Copenhagen is the capital and most populous city of Denmark. As of July 2018, the city has a population of 777,218, it forms the core of the wider urban area of the Copenhagen metropolitan area. Copenhagen is situated on the eastern coast of the island of Zealand; the Øresund Bridge connects the two cities by road. A Viking fishing village established in the 10th century in the vicinity of what is now Gammel Strand, Copenhagen became the capital of Denmark in the early 15th century. Beginning in the 17th century it consolidated its position as a regional centre of power with its institutions and armed forces. After suffering from the effects of plague and fire in the 18th century, the city underwent a period of redevelopment; this included construction of the prestigious district of Frederiksstaden and founding of such cultural institutions as the Royal Theatre and the Royal Academy of Fine Arts. After further disasters in the early 19th century when Horatio Nelson attacked the Dano-Norwegian fleet and bombarded the city, rebuilding during the Danish Golden Age brought a Neoclassical look to Copenhagen's architecture.
Following the Second World War, the Finger Plan fostered the development of housing and businesses along the five urban railway routes stretching out from the city centre. Since the turn of the 21st century, Copenhagen has seen strong urban and cultural development, facilitated by investment in its institutions and infrastructure; the city is the cultural and governmental centre of Denmark. Copenhagen's economy has seen rapid developments in the service sector through initiatives in information technology and clean technology. Since the completion of the Øresund Bridge, Copenhagen has become integrated with the Swedish province of Scania and its largest city, Malmö, forming the Øresund Region. With a number of bridges connecting the various districts, the cityscape is characterised by parks and waterfronts. Copenhagen's landmarks such as Tivoli Gardens, The Little Mermaid statue, the Amalienborg and Christiansborg palaces, Rosenborg Castle Gardens, Frederik's Church, many museums and nightclubs are significant tourist attractions.
The largest lake of Denmark, Arresø, lies around 27 miles northwest of the City Hall Square. Copenhagen is home to the University of Copenhagen, the Technical University of Denmark, Copenhagen Business School and the IT University of Copenhagen; the University of Copenhagen, founded in 1479, is the oldest university in Denmark. Copenhagen is home to the FC Brøndby football clubs; the annual Copenhagen Marathon was established in 1980. Copenhagen is one of the most bicycle-friendly cities in the world; the Copenhagen Metro launched in 2002 serves central Copenhagen while the Copenhagen S-train, the Lokaltog and the Coast Line network serves and connects central Copenhagen to outlying boroughs. To relieve traffic congestion, the Fehmarn Belt Fixed Link road and rail construction is planned, because the narrow 9-9.5 mile isthmus between Roskilde Fjord and Køge Bugt forms a traffic bottleneck. The Copenhagen-Ringsted Line will relieve traffic congestion in the corridor between Roskilde and Copenhagen.
Serving two million passengers a month, Copenhagen Airport, Kastrup, is the busiest airport in the Nordic countries. Copenhagen's name reflects its origin as a place of commerce; the original designation in Old Norse, from which Danish descends, was Kaupmannahǫfn, meaning "merchants' harbour". By the time Old Danish was spoken, the capital was called Køpmannæhafn, with the current name deriving from centuries of subsequent regular sound change. An exact English equivalent would be "chapman's haven". However, the English term for the city was adapted from Kopenhagen. Although the earliest historical records of Copenhagen are from the end of the 12th century, recent archaeological finds in connection with work on the city's metropolitan rail system revealed the remains of a large merchant's mansion near today's Kongens Nytorv from c. 1020. Excavations in Pilestræde have led to the discovery of a well from the late 12th century; the remains of an ancient church, with graves dating to the 11th century, have been unearthed near where Strøget meets Rådhuspladsen.
