Architecture in Copenhagen
Since 2000 Copenhagen has seen a boom in modern architecture with notable contributions both by leading international architects and a wave of new successful Danish architects. The oldest preserved building in Copenhagens inner city is considered to be the Church of St. Petri and its tower, the central nave and the choir date back to the 16th century. The most important medieval building in the Copenhagen area is Roskilde Cathedral from 1170 located in the city of Roskilde west of Copenhagen that used to be the capital before Copenhagen. Over the centuries Copenhagen grew in importance and a number of important landmarks of present-day Copenhagen date back to the late 16th and early 17th centuries. This can be attributed to the effort of Christian IV which is popularly known as the builder king in Denmark because of his legacy of. Rosenborg Castle and his exchange in central Copenhagen as well as Frederiksborg Palace in Hillerød are both build in Dutch Renaissance. Christian IV founded the neighbourhoods of Christianshavn and Nyboder as well as important green spaces as Kings Garden.
Baroque buildings in Copenhagen include the Round Tower and the Church of Our Saviour as well as Fredensborg Palace, frederiksstaden was constructed during the reign of Frederick V in the second half of the 18th century and is considered to be one of the most important rococo complexes in Europe. It was developed to commemorated the 300 years jubilee of the House of Oldenburg taking the throne in Denmark, leading the project was A. G. Moltke, with Nicolai Eigtved as the main architect. The district is characterized by broad streets in a straight-angled street layout. The streets are lined by houses and palaces. Another important building in the district is the royal Frederiks Hospital was Denmarks first hospital in the meaning of the word. It now houses the Danish Museum of Art & Design, recent years have seen a boom in modern architecture in Copenhagen both for Danish architecture and for works by international architects. At the same time, a number of Danish architects have achieved success in Copenhagen, buildings in Copenhagen have won RIBA European Awards four years in a row The last three are all by Lundgaard & Tranberg Architects.
At the 2008 World Architecture Festival in Barcelona, Bjarke Ingels Group won an award for the Worlds Best Residential Building 2008 for a house in Ørestad, in 2008 British design magazine Monocle named Copenhagen the Worlds best design city 2008
Arne Emil Jacobsen, Hon. FAIA was a Danish architect and designer. He is remembered for his contribution to architectural Functionalism as well as for the success he enjoyed with simple. Arne Jacobsen was born on 11 February 1902 in Copenhagen and his father Johan was a wholesale trader in safety pins and snap fasteners. His mother Pouline was a bank teller whose hobby was painting floral motifs and he first hoped to become a painter but was dissuaded by his father who encouraged him to opt instead for the more secure domain of architecture. Still a student, in 1925 Jacobsen participated in the Paris Art Deco fair, Exposition Internationale des Arts Décoratifs et Industriels Modernes, on that trip, he was struck by the pioneering aesthetic of Le Corbusiers LEsprit Nouveau pavilion. Before leaving the Academy, Jacobsen travelled to Germany, where he acquainted with the rationalist architecture of Mies van der Rohe. Their work influenced his early designs including his graduation project, an art gallery, after completing architecture school, he first worked at city architect Poul Holsøes architectural practice.
It was a spiral-shaped, flat-roofed house in glass and concrete, incorporating a private garage, a boathouse, other striking features were windows that rolled down like car windows, a conveyor tube for the mail and a kitchen stocked with ready-made meals. A Dodge Cabriolet Coupé was parked in the garage, there was a Chris Craft in the boathouse, Jacobsen immediately became recognised as an ultra-modern architect. The year after winning the House of the Future award, Arne Jacobsen set up his own office and he designed the functionalist Rothenborg House, which he planned in every detail, a characteristic of many of his works. Soon afterwards, he won a competition from Gentofte Municipality for the design of a resort complex in Klampenborg on the Øresund coast just north of Copenhagen. The various components of the resort became his major breakthrough in Denmark. In 1932, the first item, the Bellevue Sea Bath, was completed, Jacobsen designed everything from the characteristic blue-striped lifeguard towers and changing cabins to the tickets, season cards and even the uniforms of the employees.
