast on Sunday 16 November 2014 at 9pm. On 23 May 2016 it was announced on The Cornishman's website that on 5 November 2016, Penwith Radio would be re-branding as Coast FM. Chairman Alan Shepherd said: "Coast FM is a new and exciting name for a radio station that I hope the people of West Cornwall will take to their hearts and treat as their own; the name Penwith Radio has served us well but it's time for a new lick of paint and a re-focus on being the radio station of choice for radio listeners in West Cornwall".
Nick Dent presented the launch programme for Coast FM on 5 November 2016 at 10am, the Coast FM bus toured around the surrounding areas to celebrate the launch. Official website
North West England
North West England, one of nine official regions of England, consists of the five counties of Cheshire, Greater Manchester and Merseyside. The North West had a population of 7,052,000 in 2011, it is the third-most populated region in the United Kingdom after the South Greater London. The largest settlements are Manchester, Warrington and Blackpool. North West England is bounded to the west by the Irish Sea; the region extends from the Scottish Borders in the north to the West Midlands region in the south. To its southwest is North Wales. Amongst the better known of the North West's physiographical features are the Lake District and the Cheshire Plain; the highest point in North West England is Cumbria, at a height of 3,209 feet. Windermere is the largest natural lake in England. Broad Crag Tarn on Broad Crag is England's highest lake. Wast Water is England's deepest lake, being 74m deep. A mix of rural and urban landscape, two large conurbations, centred on Liverpool and Manchester, occupy much of the south of the region.
The north of the region, comprising Cumbria and northern Lancashire, is rural, as is the far south which encompasses parts of the Cheshire Plain and Peak District. The region includes parts of three National parks and three areas of Areas of Outstanding Natural Beauty; the official region consists of the following subdivisions: *metropolitan county After abolition of the Greater Manchester and Merseyside County Councils in 1986, power was transferred to the Metropolitan Boroughs making them Unitary Authorities. In April 2011, Greater Manchester gained a top-tier administrative body in the form of the Greater Manchester Combined Authority, which means the 10 Greater Manchester Boroughs are once again second-tier authorities. Source: Office for National Statistics Mid Year Population Estimates North West England's population accounts for just over 13% of England's overall population. 37.86% of the North West's population resides in Greater Manchester, 21.39% in Lancashire, 20.30% in Merseyside, 14.76% in Cheshire and 7.41% live in the largest county by area, Cumbria.
According to 2009 Office for National Statistics estimates, 91.6% of people in the region describe themselves as'White': 88.4% White British, 1.0% White Irish and 2.2% White Other. During the Industrial Revolution hundreds of thousands of Welsh people migrated to the North West of England to work in the coal mines. Parts with notably high populations with Welsh ancestry as a result of this include Liverpool, Widnes, Wallasey, Ashton-in-Makerfield and Birkenhead; the Mixed Race population makes up 1.3% of the region's population. There are 323,800 South Asians, making up 4.7% of the population, 1.1% Black Britons. 0.6% of the population are Chinese and 0.5% of people belong to another ethnic group. North West England is a diverse region, with Manchester and Liverpool amongst the most diverse cities in Europe. 19.4% of Blackburn with Darwen's population are Muslim, the third-highest among all local authorities in the United Kingdom and the highest outside London. Areas such as Moss Side in Greater Manchester are home to a 30%+ Black British population.
In contrast, the town of St. Helens in Merseyside, unusually for a city area, has a low percentage of ethnic minorities with 98% identifying as White British; the City of Liverpool, over 800 years old, is one of the few places in Britain where ethnic minority populations can be traced back over dozens of generations: being the closest major city in England to Ireland, it is home to a significant ethnic Irish population, with the city being home to one of the first Afro-Caribbean communities in the UK, as well as the oldest Chinatown in Europe. Summarised There are around 400,000 people living in the North West of any Asian ethnicity Around 125,000 people from the North West are of full or partial Sub-African and/or Caribbean descent The single largest non-white ethnic group in the North West are Pakistanis, numbering at least 144,400 The list below is not how many people belong to each ethnic group; the fifteen most common countries of birth in 2001 for North West citizens were as follows England – 6,169,753 Scotland – 109,163 Wales – 73,850 Ireland – 56,887 Pakistan – 46,529 Northern Ireland – 34,879 India – 34,600 Germany – 19,931 China and Hong Kong – 15,491 Bangladesh – 13,746 South Africa – 7,740 United States – 7,037 Jamaica – 6,661 Italy – 6,325 Australia – 5,880 Poland – The table below is based on the 2011 UK Census.