These finds indicate. Substantial discoveries of flint tools in the area provide evidence of human settlements dating to the Stone Age. Many historians believe the town dates to the late Viking Age, was founded by Sweyn I Forkbeard; the natural harbour and good herring stocks seem to have attracted fishermen and merchants to the area on a seasonal basis from the 11th century and more permanently in the 13th century. The first habitations were centred on Gammel Strand in the 11thcentury or earlier; the earliest written mention of the town was in the 12th century when Saxo Grammaticus in Gesta Danorum referred to it as Portus
Falkoner Alle is one of the main streets of Frederiksberg in Copenhagen, Denmark. It runs from Frederiksberg Town Hall Square in the south to Ågade on the border with Nørrebro in the north, linking Allégade with Jagtvej; the street takes its name from the Royal Falconry, located in the area. Remains of the buildings are still found behind the buildings at No. 112–120. The street was established in about 1670 as a driveway to Falkonergården, Christian V's new facility for stabling of peregrine falcons for falconry; the falcons, peregrine falcons brought home from Iceland, were used as gifts for foreign rulers by the Danish kings on their journeys abroad. The road was gated at each end but it was opened to the public after Hømarken, an area to the north belonging to Ladegården, a farm under Copenhagen Castle, was auctioned off in lots to wealthy citizens from Copenhagen who built their country houses on the land; the Royal Falconry closed in 1810 and the last falcons were gifted to the Portuguese court.
The Falkonérgården property was acquired by Carl Adolph Feilberg. He used it as a country house but established a soap and wax candle factory at the site in 1842; the but were torn down except for a single wing, still seen in the alley between No. 112 and No. 120. The first houses along the tree-lined avenue were built around 1850, but until 1859 Falkoner Allé And Jagtvej marked the so-called Demarcation Line which enforced restrictions on construction of buildings outside Copenhagen's City Walls. Frederiksberg's two first public schools were built in the southern end of the street on the west side, they were joined in 1886 by Frederiksberg's first town hall which took over the buildings. The east side of the street was dominated by factories and small workshops: The Ruben Textile Factories opened in 1859 on the corner with Rolighedsvej, employing more than 500 workers by 1890. Frederiksberg Iron Foundry existed from 1872 to the mid-1950s. Further north on the east side between Rolighedsvej and Ladegården, was a beer garden and entertainment venue, founded in about 1850, which survived until 1907.
The first apartment buildings in the street were built around 1880. Many of the earliest buildings just two storeys tall, were soon replaced by taller structures. By 1910 the street appeared developed. A large number of the old buildings disappeared in the middle of the 20th century to make way for modern ones; the Ruben Textile Facctory was demolished in 1938, while the old town hall and Frederiksberg Iron Foundry survived until the 1950s. Falkoner Center, a hotel and conference venue, has replaced Frederiksberg's old town hall on the corner with Howitzvej, it was completed in 1959 and modernized in 1987. Frederiksberg Gymnasium is located at Falkoner Plads, an urban space located to the rear of the centre; the Frederiksberg Centre, a shopping mall, is located at No. 21. Hostrups Have, the Modernist residential complex from 1936 designed by Hans Dahlerup Berthelsen, enclosing a garden space, is located on the corner with Rolighedsvej. On Kejserinde Dagmars Plads, the small space opposite Frederiksberg Centre, stands the sculpture Amor and Psyche by Pontus Kjerrmans and in 2013 a Russian society offered to donate a bust of Dagmar for the site.
Falkoneraleens historie and old photos from the street Vintage images
Hostrups Have is a famous functionalist housing estate and associated green space located at the corner of Falkoner Allé and Rolighedsvej in the Frederiksberg district of Copenhagen, Denmark. Designed by Danish architect Hans Dahlerup Berthelsen in 1935-36. Hostrups Have is named after the playwright Jens Christian Hostrup, it has its own post code. The housing development is located at the site of the old Rubens Klædefabrik, a textile factory which opened at the site in 1857, it closed and was demolished in 1927. Hostrups Have was built by the developer Harald Simonsen; the development was designed by the architect Hans Dahlerup Berthelsen. The foundation stone was set by prime minister Thorvald Stauning on 20 June 1935; the housing estate was inaugurated in 1936. It was named after the author Jens Christian Hostrup who used to live at nearby villa "Rolighed". In 2007, Hostrups Have was converted into an andelsforening. In 2017 sold to Heimstaden. Hostrups Have is a typical example of the Danish Functionalist style which became popular in the 1930s.