The focal point of the area was supposed to have been a tower, more than a hundred metres high with a revolving restaurant at the top. Still, it is reflected in the arrangement of buildings in the area which all follow lines that extend from their missing centre. In 1934, came the Bellavista residential development, built in concrete and glass, with surfaces and open floor planning. Completing the white trilogy in 1937, the Bellevue Theatre featured a retractable roof allowing open-air performances and these early works clearly show the influence of the White Cubist architecture Jacobsen had encountered in Germany, particularly at the Weissenhof Estate in Stuttgart. The cluster of buildings at Bellevue includes the Skovshoved Filling Station
Vesterbro is one of the 15 administrative and city tax districts comprising the municipality of Copenhagen, Denmark. It covers an area of 3.76 km², and has a population of 51,466, the district is located west of the city center at the location of the old Western Gate, access way into the old city. The name Vesterbro literally translates into English as Western Bridge, Vesterbro is the area of the bridge into the city of Copenhagen, which was a much smaller city at the time when the name was created. At that time, the city was ringed by a moat which exist today as the Tivoli lake, the area is under the process of being renovated to a great extent and the renovation will end in 2017. The environment and sustainability is one of the reasons for the renovation. Vesterbro has a location that makes it a favored place to live. The area is known as the easy place to get drugs in Copenhagen. Vesterbro was originally the name of the country road that led into the city center from the west. Few country roads in those days were paved, but the amount of traffic into the capital necessitated it.
Until 1853 after the epidemic that had hit Copenhagen, there had been a no build zone outside Copenhagen’s old part of town. This Demarcation Line indicated an area beyond the city’s centuries old defense wall system where Copenhagen’s defense forces could strike the enemy unhindered, until there was little development outside the center of the city, except with special permission. Even though much of the area was used as grazing land,1,000 inhabitants of the area, as well as a number of commercial enterprises, and the house of the Royal Copenhagen Shooting Society and Danish Brotherhood. The society received permission to build outside the old city limits in the 1750s, and this movement came first to the inner ring of areas outside the center, the Indre Østerbro, the Indre Nørrebro and Frederiksberg. At that time the name Vesterbro began being used for the area around the street named Vesterbro
Hotel dAngleterre is one of the first deluxe hotels in the world. Situated in the heart of Copenhagen, Denmark, it is located on Kongens Nytorv opposite Charlottenborg, while its history dates back to 1755, it has been in its current building since a fire, in 1795, damaged the previous building beyond repair. Its name is French and means the England Hotel, the Hotel dAngleterre re-opened in May 2013 following extensive restorations. The new dAngleterre has 30 rooms and 60 suites and it has a 1-star Michelin restaurant, led by executive chef, Andreas Bagh, a cocktail and champagne bar as well as a spa and health club. Condé Nast Traveler has included Hotel DAngleterre on its Gold List 2015 of the best hotels in the world
In 1978 he was awarded an American Institute of Architects Gold Medal and in 1979 the first Pritzker Architecture Prize. Johnson was born in Cleveland, Ohio on July 8,1906 and he was descended from the Jansen family of New Amsterdam, and included among his ancestors the Huguenot Jacques Cortelyou, who laid out the first town plan of New Amsterdam for Peter Stuyvesant. In 1928 he met Ludwig Mies van der Rohe, who was at the time designing the German Pavilion for the 1929 Barcelona International Exposition. The meeting formed the basis for a relationship of both collaboration and competition In 1930, Johnson joined the architecture department of the Museum of Modern Art in New York. There he arranged for American visits by Gropius and Le Corbusier, in 1932, working with Hitchcock and Alfred H. Barr, Jr. and Henry-Russell Hitchcock, he organized the first exhibition on Modern architecture at the Museum of Modern Art in 1932. The show and their published book International Style, Modern Architecture Since 1922 played an important part in introducing modern architecture to the American public.
When the rise of the Nazis in Germany forced the modernists Marcel Breuer and Mies van der Rohe to leave Germany, in 1936, in the depths of the Great Depression, he left the Museum of Modern Art for a brief venture into journalism and politics. In his 1994 biography of Johnson, Schultze wrote, In politics he proved to be a model of futility and he was never much of a political threat to anyone, still less an effective doer of either political good or political evil. In 1941, at the age of 35, Johnson abandoned politics and journalism and enrolled in the Harvard Graduate School of Design, in 1941, Johnson designed and actually built his first building, a house still existing at 9 Ash Street in Cambridge, Massachusetts. The house, strongly influenced by Mies van der Rohe, has a wall around the lot which merges with the structure, after the United States entered World War II in December 1941, Johnson enlisted in the Army. He spent his service during the war in the United States. In 1946, after he completed his service, Johnson returned to the Museum of Modern Art as a curator.
