Chanticleer Garden is a forty-eight-acre botanical garden built on the grounds of the Rosengarten estate at 786 Church Road in Wayne, Pennsylvania. Located on Philadelphia's historic Main Line, Chanticleer retains a domestic scale and is welcoming to visitors for relaxation and picnics; the grounds became open to the public in 1993. Visitors are welcome to tour the estate seasonally, from April through October; the house and grounds were added to the National Register of Historic Places in 1984. The estate was built in 1912 as a summer cottage for Christine Penrose and Adolph G. Rosengarten, Sr. the latter of whom was the head of Rosengarten & Sons, a Philadelphia pharmaceutical manufacturer that his family had founded in 1822 to produce quinine. The company merged with Merck & Co in 1927. Upon inheriting the estate, their son, Adolph G. Rosengarten, Jr. established a foundation to ensure that Chanticleer would be developed as a public garden. The name Chanticleer is derived from the French word for rooster, "chanticleer".
The entrance gate is crested with carved stone rooster and other references to roosters can be found throughout the estate. Adolph G. Rosengarten, Jr. hired a native of Britain, to develop the garden. After Rosengarten, Jr.'s death in 1990, Woods became the founding Executive Director and began a radical revision of the garden. He tore down Mr. Rosengarten's stone house to create what is now known as "The Ruin". Chanticleer consists of a collection of open large trees. Different sections of the botanical gardens include: Chanticleer House, the Main House, connecting to the entrance and Teacup Garden, which includes an open air porch, providing a popular spot for visitors to sit and relax Asian Woods, planting for which began in 1995, after being cleared the previous year, now hosting a variety of species native to Korea and China, but in the style of an American woodland garden Pond Garden, a large man-made circular pond constructed in the early 1970s, acting as a mirror for the trees that surround it Teacup Garden, a small-scale garden serving as the entrance courtyard to the property Minder Woods, a vegetated area with towering red oaks and dark green pines, false cypresses, hemlocks, accessible via meandering stone paths Tennis Court Garden, estate's old tennis court, transformed into a dynamic garden "The Ruin" Garden, the Minder House, built in 1925 and razed in 1999 to offer a series of spaces and fountains Gravel Garden, small garden spaces, connected by a series of steps, home to a variety of species of plants that are rare to the area and climate Cutting Garden, a traditional cottage garden with a series of arches, fashioned from rebar and driftwood, providing venues for clematis and annual vines Vegetable garden, where rustic benches help frame a simple traditional American vegetable garden Bell's Run, with adjacent woods giving way to undulating lawns, a stream, a functional 1940s waterwheel Bell's Woodland, opened in April, 2012, consisting of plants eastern North American forest Bulb Meadow, on a hillside, highlighted by Spanish bluebells and fragile daffodils List of botanical gardens in the United States Chanticleer Garden Chanticleer: A Pleasure Garden by Adrian Higgins.
Photographs by Rob Cardillo
Wales is a country, part of the United Kingdom and the island of Great Britain. It is bordered by England to the east, the Irish Sea to the north and west, the Bristol Channel to the south, it had a population in 2011 of 3,063,456 and has a total area of 20,779 km2. Wales has over 1,680 miles of coastline and is mountainous, with its higher peaks in the north and central areas, including Snowdon, its highest summit; the country has a changeable, maritime climate. Welsh national identity emerged among the Britons after the Roman withdrawal from Britain in the 5th century, Wales is regarded as one of the modern Celtic nations. Llywelyn ap Gruffudd's death in 1282 marked the completion of Edward I of England's conquest of Wales, though Owain Glyndŵr restored independence to Wales in the early 15th century; the whole of Wales was annexed by England and incorporated within the English legal system under the Laws in Wales Acts 1535 and 1542. Distinctive Welsh politics developed in the 19th century. Welsh liberalism, exemplified in the early 20th century by Lloyd George, was displaced by the growth of socialism and the Labour Party.
Welsh national feeling grew over the century. Established under the Government of Wales Act 1998, the National Assembly for Wales holds responsibility for a range of devolved policy matters. At the dawn of the Industrial Revolution, development of the mining and metallurgical industries transformed the country from an agricultural society into an industrial nation. Two-thirds of the population live in South Wales, including Cardiff, Swansea and the nearby valleys. Now that the country's traditional extractive and heavy industries have gone or are in decline, Wales' economy depends on the public sector and service industries and tourism. Although Wales shares its political and social history with the rest of Great Britain, a majority of the population in most areas speaks English as a first language, the country has retained a distinct cultural identity and is bilingual. Over 560,000 Welsh language speakers live in Wales, the language is spoken by a majority of the population in parts of the north and west.
