Radio network

There are two types of radio network in use around the world: the one-to-many broadcast network used for public information and mass-media entertainment, the two-way radio type used more for public safety and public services such as police, fire and delivery services. Cell phones are able to send and receive by using two different frequencies at the same time. Many of the same components and much of the same basic technology applies to all three; the two-way type of radio network shares many of the same technologies and components as the broadcast-type radio network but is set up with fixed broadcast points with co-located receivers and mobile receivers/transmitters or transceivers. In this way both the fixed and mobile radio units can communicate with each other over broad geographic regions ranging in size from small single cities to entire states/provinces or countries. There are many ways in which multiple fixed transmit/receive sites can be interconnected to achieve the range of coverage required by the jurisdiction or authority implementing the system: conventional wireless links in numerous frequency bands, fibre-optic links, or microwave links.

In all of these cases the signals are backhauled to a central switch of some type where the radio message is processed and resent to all transmitter sites where it is required to be heard. In contemporary two-way radio systems a concept called trunking is used to achieve better efficiency of radio spectrum use and provide wide-ranging coverage with no switching of channels required by the mobile radio user as it roams throughout the system coverage. Trunking of two-way radio is identical to the concept used for cellular phone systems where each fixed and mobile radio is identified to the system controller and its operation is switched by the controller; the broadcast type of radio network is a network system which distributes programming to multiple stations or delayed, for the purpose of extending total coverage beyond the limits of a single broadcast signal. The resulting expanded audience for radio programming or information applies the benefits of mass-production to the broadcasting enterprise.

A radio network has two sales departments, one to package and sell programs to radio stations, one to sell the audience of those programs to advertisers. Most radio networks produce much of their programming. Radio networks owned some or all of the stations that broadcast the network's radio format programming. Presently however, there are many networks that do not own any stations and only produce and/or distribute programming. Station ownership does not always indicate network affiliation. A company might own stations in several different markets and purchase programming from a variety of networks. Radio networks rose with the growth of regular broadcasting of radio to home listeners in the 1920s; this growth took various paths in different places. In Britain the BBC was developed with public funding, in the form of a broadcast receiver license, a broadcasting monopoly in its early decades. In contrast, in the United States various competing commercial broadcasting networks arose funded by advertising revenue.

In that instance, the same corporation that owned or operated the network manufactured and marketed the listener’s radio. Major technical challenges to be overcome when distributing programs over long distances are maintaining signal quality and managing the number of switching/relay points in the signal chain. Early on, programs were sent to remote stations by various methods, including leased telephone lines, pre-recorded gramophone records and audio tape; the world's first all-radio, non-wireline network was claimed to be the Rural Radio Network, a group of six upstate New York FM stations that began operation in June 1948. Terrestrial microwave relay, a technology introduced to link stations, has been supplanted by coaxial cable and satellite, which offer superior cost-benefit ratios. Many early radio networks evolved into Television networks. Australian Broadcasting Corporation 3ABN Australia Radio Network Jovem Pan Jovem Pan FM Radio CBN Radio Bandeirantes BandNews FM MiliciaSat Radio Globo Transamérica Pop, Hits Canadian Broadcasting Corporation CBC Radio One CBC Radio 2 CBC Radio 3 Première Chaîne Espace musique Bande à part MBC Radio Corus Radio Network Énergie Rouge FM Rythme FM Sportsnet Radio TSN Radio Ceraphin Radio NetworkDefunctCNR Radio Network Canadian Radio Broadcasting Commission Broadcasting Corporation of Newfoundland Dominion Network Trans-Canada Network CKO Pelmorex Radio Network The Team Aboriginal Voices Radio Network China National Radio China Radio International Shanghai Media Group All India Radio Vividh Bharati Radio City Big FM Radio One Radio Mirchi Red FM Suryan FM Hello FM chaska Fever 104 Radio Republik Indonesia Radio Sonora Radio MNC Trijaya Radio Elshinta Masima Radio Network All Iranian radio RTÉ Radio 1 RTÉ 2fm RTÉ lyric fm RTÉ Raidió na Gaeltachta Today FM NHK Radio 1 NHK Radio 2 JRN NRN NHK FM JFN JFL MegaNet Korean Broadcasting System Munhwa Broadcasting Corporation Seoul Broadcasting System Almost all radio stations in New Zealand are part of a radio network, most are network-owned.

