Radiometry is a set of techniques for measuring electromagnetic radiation, including visible light. Radiometric techniques in optics characterize the distribution of the radiation's power in space, as opposed to photometric techniques, which characterize the light's interaction with the human eye. Radiometry is distinct from quantum techniques such as photon counting; the use of radiometers to determine the temperature of objects and gasses by measuring radiation flux is called pyrometry. Handheld pyrometer devices are marketed as infrared thermometers. Radiometry is important in astronomy radio astronomy, plays a significant role in Earth remote sensing; the measurement techniques categorized as radiometry in optics are called photometry in some astronomical applications, contrary to the optics usage of the term. Spectroradiometry is the measurement of absolute radiometric quantities in narrow bands of wavelength. Integral quantities describe the total effect of radiation of all wavelengths or frequencies, while spectral quantities describe the effect of radiation of a single wavelength λ or frequency ν.
To each integral quantity there are corresponding spectral quantities, for example the radiant flux Φe corresponds to the spectral power Φe,λ and Φe,ν. Getting an integral quantity's spectral counterpart requires a limit transition; this comes from the idea that the requested wavelength photon existence probability is zero. Let us show the relation between them using the radiant flux as an example: Integral flux, whose unit is W: Φ e. Spectral flux by wavelength, whose unit is W/m: Φ e, λ = d Φ e d λ, where d Φ e is the radiant flux of the radiation in a small wavelength interval; the area under a plot with wavelength horizontal axis equals to the total radiant flux. Spectral flux by frequency, whose unit is W/Hz: Φ e, ν = d Φ e d ν, where d Φ e is the radiant flux of the radiation in a small frequency interval; the area under a plot with frequency horizontal axis equals to the total radiant flux. The spectral quantities by wavelength λ and frequency ν are related to each other, since the product of the two variables is the speed of light: Φ e, λ = c λ 2 Φ e, ν, or Φ e, ν = c ν 2 Φ e, λ, or λ Φ e, λ = ν Φ e, ν.
The integral quantity can be obtained by the spectral quantity's integration: Φ e = ∫ 0 ∞ Φ e, λ d λ = ∫ 0 ∞ Φ e, ν d ν = ∫ 0 ∞ λ Φ e, λ d ln λ = ∫ 0 ∞ ν Φ e, ν d ln ν. Reflectivity Microwave radiometer Measurement of Ionizing Radiation Radiometry and photometry FAQ Professor Jim Palmer's Radiometry FAQ page
This is a list of heads of state, heads of governments, other rulers in the year 1553. Ethiopian Empire – Gelawdewos Kingdom of Kongo – Diogo I, Manikongo Sennar Sultanate – Abd al-Qadir I Songhai Empire – Askia Daoud, Askia of the Songhai Empire Aceh Sultanate, Alauddin al-Kahar Ahom kingdom – Arakkal kingdom – Ali Raja Ali, Raja of Arakkal Ayutthaya Kingdom – Maha Chakkraphat Banten Sultanate, Hasanudin Burma - Bayinnaung Martaban - Minye Sithu of Martaban, Viceroy China - Jiajing Emperor Jaffna Kingdom – Cankili I Japan Monarch – Emperor Go-Nara Ashikaga shogunate - Ashikaga Yoshiteru Joseon – Myeongjong Mughal Empire – Ibrahim Sur Ryukyu Kingdom – Shō Sei Sultanate of Sulu – Sultan Nasir ud-Din I Vijayanagara Empire – Rama Raya Kingdom of Denmark and Norway – Christian III Duchy of Schleswig – Adolphus, Christian III, John II in condominial rule England Edward VI Jane Mary I Kingdom of France – Henry II Holy Roman Empire – Charles V Duchy of Holstein – Adolphus, Christian III, John II in condominial rule Hungary - Royal Hungary – Ferdinand I Eastern Hungarian Kingdom – John II Sigismund Zápolya Polish–Lithuanian union – Sigismund II, Grand Duke of Lithuania and King of Poland Moldavia – Alexandru Lăpușneanu, Voivode of Moldavia Kingdom of Navarre – Henry II d'Albret Ottoman Empire – Suleiman the Magnificent Papal States – Pope Julius III Kingdom of Portugal and the Algarves – John III Grand Duchy of Moscow – Ivan IV, the Terrible, Grand Prince of Moscow Tsar of Russia Duchy of Savoy – Emmanuel Philibert Kingdom of Scotland – Mary, Queen of Scots Kingdom of Sweden – Gustav I Vasa Republic of Venice – Francesco Donato, Doge of Venice Marcantonio Trivisan, Doge of Venice Principality of Wallachia – Radu Ilie Haidăul, Voivode of Wallachia Safavid Empire – Tahmasp I, Shah of Iran