At the same time, he began working to establish his architectural practice and he built a small house, in th style of Mies, in Saaponack, Long Island in 1946. This was followed by one of this most famous buildings, which he built for himself, the Glass House in New Canaan, completed in 1949, which has become a landmark of modern architecture. Johnson had curated an exhibit of Mies van der Rohes at the Museum of Modern Art in 1947, the house is a 56 foot by 32 foot glass rectangle, sited at the edge of a crest on Johnsons estate overlooking a pond. The buildings sides are glass and charcoal-painted steel, the floor, of brick, is not flush with the ground, the interior is an open space divided by low walnut cabinets, a brick cylinder contains the bathroom and is the only object to reach floor to ceiling. The New York Times described it in 2005 as one of the 20th centurys greatest residential structures, Johnson continued to add to the Glass House estate during each period of his career. After completing the Glass House, he completed two more houses in New Canaan in a similar to that of Mies, the Hodgson House
Copenhagen Admiral Hotel
Admiral Hotel is a hotel in central Copenhagen, located on the waterfront between the mouth of the Nyhavn canal and the royal residence Amalienborg Palace. The building is a former warehouse, the buildings were completed in 1787 to designs by engineering officer Ernst Peymann. They were taken over by the Crown in 1788 and came into use as grainaries, the two buildings were connected in 1885, creating the long building seen today. The building stored up to 30,000 barrels of grain, the building was acquired by private investors in 1973 for redevelopment as a hotel. The architects Flemming Hertz and Ole Ramsgaard Thomsen undertook the conversion which was rewarded with an Nostra diploma from the European Union, the hotel opened its foors in January 1978. The main entrance is on Toldbodgade, the hotel is surrounded by the Royal Playhouse and Sankt Annæ Plads to the south, Amalienborg to the west and Amalie Garden to the north. It contains facilities and SALT restaurant & bar which was designed by London-based Conran & Partner.
Official website Pictures of Copenhagen Admiral Hotel on flickr. com
Time is an American weekly news magazine published in New York City. It was founded in 1923 and for decades was dominated by Henry Luce, a European edition is published in London and covers the Middle East, Africa and, since 2003, Latin America. An Asian edition is based in Hong Kong, the South Pacific edition, which covers Australia, New Zealand and the Pacific Islands, is based in Sydney, Australia. In December 2008, Time discontinued publishing a Canadian advertiser edition, Time has the worlds largest circulation for a weekly news magazine, and has a readership of 26 million,20 million of which are based in the United States. As of 2012, it had a circulation of 3.3 million making it the eleventh most circulated magazine in the United States reception room circuit, as of 2015, its circulation was 3,036,602. Richard Stengel was the editor from May 2006 to October 2013. Nancy Gibbs has been the editor since October 2013. Time magazine was created in 1923 by Briton Hadden and Henry Luce, the two had previously worked together as chairman and managing editor respectively of the Yale Daily News.
They first called the proposed magazine Facts and they wanted to emphasize brevity, so that a busy man could read it in an hour. They changed the name to Time and used the slogan Take Time–Its Brief and it set out to tell the news through people, and for many decades the magazines cover depicted a single person. More recently, Time has incorporated People of the Year issues which grew in popularity over the years, notable mentions of them were Barack Obama, Steve Jobs, Matej Turk, etc. The first issue of Time was published on March 3,1923, featuring Joseph G. Cannon, the retired Speaker of the House of Representatives, on its cover, a facsimile reprint of Issue No. 1, including all of the articles and advertisements contained in the original, was included with copies of the February 28,1938 issue as a commemoration of the magazines 15th anniversary. The cover price was 15¢ On Haddens death in 1929, Luce became the dominant man at Time, the Intimate History of a Publishing Enterprise 1923–1941.
In 1929, Roy Larsen was named a Time Inc. director, J. P. Morgan retained a certain control through two directorates and a share of stocks, both over Time and Fortune. Other shareholders were Brown Brothers W. A. Harriman & Co. the Intimate History of a Changing Enterprise 1957–1983. According to the September 10,1979 issue of The New York Times, after Time magazine began publishing its weekly issues in March 1923, Roy Larsen was able to increase its circulation by utilizing U. S. radio and movie theaters around the world. It often promoted both Time magazine and U. S. political and corporate interests, Larsen next arranged for a 30-minute radio program, The March of Time, to be broadcast over CBS, beginning on March 6,1931
Frederick IX of Denmark
Frederick IX was King of Denmark from 1947 to 1972. Born into the House of Glücksburg, Frederick was the eldest son of King Christian X and he became Crown Prince when his father succeeded as king in 1912. As a young man, he was educated at the Royal Danish Naval Academy, in 1935, he was married to Princess Ingrid of Sweden and they had three daughters, Margrethe and Anne-Marie. During Nazi Germanys occupation of Denmark, Frederick acted as regent on behalf of his father from 1942 until 1943, Frederick became king on his fathers death in early 1947. Denmark modernized, bringing new demands on the monarchy and Fredericks role as a constitutional monarch, Frederick IX died in 1972, and was succeeded by his elder daughter, Margrethe. Prince Frederick was born on 11 March 1899 at Sorgenfri Palace in Kongens Lyngby on Zealand during the reign of his great-grandfather King Christian IX and his father was Prince Christian of Denmark, the eldest son of Crown Prince Frederick and Princess Louise of Sweden.