Radio New Zealand Radio New Zealand Concert Radio New Zealand National MediaWorks Radio George

The Past of Mary Holmes

The Past of Mary Holmes is a 1933 American pre-Code drama film, directed by Harlan Thompson and Slavko Vorkapich, released by RKO. The film is a remake of the silent film The Goose Woman, based on a short story by Rex Beach based on the Hall-Mills murder case. Mary Holmes, once a famous opera star known as Maria di Nardi, now lives in a run-down shanty and suffers from alcoholism. Known for her eccentric behavior, Mary breeds geese, is thus known in her neighborhood as'The Goose Woman', she blames her grown son Geoffrey for the deterioration of her voice, does everything to destroy his life. When Geoffrey, who works as a commercial artist, announces to her that he will marry Joan Hoyt, an actress, she becomes torn with jealousy and threatens to reveal to Joan that he is an illegitimate birth. Not allowing his mother the satisfaction of destroying his life, Geoffrey decides to break the news to Joan himself. Joan, who has just ended an affair with a womanizing theatre backer, G. K. Ethridge, calmly accepts his news and tells him that she wants to proceed their wedding plans.

Geoffrey breaks ties with his mother and heads out to Chicago, on an assignment. Meanwhile, Jacob Riggs, a doorman at the Ethridge theatre and kills his boss on the evening when he is awaiting his final rendezvous with Joan, due to his constant affairs with innocent women. Mary, who lives next to the place where the crime is committed, sees opportunity in getting recognition and fame as Maria di Nardi, after hearing the gunshots, she fabricates a sensational story for the press and media, unaware that her story implicates Geoffrey as a prime suspect. Following a drunken testimony by Mary, Geoffrey is indicted on circumstantial evidence by a grand jury. Despite denying the testimony when she realizes what she is doing to Geoffrey, he is found guilty and sent to jail, awaiting the death penalty. Overcome with grief, Mary uses Joan's help to convince Jacob to turn himself in for the crime. After revealing him as the murderer, Geoffrey is freed from jail and can mary Joan. Mary burns down her shanty as a symbolic gesture to leave behind her past, in order to join Geoffrey and her daughter-in-law in a joyful future.

Helen MacKellar as Mary Holmes/Maria di Nardi Eric Linden as Geoffrey Holmes Jean Arthur as Joan Hoyt Richard "Skeets" Gallagher as Ben Pratt Ivan F. Simpson as Jacob Riggs Clay Clement as G. K. Ethridge J. Carrol Naish as Gary Kent Roscoe Ates as Bill-poster Klondike Rochelle Hudson as Betty John Sheehan as Tom Kincaid Edward J. Nugent as Flanagan Based on the short story of the same name, the film was in production under the title The Goose Woman. Screenwriter Samuel Ornitz was to adapt the story with Marion Dix, but Eddie Doherty took over. Produced on a low budget, the film was released as a double feature in cinemas along with The Big Cage; the Past of Mary Holmes on IMDb The Past of Mary Holmes at AllMovie The Past of Mary Holmes at the TCM Movie Database

Plausible reasoning

Plausible reasoning is a method of deriving new conclusions from given known premises, a method different from the classical syllogistic argumentation methods of Aristotelian two-valued logic. The syllogistic style of argumentation is illustrated by the oft-quoted argument "All men are mortal, Socrates is a man, therefore, Socrates is mortal." In contrast, consider the statement "if it is raining it is cloudy." The only logical inference that one can draw from this is that "if it is not cloudy it is not raining." But ordinary people in their everyday lives would conclude that "if it is not raining being cloudy is less plausible," or "if it is cloudy rain is more plausible." The unstated and unconsciously applied reasoning, arguably incorrect, that made people come to their conclusions is typical of plausible reasoning. As another example, look at this scenario: "Suppose some dark night a policeman walks down a street deserted. A person wearing a mask comes crawling out through the broken window, carrying a bag which turns out to be full of expensive jewellery.