Linhevenator is a genus of short-armed troodontid theropod dinosaur from the Late Cretaceous Bayan Mandahu Formation of Bayan Mandahu, Inner Mongolia, China. The type species Linhevenator tani was named and described in 2011 by Xu Xing, Tan Qingwei, Corwin Sullivan, Han Fenglu and Xiao Dong; the generic name combines a reference to the Linhe region with a Latin venator, "hunter". The specific name honours Professor Tan Lin; the holotype of Linhevenator is specimen LHV0021, a partial skeleton of an adult individual, including a cranium and mandible, six dorsal vertebrae, a right scapula, a right humerus, the ilia, a left femur and a left foot. It was found in 2009 and represents the most complete troodontid remains known from the Upper Cretaceous, its four autapomorphies include a jugal with a lateral flange, a surangular crest, anteroventrally oriented, the presence of medial expansion near the distal end of the femur, a wide longitudinal groove present along the distal third of the dorsal surface of the third metatarsal.
Linhevenator is a group of small, bird-like, gracile maniraptorans. All troodontids have many unique features of the skull, such as spaced teeth in the lower jaw, large numbers of teeth. Troodontids have sickle-claws and raptorial hands, some of the highest non-avian encephalization quotients, meaning they were behaviourally advanced and had keen senses. Linhevenator is a rather large troodontid with an estimated body weight of 23 kg; the arms are short but the humerus is robust. The describers suggest the arm might have been used for climbing; the first toe was preserved instead of pointing forwards. Linhevenator has a dromaeosaurid-like pedal digit II, carrying a sickle-claw larger than that of basal troodontids. Linhevenator was assigned to the Troodontidae by the describers, it possesses a combination of "primitive" and derived characters, but was found to be a derived troodontid in a phylogenetic analysis, in a polytomy with Troodon and a clade formed by Zanabazar and Saurornithoides. This position was seen by the authors as an indication for an evolutionary trend in the Troodontidae of shortening the forelimbs and for a parallel evolution of large sickle-claws with both the troodontids and the dromaeosaurids.
Timeline of troodontid research Theropoda post on Linhevenator
Gary Barta is the current athletic director at the University of Iowa. He succeeded Bob Bowlsby on 1 August 2006, when Bowlsby stepped down after 15 years as Iowa's athletic director to take the same position at Stanford University. Before coming to Iowa, Barta was the athletic director at the University of Wyoming from 2003 to 2006. In early 2005, Barta was a finalist for the athletic director position at Arizona State University. Prior to serving as the athletic director at Wyoming, Barta served as an administrator in the athletic departments at the University of Washington and University of Northern Iowa. Barta was born on 4 September 1963, grew up in the Minneapolis area. Barta earned his bachelor's degree from North Dakota State University. While at NDSU, he was a member of the Bison football teams that won the NCAA Division II Football Championship in 1983, 1985, 1986, he and his wife Connie, a native of Waterloo, have two children. Barta became the director of athletics at the University of Iowa on 1 August 2006.
He has spearheaded numerous upgrades to existing athletic facilities and the construction of many new facilities, including the expansion of the administrative office complex at Carver–Hawkeye Arena, the expansion of the wrestling training facility, the building of new practice gyms and weight training facilities at the Carver–Hawkeye Arena. Other upgrades include improvement of the sound system and video boards at Kinnick Stadium, construction of the Hoak Family Golf Complex, building both the P. Sue Beckwith Boat House and the Campus Recreation and Aquatic Center in partnership with the university's department of recreational services. In the fall of 2014, the new Stew & LeNore Hansen Football Performance Center was completed, which includes the new Richard O. Jacobson Football Operations Center and a new 120-yard indoor practice field. In late 2014, a new artificial baseball playing surface was installed at Duane Banks Field. In 2016, new video scoreboards were installed at the Carver-Hawkeye Arena.