One in five of the population in the North West is Catholic, a result of large-scale Irish emigration in the nineteenth century as well as the high number of English recusants in Lancashire. For top-tier authorities, Manchester has the highest teenage pregnancy rate in the region. For council districts, Burnley has the highest rate followed by Hyndburn, both in Lancashire. Of the nine regions of the England, the North West has the fourth-highest GVA per capita—the highest outside southern England. Despite this the region has above average multiple deprivation with wealth concentrated on affluent areas like rural Cheshire, rural Lancashire, south Cumbria; as measured by the Indices of deprivation 2007, the
Drum and bass
Drum and bass, is a genre and branch of electronic music which emerged from rave and jungle scenes in Britain during the early 1990s. The style is characterised by fast breakbeats with heavy bass and sub-bass lines, sampled sources, synthesizers; the popularity of drum and bass at its commercial peak ran parallel to several other homegrown dance styles in the UK including big beat and hard house. Drum and bass incorporates a number of styles. A major influence on jungle and drum and bass was the original Jamaican reggae sound. Another feature of the style is the complex syncopation of the drum tracks' breakbeat. Drum and bass subgenres include breakcore, ragga jungle, darkstep, neurofunk, ambient drum and bass, liquid funk, jump up, drumfunk, sambass and drill'n' bass. From its roots in the UK, the style has established itself around the world. Drum and bass has influenced many other genres like hip hop, big beat, house, trip hop, ambient music, jazz and pop. Drum and bass is dominated by a small group of record labels.
The major international music labels had shown little interest in the drum and bass scene, until BMG Rights Management acquired RAM in February 2016. Drum and bass remains most popular in the UK although it has developed scenes all around the world, in countries such as the United States, the Netherlands, New Zealand, Canada, the Czech Republic and Australia. In the late 1980s and early 1990s, a growing nightclub and overnight outdoor event culture gave birth to a new electronic music style in the rave scene, which combined sampled syncopated beats or breakbeats, other samples from a wide range of different musical genres and samples of music and effects from films and television programmes. A faster subgenre was known as "hardcore" but from as early as 1991, some musical tracks made up of these high-tempo break beats, with heavy basslines and samples of older Jamaican music, were referred to as "jungle techno", a genre influenced by Jack Smooth and Basement Records, just "jungle", which became recognised as a separate musical genre popular at raves and on pirate radio in Britain.
It is important to note when discussing the history of drum and bass that prior to jungle, the music was getting faster and more experimental. Professional DJ and producer C. K. states, "There was a progression. Anyone buying vinyl every week from 1989 to 1992 noticed this." By 1994, jungle had begun to gain mainstream popularity and fans of the music became a more recognisable part of youth subculture. The genre further developed and fusing elements from a wide range of existing musical genres, including the raggamuffin sound, dancehall, MC chants, dub basslines, complex edited breakbeat percussion. Despite the affiliation with the ecstasy-fuelled rave scene, jungle inherited some associations with violence and criminal activity, both from the gang culture that had affected the UK's hip-hop scene and as a consequence of jungle's aggressive or menacing sound and themes of violence. However, this developed in tandem with the positive reputation of the music as part of the wider rave scene and dancehall-based Jamaican music culture prevalent in London.
By 1995, whether as a reaction to, or independently of this cultural schism, some jungle producers began to move away from the ragga-influenced style and create what would become collectively labelled, for convenience, as drum and bass. As the genre became more polished and sophisticated technically, it began to expand its reach from pirate radio to commercial stations and gain widespread acceptance, it began to split into recognisable subgenres such as jump-up and Hardstep. As a lighter and jazz-influenced style of drum and bass gained mainstream appeal, additional subgenres emerged including techstep which drew greater influence from techno music and the soundscapes of science fiction and anime films; the popularity of drum and bass at its commercial peak ran parallel to several other homegrown dance styles in the UK including big beat and hard house. But towards the turn of the millennium its popularity was deemed to have dwindled as the UK garage style known as speed garage yielded several hit singles.