The policeman concludes that this person is stealing the jewellery." By what reasoning process does the policeman arrive at this conclusion? The policeman's conclusion was not a logical deduction from the evidence. There may be a valid explanation for everything. For example, it might be that this person was the owner of the jewellery store and he was coming home from a fancy dress competition, he didn't have the key with him, but just as he walked by his store a passing truck threw a stone through the window. Now whatever be the policeman's reasoning process, it has a certain degree of validity; the evidence did not prove that the person was stealing jewellery, but it did make it plausible. This is an example of a kind of reasoning referred to as plausible reasoning, in which most people are very proficient. During the fifth century B. C. E. Judicial orators in Greek Sicily developed a method for pleading their cases in such instances in which no eyewitnesses or written documents or other such direct evidence could be produced.

They began to base their arguments on the internal or external probability or plausibility of their statements. This new way of arguing was labeled with the Greek term eikós, a term, variously rendered as similarity, probability or plausibility; the success of the argument depends on the oratorical skills of the speaker, arguments by eikós have been accused of lack of truthfulness. Here is a classical example of argument by plausible reasoning presented by Aristotle in his Rhetoric: "If the accused is not open to the charge – for instance if a weakling be tried for violent assault – the defence is that he was not to do such a thing, but if he is open to the charge – that is, if he is a strong man – the defence is still that he was not to do such a thing, since he could be sure that people would think he was to do it." The sophists, a sort of mendicant academicians were said to have been experts in this type of argumentation and they are said to have taught wealthy young Greeks these methods for a hefty fee.

Plato and Aristotle denounced these methods and the method came to acquire a lot of bad repute. Sophistic argumentation styles were equated with fallacious arguments. George Polya in his two volume book titled Mathematics and Plausible Reasoning presents plausible reasoning as a way of generating new mathematical conjectures. To Polya, “a mathematical proof is demonstrative reasoning but the inductive evidence of the physicist, the circumstantial evidence of the lawyer, the documentary evidence of the historian and the statistical evidence of the economist all belong to plausible reasoning”. Polya’s intention is to teach students the art of guessing new results in mathematics for which he marshals such notions as induction and analogy as possible sources for plausible reasoning; the first vole of the book is devoted to an extensive discussion of these ideas with several examples drawn from various field of mathematics. In the Preface to Volume 1 of the book Polya exhorts all interested students of mathematics thus: "Certainly, let us learn proving, but let us learn guessing."

P. R. Halmos reviewing the book summarized the central thesis of the book thus: "... a good guess is as important as a good proof." Polya begins Volume I with a discussion on induction, not the mathematical induction, as a way of guessing new results. He shows how the chance observations of a few results of the form 4 = 2 + 2, 6 = 3 + 3, 8 = 3 + 5, 10 = 3 + 7, etc. may prompt a sharp mind to formulate the conjecture that every number greater than 4 can be represented as the sum of two odd prime numbers. This is the well known Goldbach's conjecture; the first problem in the first chapter is to guess the rule according to which the successive terms of the following sequence are chosen: 11, 31, 41, 61, 71, 101, 131... In the next chapter the techniques of generalization and analogy are presented as possible strategies for plausible reasoning. In the remaining chapters, these ideas are illustrated by discussing the discovery of several results in various fields of mathematics like number theory, etc. and in physical sciences.

This volume attempts to formulate certain patterns of plausible reasoning. The relations of these patterns with the calculus of probability are investigated, their relation to mathematical invention and instruction are discussed. The following are some of the patter