Barta has hired numerous new head coaches including Mark Hankins and Tyler Stith. Iowa's NACDA Director's Cup Big Ten Rankings By Year under Barta: 2006-07: 11th; the new contract includes $4.6 million in guaranteed compensation with an increase each in annual base salary, annual deferred compensation, annual bonuses. In October 2017, it was revealed, he notified the university that he will be taking an extended leave of absence until he is able to recover. Barbara Burke took over the athletic director responsibilities. In 2010, a former member of the women's crew, Margaret Krusing, filed a lawsuit against the University of Iowa for permanent disabilities she received as a result of participating in a team-training program, poorly supervised by medical and athletic training personnel; the two sides settled the lawsuit for $300,000 in October 2013. The athletic department had previously agreed to pay $60,000 to Krusing by keeping her on her athletic scholarship after she left Iowa to finish her degree at Marquette University.
In November 2012, Peter Gray, associate director of athletic student services, resigned from University of Iowa after an internal investigation accused him of sexually harassing male student-athletes. Gray was accused of giving football tickets to someone outside the university in exchange for nude photographs, he had pictures on his work computer that were considered "suggestive in nature", including a picture of the men's swimming team he used as a screen saver and two showing individuals engaged in sexual acts with toys or stuffed animals. On 6 November 2013, athletic department accountant, Kathleen Willier, was fired after an audit showed $66,000 of department funds were not accounted for; the funds were cash payments from ticket sales for the Hawkeye Express commuter train used to transport fans to and from Kinnick Stadium for home football gamesOn 4 August 2014, Barta fired field hockey coach, Tracey Griesbaum, following what he said were allegations from a group of former players who complained that Griesbaum had been verbally abusive to them, had created an atmosphere of intimidation within the program.
This led to a vocal outcry from many current and former players and other supporters who called for the immediate reinstatement of Griesbaum as the head coach. The Iowa Board of Regents and University of Iowa President Sally Mason refused to hear or consider any appeal to the dismissal; this led to four current and former field hockey players filing, on 28 January 2015, a formal Title IX Civil Rights complaint to the U. S Department of Education. After an initial inquiry, the US Department of Education informed the University of Iowa on 22 May 2015, that it will conduct a formal investigation to determine if gender bias was a factor in the firing of Griesbaum and other female coaches at Iowa. On 5 May 2016, a story by Annie Brown of the Center for Investigative Reporting was published
Uppland Runic Inscription 100 is the Rundata designation for a memorial runestone, located in the forest where a path meets a bog near Skälby, about two kilometers northeast of Sollentuna, Stockholm County, part of the historical province of Uppland. This runestone, made of granite and is 2.1 meters in height, has an inscription which consists of runic text within serpent bands and a Christian cross. It is classified as being carved in runestone style Pr4, part of the general Urnes style of Scandinavian animal art; this runestone style is characterized by slim and stylized animals that are interwoven into tight patterns. The animal heads are seen in profile with slender almond-shaped eyes and upwardly curled appendages on the noses and the necks; the runestone belongs to a number of runestones that were raised by the influential Skålhamra family, which had runestones made at Arkils tingstad and who commissioned the Risbyle Runestones. × guriþ × lit × raisa × stain × at * ulfkel × sun × sin × auk * kui *...... broþur * sin × auk × at × hulmtisi * sustur * sina × Gyrið let ræisa stæin at Ulfkel, sun sinn, ok Gyi...... broður sinn ok at Holmdisi, systur sina.
Gyríðr had the stone raised in memory of Ulfkell, her son, Gýi...... Their brother, in memory of Holmdís, their sister
Agrivoltaics known as agrophotovoltaics, is co-developing the same area of land for both solar photovoltaic power as well as for agriculture. This technique was conceived by Adolf Goetzberger and Armin Zastrow in 1981; the coexistence of solar panels and crops implies a sharing of light between these two types of production. Agrivoltaics has been massively implemented in Japan since 2004 and Agrivoltaics has expanded in Asia and Europe. Several crops can benefit from these systems, including fruit production. In 1981, Adolf Goetzberger and Armin Zastrow were the first to propose the concept of a dual use of arable land for solar energy production and plant cultivation in order to improve overall production, they were addressing the ongoing discussion on the competition for the use of arable land between solar energy production and crop. The light saturation point is the maximum amount of photons absorbable by a plant species; as more photons won’t increase to the rate of photosynthesis, Akira Nagashima suggest to combine PV systems and farming to use the excess of light.