Speed garage shared high tempos and heavy basslines with drum and bass, but otherwise followed the established conventions of "house music", with this and its freshness giving it an advantage commercially. London DJ/producer C. K. says, "It is forgotten by my students that a type of music called "garage house" existed in the late 1980s alongside hip house, acid house and other forms of house music." He continues, "This new garage of the mid 90s was not a form of house or a progression of garage house. The beats and tempo that define house are different; this did cause further confusion in the presence of new house music of the mid-1990s being played alongside what was now being called garage." Despite this, the emergence of further subgenres and related styles such as liquid funk brought a wave of new artists incorporating new ideas and techniques, supporting continual evolution of the genre. To this day drum and bass makes frequent appearances in mainstream media and popular culture including in television, as well as being a major reference point for subsequent genres such as grime and dubstep and successful artists including Chase & Status and Australia's Pendulum
Community radio is a radio service offering a third model of radio broadcasting in addition to commercial and public broadcasting. Community stations serve geographic communities of interest, they broadcast content, popular and relevant to a local, specific audience but is overlooked by commercial or mass-media broadcasters. Community radio stations are operated and influenced by the communities they serve, they are nonprofit and provide a mechanism for enabling individuals and communities to tell their own stories, to share experiences and, in a media-rich world, to become creators and contributors of media. In many parts of the world, community radio acts as a vehicle for the community and voluntary sector, civil society, agencies, NGOs and citizens to work in partnership to further community development aims, in addition to broadcasting. There is defined community radio in many countries, such as France, South Africa and Ireland. Much of the legislation has included phrases such as "social benefit", "social objectives" and "social gain" as part of the definition.
Community radio has developed differently in different countries, the term has somewhat different meanings in the United Kingdom, the United States and Australia, where freedom of speech laws and de facto realities differ. Modern community radio stations serve their listeners by offering a variety of content, not provided by the larger commercial radio stations. Community radio outlets may carry information programming geared toward the local area. Specialized musical shows are often a feature of many community radio stations. Community and pirate stations can be valuable assets for a region. Community radio stations avoid content found on commercial outlets such as Top 40 music, sports and "drive-time" personalities. A meme used by members of the movement is that community radio should be 10 percent radio and 90 percent community; this means that community radio stations should focus on getting the community talking and not on radio. There is a distinction drawn in contrast to mainstream stations, which are viewed as pandering to commercial concerns or the personalities of presenters.
Communities are complex entities, what constitutes the "community" in community radio is subject to debate which varies by country. "Community" may be replaced by terms such as "radical" or "citizen" radio. In sociology, a "community" has been defined as a group of interacting people living in a common location. Community radio has been built around the ideals of participation. Stations have been run by locals to serve a local audience. However, the internet's availability and popularity has encouraged many stations to podcast and/or stream and audio and make it available globally. Two philosophical approaches to community radio exist, although the models are not mutually exclusive. One emphasizes service and community-mindedness, focusing on what the station can do for the community; the other stresses participation by the listener. In the service model locality is valued. Sometimes, providing syndicated content not available within the station's service area is viewed as public service. Within the United States, for example, many stations syndicate content from groups such as Pacifica Radio on the basis that it provides content not otherwise available.
In the access model, the participation of community members in producing content is viewed as a good in itself. While this model does not exclude a service approach, there is some disagreement between the two. Community broadcasting is Australia’s third media sector, formally represented by the Community Broadcasting Association of Australia. In January 2012, there were 359 licensed community radio stations. A 2002 report found that 20,000 Australians were involved as volunteers in the community radio sector on a regular basis, volunteers account for more than $145 million in unpaid work each year. Nationally, more than 7 million Australians listen to community radio each month; the role of community broadcasting in Australia, according to CBAA, is to provide a diverse range of services meeting community needs in ways unmet by other sectors. Community broadcasting is sustained by the principles of access and participation, diversity and locality. Community radio stations may be specialized music stations, represent local music and arts or broadcast talks and current-affairs programs representing alternative, indigenous Australian, feminist or gay and lesbian interests.
53 percent of community radio stations serve an array of communities of interest, including indigenous and ethnic groups, people with a print disability, young people, older people, the arts/fine music and the gay and lesbian communities. The remaining stations provide a service which may be described as generalist: addressing the interests of communities in particular areas, but addressing a range of sp
The British Broadcasting Corporation is a British public service broadcaster. Its headquarters are at Broadcasting House in Westminster, it is the world's oldest national broadcasting organisation and the largest broadcaster in the world by number of employees, it employs over 20,950 staff in total. The total number of staff is 35,402 when part-time and fixed-contract staff are included; the BBC is established under a Royal Charter and operates under its Agreement with the Secretary of State for Digital, Culture and Sport. Its work is funded principally by an annual television licence fee, charged to all British households and organisations using any type of equipment to receive or record live television broadcasts and iPlayer catch-up; the fee is set by the British Government, agreed by Parliament, used to fund the BBC's radio, TV, online services covering the nations and regions of the UK. Since 1 April 2014, it has funded the BBC World Service, which broadcasts in 28 languages and provides comprehensive TV, online services in Arabic and Persian.