The three winged complex is built over five storeys in brick with granite and travertine detailing at the entrances. All apartments have balconies. A neon sign from 1937 with the name of the complex is located above the main gate on Rolighedsvej. A glass clock located at the top of the north wing is illuminated at night; the complex priginally integrated the 45-metre tall chimney from the former factory but it was removed in July 2014. Hostrups Have have a total area of 60,000 square metres, it also comprised 30 commercial tenancies. The garden space in the centre of Hostrups Have consists of lawns, old solitaire trees and perennial flower beds. Artworks include the sculpture "Hvilende Kvinde" from 1937 by danish artist Gunnar Hammerich. Another sculpture depicts the danish actor Poul Reumert as "lieutenant von Buddinge" in Hostrup's play Genboerne; the sculpture is from the late 1970s. Børge Mogensen^, architect and designer and worked at Hostrups Have 24. Jens Otto Krag and prime minister, lived at Hostrups Have 60 in the 1950s Klaus Rifbjerg, lived at Hostrups Have 31 and Skt.
Nikolaj Vej 13 in the late 1950s. Marguerite Viby, lived at Hostrups Have 28 with her daughter Susse Wold Preben Neergaard and Birgitte Reimer and actress, lived at Hostrups Have 56 in the late 1950s and early 1960s Holger Perfort, lives in Hostrups Have. Emil Hass Christensen, lived at Hostrups Have 20. Ellen Jansø, lived at Hostrups Have 3. Beatrice Bonnesen, lived at Hostrups Have 29. Erika Voigt, lived at Hostrups Have 24. Ellen Løjmar, lived at Hostrups Have 56. Lilly Lamprecht, royal chamber singer, lived at Hostrups Have 4. Leo Mathisen, jazz musician, lived at Hostrups Have 20 in 1937–38. Hans Beck, royal danish ballet dancer and balletmaster in chief, lived at Hostrups Have 46. Frederik Zeuthen and professor, lived at Hostrups Have. Arne Stæhr Johansen and mayor of Frederiksberg, lived in Hostrups Have. Poul Schlüter and prime minister, lived at Hostrups Have. A pscychologist lives in Hostrup's Have in Hans Scherfig's Idealister Official website Source
Frederiksberg Campus (University of Copenhagen)
Frederiksberg Campus is one of the four main campuses of University of Copenhagen in Copenhagen, Denmark. It is located in Frederiksberg and is home to large parts of the Faculty of Science' activities within the fields of natural science and biosciences as well as part of the School of Veterinary Medicine and Animal Science at the Faculty of Health and Medical Sciences, including the University Hospital for Companion Animals; the main campus is located on the west side of Bülowsvej, on both sides of Thorvaldsensvej and Rolighedsvej. It occupies the former grounds of the Royal Veterinary and Agricultural University, merged into the University of Copenhagen in 2007; the main building at Bülowsvej No. 17 is from 1895. The main building at Bülowsvej 17 is a large four-winged complex surrounding a central courtyard; the original three-winged building was designed by Michael Gottlieb Bindesbøll. It was expanded by Johannes Emil Gnudtzmann in 1895; the Great Auditorium features murals by Georg Hilker depicting farm animals, legendary creatures and Flora Danica illustrations.
Most of the other historic buildings are located along the internal streets Grønnegårdsvej, Dyrlægevej and Stigbøjlen. Grønnegårdsvej, a parallel street to Bülowsvej, runs from Thorvaldsensvej in the north to Dyrlægevej in the south; the two identical buildings at Grønnegårdsvej No. 8 and 10 are part of Gottlieb Bindesbøll's original complex from 1856–58 and are listed together with the main building. Gimle, a former community centre at Grundtvigsvej 14, taken over by KVL in 1956, is used as canteen; the area was separated from the rest of the campus. The area was part of KVL's botanical gardens; the central 7-storey building is colloquially known as "The Highrise" on the otherwise flat campus. It was built between 1971 to design by Steen Eiler Rasmussen and Mogens Koch. A new building on Rolighedsvej was completed in 1995 to design my Erik Møllers Arkitekter; the Department of Food Science is basd in the building. Next to it is another modern building, completed in 2013 to design by Wiberg Arkitekter and Witraz/Rambøll, arkitekter.