He developed the first prototypes in Japan in 2004. The term “agrivoltaic“ was used for the first time in a publication in 2011; the concept is known under several names in the world: "agrophotovoltaics" in Germany, "agrovoltaics" in Italy, "solar sharing" in Asia. Facilities such as photovoltaic greenhouses can be considered as agrivoltaic systems; as one of the objectives of the agricultural systems is to preserve agricultural land, it is considered that agricultural production in agrivoltaic should not be neglected. The constraints on agricultural production vary from one country to another according to the legislation or according to the type of crop and to the objectives of the agrivoltaic system. Japan has been the forerunner in the development of open field agrivoltaics worldwide since 2004. Between 2004 and 2017, more than 1,000 open field power plants were developed in Japan. In 2004 in Japan, Akira Nagashima developed a demountable structure. Removable structures allow farmers to remove or move facilities based on crop rotations and their needs.
Large plants with capacities of several MW have been developed since 2004 with permanent structures and dynamic systems. For example, a 35 MW power plant, installed on 54 ha of crops, was commissioned in 2017; the shading rate of this plant is 50%, a value higher than the 30% shading used on Japanese agrivoltaic power plants. Farmers cultivate, among others, ginseng and coriander. Soon, the island of Ukujima should host a solar power plant of 480 MW, part of which will be agrivoltaics; the project has been under study since 2013 and the various partners have signed an agreement for the start of construction in 2019. To obtain permission to exploit solar panels over crops, Japanese law requires farmers to maintain at least 80% of agricultural production. In 2016, the Italian company REM TEC built a 0.5 MWp agrivoltaic power plant in Jinzhai County, Anhui Province. Chinese companies have developed several GWs of solar power plants combining agriculture and solar energy production, either photovoltaic greenhouses or open-field installations.
For example, in August 2016, Panda Green Energy installed solar panels over vineyards in Turpan, Xinjiang Uygur Autonomous Region. The 0.2 MW plant was connected to the grid. The project was audited in October 2017 and the company has received approval to roll out its system across the country. Projects of several tens of MW have been deployed. For instance, in 2016, in Jiangxi Province, a 70 MW agrivoltaic plant was installed on agricultural and forestry crops. In 2017 the Chinese company Fuyang Angkefeng Optoelectronic Technology Co；Ltd. Established a 50 KWp agrivoltaic power plant test side in Fuyang city, Anhui Province; the system leverages a novel technology concept for agrivoltaic (see below0. It was developed at the Institute of Advanced technology of the university of Science and Technology of China in Hefei under the guidance of Prof. Wen Liu, the inventor of this new technology. For 30 years, the Elion Group has been trying to combat desertification in the Kubuqi region. Among the techniques used, agrivoltaic systems were installed to protect crops and produce electricity.
Regarding the equipment for the desert areas, Wan You-Bao patented in 2007 on a shade system to protect crops in the desert. The shades are equipped with solar panels. South Korea is conducting initial tests of agrivoltaic power plants, drawing on the Japanese example since 2017. Agrivoltaic is one of the solutions studied to increase the share of renewable energies in Korea's energy mix, their goal is to reach 20% renewable energy in 2030 against 5% in 2017. SolarFarm. Ltd has produced rice. Since Korea adapted agrivoltaic power plant has been developed and is being tested. In January of 2019 Korea Agrivoltaic Association was established to promote and develop South Korea's agrivoltaic industry. Projects for isolated sites are being studied by Amity University in Noida, northern India. A study published in 2017 looks at the potential of agrivoltaism for vineyards in India; the agrivoltaic systems studied in this article consist of solar panels intercalated between crops to limit shading on plants.
This study suggests that agrivoltaic systems can increase the incomes of Indian farmers. The Universiti Putra Malaysia, which specializes in agronomy, launched experiments in 2015 on plantations of Orthosiphon stamineus, it is a fixed structure installed on an experimental surface of about 0.4 ha. Fraunhofer ISE has deployed their agriv