His mother was Alexandrine of Mecklenburg-Schwerin, a daughter of Frederick Francis III, Grand Duke of Mecklenburg-Schwerin and he was baptised at Sorgenfri Palace on 9 April 1899. Fredericks only sibling, was one year after Frederick. In 1914, the King built the villa Klitgården in Skagen in Northern Jutland, Christian IX died on 29 January 1906, and Fredericks grandfather Crown Prince Frederick succeeded him as King Frederick VIII. Fredericks father became crown prince, and Frederick moved up to second in line to the throne, just six years later, on 14 May 1912, King Frederick VIII died, and Fredericks father ascended the throne as King Christian X. Frederick himself now became crown prince. However, as a referendum established the Republic of Iceland on 17 June 1944. Frederick was educated at the Royal Danish Naval Academy and the University of Copenhagen, before he became king, he had acquired the rank of Rear Admiral and he had had several senior commands on active service. He acquired several tattoos during his naval service, in addition, with his great love of music, the king was an able piano player and conductor.
In 1922, Frederick was engaged to Princess Olga of Greece and Denmark, his second cousin. Instead, on 15 March 1935, a few days after his 36th birthday, he was engaged to Princess Ingrid of Sweden and they were related in several ways. In descent from Oscar I of Sweden and Leopold, Grand Duke of Baden, in descent from Paul I of Russia, Frederick was a fourth cousin of Ingrids mother. They married in Stockholm Cathedral on 24 May 1935, on 20 April 1947, Christian X died, and Frederick succeeded to the throne. He was proclaimed king from the balcony of Christiansborg Palace by Prime Minister Knud Kristensen, Frederick IXs reign saw great change
Skodsborg Spa Hotel
Skodsborg Spa Hotel is a hotel and health resort in Skodsborg, on the Strandvejen coastal road,15 km north of Copenhagen, Denmark. Named the Best Luxury Wellness Spa in Europe by the international World Luxury Hotel Awards in 2016, Skodsborg Sanatorium was founded by the physician Carl Ottesen and the Seventh-day Adventist Church in 1898. Ottesens inspiration came from John Harvey Kellogg for whom he had worked at the Health Reform Institute, back in Denmark, he first opened Frydenstrand Sanatorium in association with the Adventist Churchs folk high school in Frederikshavn. In 1897, he purchased two buildings in Skodsborg which had served as a summer retreat for King Frederick VII. Skodsborg sanatorium opened in 1889 where Ottesen founded Den Sanitære Førevarefabrik, the new sanatorium had originally room for 20 patients but was expanded with a new main building in 1907 when the remaining part of the royal symmer residence, Villa Rex, was acquired. The institution became known as Den Hvide By or Persilleslottet due to the vegetarian diet that was served to the patients.
The sanatorium served as a facility for chefs and physiotherapists. Kellogg visited the sanatorium in 1926, the Adventist Church sold Skodsborg Sanatorium to the Augustinus Foundation in 1992. The complex has been restored and expanded by Henning Larsen Architects, Countess Danners Mansion is a 13 bay long detached, two-storey wing located to the outh of th main building. The building has a hlf hipped roof with blue tiles, the building, as it appears today, is from 1952, when the original building from 1800 was expanded by Peter Kornerup. Villa Rex is from 1858 and was designed by Johan Henrik Nebelong, the Lobby is a combined lounge and cocktail bar. The restaurant serves New Nordic cuisine, the head chef is Philip Scheel Grønkjær. The modern extension contains a pool area, yoga hall. In the park to the south of Countess Danners Mansion is a grotto which was built by Frederick VII in 1853. It is made of reavertine and iron slags, Its interior features imitated stalactites, a winding, partly internal staircase on the rear side of the mound leads to the top for good views of Skodsborg and the Øresund.
Søgaard, Torsten, Et halvt år i Skodsborg, jeppe Aakjærs rekreationsophold på Skodsborg Sanatorium 1927-28 In Søllerødbogen 2013