Around a quarter of BBC revenues come from its commercial arm BBC Studios Ltd, which sells BBC programmes and services internationally and distributes the BBC's international 24-hour English-language news services BBC World News, from BBC.com, provided by BBC Global News Ltd. From its inception, through the Second World War, to the 21st century, the BBC has played a prominent role in British culture, it is known colloquially as "The Beeb", "Auntie", or a combination of both. Britain's first live public broadcast from the Marconi factory in Chelmsford took place in June 1920, it was sponsored by the Daily Mail's Lord Northcliffe and featured the famous Australian soprano Dame Nellie Melba. The Melba broadcast caught the people's imagination and marked a turning point in the British public's attitude to radio. However, this public enthusiasm was not shared in official circles where such broadcasts were held to interfere with important military and civil communications. By late 1920, pressure from these quarters and uneasiness among the staff of the licensing authority, the General Post Office, was sufficient to lead to a ban on further Chelmsford broadcasts.
But by 1922, the GPO had received nearly 100 broadcast licence requests and moved to rescind its ban in the wake of a petition by 63 wireless societies with over 3,000 members. Anxious to avoid the same chaotic expansion experienced in the United States, the GPO proposed that it would issue a single broadcasting licence to a company jointly owned by a consortium of leading wireless receiver manufactures, to be known as the British Broadcasting Company Ltd. John Reith, a Scottish Calvinist, was appointed its General Manager in December 1922 a few weeks after the company made its first official broadcast; the company was to be financed by a royalty on the sale of BBC wireless receiving sets from approved domestic manufacturers. To this day, the BBC aims to follow the Reithian directive to "inform and entertain"; the financial arrangements soon proved inadequate. Set sales were disappointing as amateurs made their own receivers and listeners bought rival unlicensed sets. By mid-1923, discussions between the GPO and the BBC had become deadlocked and the Postmaster-General commissioned a review of broadcasting by the Sykes Committee.
The Committee recommended a short term reorganisation of licence fees with improved enforcement in order to address the BBC's immediate financial distress, an increased share of the licence revenue split between it and the GPO. This was to be followed by a simple 10 shillings licence fee with no royalty once the wireless manufactures protection expired; the BBC's broadcasting monopoly was made explicit for the duration of its current broadcast licence, as was the prohibition on advertising. The BBC was banned from presenting news bulletins before 19.00 and was required to source all news from external wire services. Mid-1925 found the future of broadcasting under further consideration, this time by the Crawford committee. By now, the BBC, under Reith's leadership, had forged a consensus favouring a continuation of the unified broadcasting service, but more money was still required to finance rapid expansion. Wireless manufacturers were anxious to exit the loss making consortium with Reith keen that the BBC be seen as a public service rather than a commercial enterprise.
The recommendations of the Crawford Committee were published in March the following year and were still under consideration by the GPO when the 1926 general strike broke out in May. The strike temporarily interrupted newspaper production, with restrictions on news bulletins waived, the BBC became the primary source of news for the duration of the crisis; the crisis placed the BBC in a delicate position. On one hand Reith was acutely aware that the Government might exercise its right to commandeer the BBC at any time as a mouthpiece of the Government if the BBC were to step out of line, but on the other he was anxious to maintain public trust by appearing to be acting independently; the Government was divided on how to handle the BBC but ended up trusting Reith, whose opposition to the strike mirrored the PM's own. Thus the BBC was granted sufficient leeway to pursue the Government's objectives in a manner of its own choosing; the resulting coverage of both striker and government viewpoints impressed millions of listeners who were unaware that the PM had broadcast to the nation from Reith's home, using one of Reith's sound bites inserted at the last moment
Jazz is a music genre that originated in the African-American communities of New Orleans, United States, in the late 19th and early 20th centuries, developed from roots in blues and ragtime. Jazz is seen by many as "America's classical music". Since the 1920s Jazz Age, jazz has become recognized as a major form of musical expression, it emerged in the form of independent traditional and popular musical styles, all linked by the common bonds of African-American and European-American musical parentage with a performance orientation. Jazz is characterized by swing and blue notes and response vocals and improvisation. Jazz has roots in West African cultural and musical expression, in African-American music traditions including blues and ragtime, as well as European military band music. Intellectuals around the world have hailed jazz as "one of America's original art forms"; as jazz spread around the world, it drew on national and local musical cultures, which gave rise to different styles. New Orleans jazz began in the early 1910s, combining earlier brass-band marches, French quadrilles, biguine and blues with collective polyphonic improvisation.