It is used by the Department of Food Science. Copenhagen Plant Science Center is now under construction on the east side of the 70s building, it is designed by Lundgaard & Tranberg and will consist of four cylindrical buildings with a total area of 13,034 square metres when it is completed in 2019. The area on the north side of Rolighedsvej was part of the Rolighed estate but sold to Københavns Sygehjem in 1859, it was reacquired by KVL in 1922. The university uses the old Rolighed building and its old farm buildings, all of which are listed. Københavns Sygehjem's old main building is now home to the Department of Geosciences and Natural Resource Management; the Late Neoclassical building is the former's Section for Landscape Architecture and Urban Planning. The building was designed by Harald Conrad Stilling, it was expanded by Rørbæk & Møller Arkitekter in 2013. The Department of Food and Resource Economy is located at No. 25. The building to the right was built for Landøkonomisk Forsøgslaboratorium in 1993 to design by Ludvig Fenger.
Landbrugsøkonomisk Forsøgslaboratorium was expanded with a free-standing building designed by Hans Georg Skovgaard to the east in 1935. The two buildings are now connected by a glazed skywalk; when KVL opened in 1864, it comprised a botanical garden. It was known as Landbohøjskolens Botaniske Have but its official name is now Universitetshaverne. One of the old greenhouses has been converted into a café; the garden is located to the west of the old main building. Gartnerboligen contained residential quarters for the gardeners, it has now been converted into rooms for international students. In front of the building at Grønnegårdsvej 7 is a line of busts commemorating former professors and other people associated with the premises, they include Carl Oluf Jensen. On the opposite side of the street is a small plaza with a stone bench and a bust of Peter Christian Abildgaard, founder of the Royal Agrivultural and Veterinary College. In front of Landøkonomisk Forsøgslanoratoirum's former building at Rolighedsvej 25 stands a statue of Niels Fjord, founder of the institution.
The statue was created by Aksel Hansen and was installed in 1892. The University Gardens contain a number of statues. One of them is Vilhelm Bissen's A Milkmaid. Department of Food and Resource Economics Map Map 3
In architecture, functionalism is the principle that buildings should be designed based on the purpose and function of the building. This principle is less self-evident than it first appears, is a matter of confusion and controversy within the profession in regard to modern architecture; the theoretical articulation of functionalism in buildings can be traced back to the Vitruvian triad, where'utilitas' stands alongside'venustas' and'firmitas' as one of three classic goals of architecture. Functionalist views were typical of some gothic revival architects. In particular, Augustus Welby Pugin wrote that "there should be no features about a building which are not necessary for convenience, construction, or propriety" and "all ornament should consist of enrichment of the essential construction of the building"; the debate about functionalism and aesthetics is framed as a mutually exclusive choice, when in fact there are architects, like Will Bruder, James Polshek and Ken Yeang, who attempt to satisfy all three Vitruvian goals.
In the wake of World War I, an international functionalist architecture movement emerged as part of the wave of Modernism. The ideas were inspired by the need to build a new and better world for the people, as broadly and expressed by the social and political movements of Europe after the devastating world war. In this respect, functionalist architecture is linked with the ideas of socialism and modern humanism. A new slight addition to this new wave of functionalism was that not only should buildings and houses be designed around the purpose of functionality, architecture should be used as a means to physically create a better world and a better life for people in the broadest sense; this new functionalist architecture had the strongest impact in Czechoslovakia, Poland, the USSR and the Netherlands, from the 1930s in Scandinavia and Finland. In 1896, Chicago architect Louis Sullivan coined the phrase'form follows function', however this aphorism does not relate to a contemporary understanding of the term ‘function’ as utility or the satisfaction of user needs.
In the mid-1930s, functionalism began to be discussed as an aesthetic approach rather than a matter of design integrity. The idea of functionalism was conflated with lack of ornamentation, a different matter, it became a pejorative term associated with the most bald and brutal ways to cover space, like cheap commercial buildings and sheds finally used, for example in academic criticism of Buckminster Fuller's geodesic domes as a synonym for'gauche'. For 70 years the influential American architect Philip Johnson held that the profession has no functional responsibility whatsoever, this is one of the many views today; the position of postmodern architect Peter Eisenman is based on a user-hostile theoretical basis and more extreme: "I don't do function." Popular notions of modern architecture are influenced by the work of the Franco-Swiss architect Le Corbusier and the German architect Mies van der Rohe. Both were functionalists at least to the extent that their buildings were radical simplifications of previous styles.