In the 1930s arranged dance-oriented swing big bands, Kansas City jazz, a hard-swinging, improvisational style and Gypsy jazz were the prominent styles. Bebop emerged in the 1940s, shifting jazz from danceable popular music toward a more challenging "musician's music", played at faster tempos and used more chord-based improvisation. Cool jazz developed near the end of the 1940s, introducing calmer, smoother sounds and long, linear melodic lines; the 1950s saw the emergence of free jazz, which explored playing without regular meter and formal structures, in the mid-1950s, hard bop emerged, which introduced influences from rhythm and blues and blues in the saxophone and piano playing. Modal jazz developed in the late 1950s, using the mode, or musical scale, as the basis of musical structure and improvisation. Jazz-rock fusion appeared in the late 1960s and early 1970s, combining jazz improvisation with rock music's rhythms, electric instruments, amplified stage sound. In the early 1980s, a commercial form of jazz fusion called smooth jazz became successful, garnering significant radio airplay.
Other styles and genres abound in the 2000s, such as Afro-Cuban jazz. The origin of the word "jazz" has resulted in considerable research, its history is well documented, it is believed to be related to "jasm", a slang term dating back to 1860 meaning "pep, energy". The earliest written record of the word is in a 1912 article in the Los Angeles Times in which a minor league baseball pitcher described a pitch which he called a "jazz ball" "because it wobbles and you can't do anything with it"; the use of the word in a musical context was documented as early as 1915 in the Chicago Daily Tribune. Its first documented use in a musical context in New Orleans was in a November 14, 1916 Times-Picayune article about "jas bands". In an interview with NPR, musician Eubie Blake offered his recollections of the slang connotations of the term, saying, "When Broadway picked it up, they called it'J-A-Z-Z', it wasn't called that. It was spelled'J-A-S-S'; that was dirty, if you knew what it was, you wouldn't say it in front of ladies."
The American Dialect Society named it the Word of the Twentieth Century. Jazz is difficult to define because it encompasses a wide range of music spanning a period of over 100 years, from ragtime to the rock-infused fusion. Attempts have been made to define jazz from the perspective of other musical traditions, such as European music history or African music, but critic Joachim-Ernst Berendt argues that its terms of reference and its definition should be broader, defining jazz as a "form of art music which originated in the United States through the confrontation of the Negro with European music" and arguing that it differs from European music in that jazz has a "special relationship to time defined as'swing'". Jazz involves "a spontaneity and vitality of musical production in which improvisation plays a role" and contains a "sonority and manner of phrasing which mirror the individuality of the performing jazz musician". In the opinion of Robert Christgau, "most of us would say that inventing meaning while letting loose is the essence and promise of jazz".
A broader definition that encompasses different eras of jazz has been proposed by Travis Jackson: "it is music that includes qualities such as swing, group interaction, developing an'individual voice', being open to different musical possibilities". Krin Gibbard argued that "jazz is a construct" which designates "a number of musics with enough in common to be understood as part of a coherent tradition". In contrast to commentators who have argued for excluding types of jazz, musicians are sometimes reluctant to define the music they play. Duke Ellington, one of jazz's most famous figures, said, "It's all music." Although jazz is considered difficult to define, in part because it contains many subgenres, improvisation is one of its defining elements. The centrality of improvisation is attributed to the influence of earlier forms of music such as blues, a form of folk music which arose in part from the work songs and field hollers of African-American slaves on plantations; these work songs were structured around a repetitive call-and-response pattern, but early blues was improvisational.