In 1923 Mies van der Rohe was working in Weimar Germany, had begun his career of producing radically simplified, lovingly detailed structures that achieved Sullivan's goal of inherent architectural beauty. Le Corbusier famously said "a house is a machine for living in". Functionalist architecture is abundant in Eastern Europe, it came a little late to Scandinavia, developed some slight variations in that region. In Scandinavia, the international movement and ideas of modernist architecture became known among architects at the 1930 Stockholm Exhibition, under the guidance of director and Swedish architect Gunnar Asplund. Enthusiastic architects collected their ideas and inspirations in the manifesto acceptera! and in the years thereafter, a functionalist architecture emerged throughout Scandinavia. The genre involves some peculiar features unique to Scandinavia and it is referred to as "funkis", to distinguish it from functionalism in general; some of the common features are flat roofing, stuccoed walls, architectural glazing and well-lit rooms, an industrial expression and nautical inspired details, including round windows.
The global stock market crisis and economic meltdown in 1929, instigated the needs to use affordable materials, such as brick and concrete, to build and efficiently. These needs became another signature of the Nordic version of functionalist architecture, in particular in buildings from the 1930s, carried over into modernist architecture when industrial serial production became much more prevalent after World War II; as most architectural styles, Nordic funkis was international in its scope and several architects designed Nordic funkis buildings throughout the region. Some of the most active architects working internationally with this style, includes Edvard Heiberg, Arne Jacobsen and Alvar Aalto. Nordic funkis features prominently in Scandinavian urban architecture, as the need for urban housing and new institutions for the growing welfare states exploded after World War II. Funkis had its heyday in the 1930s and 1940s, but functionalist architecture continued to be built long into the 1960s.
These structures, tends to be categorized as modernism in a Nordic context. Vil
Finsensvej is a major street in the Frederiksberg district of Copenhagen, Denmark. The direct continuation of Howitzvej, it runs from Nordre Fasanvej in the east to the northern end of Sønderjyllands Allé in the west where it turns into Jernbane Allé on the municipal border with Vanløse; the street passes under the S-train network's Frederikssund radial. The modern Flintholm neighbourhood is located on the north side of the street and the Lindevang Park on its south side; the street is named after the Nobel Prize-winning physician Niels Ryberg Finsen. Finsensvej was established in 1755 as part of a link between Frederiksberg and Bogholdergården in Vanløse. Finsensvej and present-day Howitzvej were collectively called Lampevej from about 1860; the name referred to one of the first outdoor street lamps in Copenhagen, situated outside a midwife's practice to make it easier for customers to find their way ind the dark. The West Line towards Roskilde crossed Lampevej at Nordre Fasanvej from 1864 when Copenhagen Central Station was moved to a new location.
The road passed through open countryside until the late 19th century. Frederiksberg Brewery opened on the north side of the street in 1880 but closed when it merged with several other breweries under the name De Forenede Bryggerier in 1991. In the 1890s, Frederiksberg Municipality acquired a large site on the north side of Lampevej, west of Nordre Fasanvej, designated for municipal utility and service functions. Frederiksberg Gasworks relocated to the site in 1898, it was joined by the Finsen Power Station in 1908. The two road sections and west of Nordre Fasanvej, received their new name on 1 January 1906; the railway crossing disappeared. Krystalværket, a plant producing ice for cooling, opened in the area in 1914 and Solbjerg Fairty established there in 1925. Frederiksberg Gasworks, Krystalværket, Finsen Power Station and Solbjerg Dairy all closed in the 1960s and most of their buildings were demolished. Treledet, a Functionalist apartment building from 1930–31 design by Palle Suenson and |Thorvald Dreyer, is one of the earliest examples of the bay window-balcony typology which would become emblematic of Danish residential architecture of the 1930s and 1940s.
A yellow building, Målerhuset, located on the eastern corner with Dirch Passers Allé, is the only surviving building from Frederiksberg Gasworks. Built in 1895, it is now used as a local cultural centre, it was listed in 2003. The rest of the gasworks site has since 2004 been under redevelopment into a new mixed-use neighbourhood and is now called Flintholm; the building society development Frederiksberg Kommunale Funktionærers Boligforening known as Frederiksberg Haveby or Ved Grænsen, consisting of some one hundred single family detached homes and double houses were built by Frederiksberg kommunale Funktionærers Boligforening between 1914 and 1919. The architecture is influenced by the Bedre Byggeskik, a Danish version of the Arts and Crafts movement. Fasanvej metro station is situated just south of Finsensvej's eastern end; the station is served by the M2 lines of the Copenhagen Metro. The western part of the street is located midway between Flintholm Station to the north and Peter Bangs Vej station to the south, both of which are stations on the Frederikssund radial of the S-train system.
Flintholm is served by trains on the S-train system's Ring Line and the M1 and M2 metro lines. The street crosses the Ring 2 ring road just after turning into Jernbane Allé on the border to Vanløse. Vintage film about the Finsen Power Station
Åboulevard is a street in central Copenhagen, Denmark. Together with H. C. Andersens Boulevard in the city centre and Borups Allé, it forms a major artery in and out of the city; the road is built over Ladegårds Å, a canal built to supply Copenhagen with water, which still runs in a pipe under it, feeding water into Peblinge Lake. The canal was dug during the late Middle Ages to supply Copenhagen with drinking water from Damhus Lake and from about 1550 Lundehus Lake; the name Ladegårdså originates from Ladegården, a farm under Copenhagen Castle, located on the south bank of the stream where the Radio House is today. It was built in 1623 to provide produce for the royal household and feed for the royal mews but was never a success; the complex was converted into first a military hospice and a poorhouse with an associated textile manufactory. A road on the south side of the stream was called Ladegårdsvej while the north side was called Agade; the lower part of the stream, from Brohusgade to Peblinge Lake, was covered in 1897 to allow for an expansion of the road.
Agade was renamed Åboulevard. Ladegården was replaced by Sundholm on Amager. Ladegårdsvej disappeared in connection with an expansion of Åboulevard and the rest of the remainder of the stream was covered in 1942; the elevated road Åbuen was built in 1970–72, connecting Åboulevard to Borups Allé. The Functionalist apartment building Trekanten on the rounded corner of Åboulevard and Rosenørns Allé was designed by Kay Fisker. In collaboration with C. F. Møller, Fisker designed the neighbouring housing estate, which consists of two buildings surrounding a greenspace called Hermann Triers Plads; the bay windows are typical of his Functionalist style. The buildings were listed in 1981; the Bethlehem Church was designed by Peder Vilhelm Jensen-Klint and completed by his son Kaare Klint in 1937. The design resembles that of Jensen-Klint's most famous work, the monumental Grundtvig's Church in Bispebjerg. Åhusene is named for its patterned brickwork resembling old-fashioned linoleum flooring. The building was designed by Povl Baumann and completed in 1930.
It was listed in 2010. A pyramidical granite stone in the street side outside No. 16 commemorates an accident that occurred on the night between 26 and 27 November 1812 when a carriage with five women and a boy, on its way from the country house Rolighed into town, fell into the water at Ladegården. Two of the women drowned. Tradition had it that a pointed granite stone was installed in the water at the site of the accident to commemorate the event; the stone is an old water level marker. The stone used to have a no longer readable inscription reading "26–27 November 1812; when Ladegårds Å was filled to create the current Åboulevard, this memorial was installed between the trees on the boulevard at the site where it stood in the water". The artwork City Wall is designed by Morte Stræd and was installedin in connection with the creation of three new urban spaces between the Agade Cycle Bridge and Rantzausgade in 2011; the Agade Bicycle Bridge was installed in 2009 as part of the Nørrebro Route, a section of Copenhagen's network of super bikeways.
The super bikeway uses part of the alignment of the abandoned rail line between Nørrebro station and Copenhagen's second Central Station at Axeltorv on its way from Emdrup in the north to Valby in the south. It has been proposed to re-establish the Ladegårdså Canal by placing it on top of a 3-km long car tunnel; the project was put on hold in 2013. H. C. Ørsteds Vej