Classical music performance is evaluated more by its fidelity to the musical score, with less attention given to interpretation and accompaniment. The classical performer's goal is to play the composition. In contrast, jazz is characterized by the product of i
Digital audio broadcasting
Digital audio broadcasting is a digital radio standard for broadcasting digital audio radio services, used in many countries around the world, though not North America. The DAB standard was initiated as a European research project in the 1980s; the Norwegian Broadcasting Corporation launched the first DAB channel in the world on 1 June 1995, the BBC and Swedish Radio launched their first DAB digital radio broadcasts in September 1995. DAB receivers have been available in many countries since the end of the 1990s. DAB is more efficient in its use of spectrum than analogue FM radio, thus can offer more radio services for the same given bandwidth; however the sound quality can be noticeably inferior if the bit-rate allocated to each audio program is not sufficient. DAB is more robust with regard to noise and multipath fading for mobile listening, although DAB reception quality degrades when the signal strength falls below a critical threshold, whereas FM reception quality degrades with the decreasing signal, providing effective coverage over a larger area.
The original version of DAB used the MP2 audio codec. An upgraded version of the system was released in February 2007, called DAB+, which uses the HE-AAC v2 audio codec. DAB is not forward compatible with DAB+, which means that DAB-only receivers are not able to receive DAB+ broadcasts. However, broadcasters can mix DAB and DAB+ programs inside the same transmission and so make a progressive transition to DAB+. DAB+ is twice as efficient as DAB, more robust. In spectrum management, the bands that are allocated for public DAB services, are abbreviated with T-DAB, where the "T" stands for terrestrial; as of 2018, 41 countries are running DAB services. The majority of these services are using DAB+, with only Ireland, UK, New Zealand and Brunei still using a significant number of DAB services. See Countries using DAB/DMB. In many countries, it is expected that existing FM services will switch over to DAB+. Norway is the first country to implement a national FM radio analog switchoff, in 2017, however that only applied to national broadcasters, not local ones.
DAB has been under development since 1981 at the Institut für Rundfunktechnik. The first DAB demonstrations were held in 1985 at the WARC-ORB in Geneva, in 1988 the first DAB transmissions were made in Germany. DAB was developed as a research project for the European Union, which started in 1987 on initiative by a consortium formed in 1986; the MPEG-1 Audio Layer II codec was created as part of the EU147 project. DAB was the first standard based on orthogonal frequency division multiplexing modulation technique, which since has become one of the most popular transmission schemes for modern wideband digital communication systems. A choice of audio codec and error-correction coding schemes and first trial broadcasts were made in 1990. Public demonstrations were made in 1993 in the United Kingdom; the protocol specification was finalized in 1993 and adopted by the ITU-R standardization body in 1994, the European community in 1995 and by ETSI in 1997. Pilot broadcasts were launched in several countries in 1995.
In October 2005, the World DMB Forum instructed its Technical Committee to carry out the work needed to adopt the AAC+ audio codec and stronger error correction coding. This work led to the launch of the DAB+ system. By 2006, 500 million people worldwide were in the coverage area of DAB broadcasts, although by this time sales of receivers had only taken off in the United Kingdom and Denmark. In 2006 there were 1,000 DAB stations in operation worldwide; as of 2018, over 68 million devices have been sold worldwide, over 2,270 DAB services are on air. DAB uses a wide-bandwidth broadcast technology and spectra have been allocated for it in Band III and L band, although the scheme allows for operation between 30 and 300 MHz; the US military has reserved L-Band in the USA only, blocking its use for other purposes in America, the United States has reached an agreement with Canada to restrict L-Band DAB to terrestrial broadcast to avoid interference. DAB had a number of country specific transmission modes.
Mode I for Band III, Earth Mode II for L-Band and satellite Mode III for frequencies below 3 GHz, Earth and satellite Mode IV for L-Band and satelliteIn January 2017, an updated DAB specification removed Modes II, III and IV, leaving only Mode I. From an OSI model protocol stack viewpoint, the technologies used on DAB inhabit the following layers: the audio codec inhabits the presentation layer. Below, the data link layer, in charge of statistical time division multiplexing and frame synchronization; the physical layer contains the error-correction coding, OFDM modulation, dealing with the over-the-air transmission and reception of data. Some aspects of these are described below. DAB uses the MPEG-1 Audio Layer II audio codec, referred to as MP2 because of the ubiquitous MP3; the newer DAB+ standard adopted the HE-AAC version 2 audio codec known as'AAC+' or'aacPlus'. AAC+ is three times more efficient than MP2, which means that broadcasters using DAB+ are able to provide far higher audio quality or far more stations than they could with DAB, or a combination of both higher audio quality and more stations.
One of the most important decisions regarding the design of a digital radio broadcasting system is the choice of which audio codec to use, because the efficiency of the audio codec determines how many radio stations can be carried on a fixed capacity multiplex at a given level of audio quality. Error-correction coding is an import