From the late 19th century onwards, Wales acquired its popular image as the "land of song", in part due to the eisteddfod tradition. At many international sporting events, such as the FIFA World Cup, Rugby World Cup and the Commonwealth Games, Wales has its own national teams, though at the Olympic Games, Welsh athletes compete as part of a Great Britain team. Rugby union is seen as an expression of national consciousness; the English words "Wales" and "Welsh" derive from the same Germanic root, itself derived from the name of the Gaulish people known to the Romans as Volcae and which came to refer indiscriminately to all non-Germanic peoples. The Old English-speaking Anglo-Saxons came to use the term Wælisc when referring to the Britons in particular, Wēalas when referring to their lands; the modern names for some Continental European lands and peoples have a similar etymology. In Britain, the words were not restricted to modern Wales or to the Welsh but were used to refer to anything that the Anglo-Saxons associated with the Britons, including other non-Germanic territories in Britain and places in Anglo-Saxon territory associated with Britons, as well as items associated with non-Germanic Europeans, such as the walnut.
The modern Welsh name for themselves is Cymry, Cymru is the Welsh name for Wales. These words are descended from the Brythonic word combrogi, meaning "fellow-countrymen"; the use of the word Cymry as a self-designation derives from the location in the post-Roman Era of the Welsh people in modern Wales as well as in northern England and southern Scotland. It emphasised that the Welsh in modern Wales and in the Hen Ogledd were one people, different from other peoples. In particular, the term was not applied to the Cornish or the Breton peoples, who are of similar heritage and language to the Welsh; the word came into use as a self-description before the 7th century. It is attested in a praise poem to Cadwallon ap Cadfan c. 633. In Welsh literature, the word Cymry was used throughout the Middle Ages to describe the Welsh, though the older, more generic term Brythoniaid continued to be used to describe any of the Britonnic peoples and was the more common literary term until c. 1200. Thereafter Cymry prevailed as a reference to the Welsh.
Until c. 1560 the word was spelt Kymry or Cymry, regardless of whether it referred to the people or their homeland. The Latinised forms of these names, Cambrian and Cambria, survive as lesser-used alternative names for Wales and the Welsh people. Examples include the Cambrian Mountains, the newspaper Cambrian News, the organisations Cambrian Airways, Cambrian Railways, Cambrian Archaeological Association and the Royal Cambrian Academy of Art. Outside Wales, a related form survives as the name Cumbria in North West England, once a part of Yr Hen Ogledd; the Cumbric language, thought to
Ithan Creek is a tributary of Darby Creek in Delaware County, Pennsylvania, in the United States. It is 4.2 miles long and flows through Radnor Township and Haverford Township. The creek's watershed has an area of 7.39 square miles and is developed. It has three named tributaries: Browns Run, Kirks Run, Meadowbrook Run. Ithan Creek is within the Piedmont Uplands physiographic province; the creek was the site of several mills and has been subjected to numerous floods over the years. In 1902, a sewage company began dumping raw sewage into the creek, but this practice was stopped in 1905; the creek is in approved trout waters. It is the site of Ithan Valley Park, a small park with hiking and fishing opportunities and the Radnor Valley Country Club. Ithan Creek rises in a small valley just south of U. S. Route 30 in the community of Wayne, Pennsylvania, it flows west for several tenths of a mile before receiving its first tributary, Browns Run, from the right and turning south. The creek passes under Pennsylvania Route 320 and receives two small unnamed tributaries from the left.
It crosses it once. After a short while, it receives Kirks Run from the right near the community of Rosemont, Pennsylvania, it flows alongside the interstate for several tenths of a mile before passing under it again. Shortly thereafter, Ithan Creek enters Haverford Township and receives its largest tributary, Meadowbrook Run, it meets its confluence with Darby Creek. Ithan Creek joins Darby Creek 17.9 miles upriver of its mouth. The elevation near the mouth of Ithan Creek is 184 feet above sea level; the elevation of the creek's source is 399 feet above sea level. Ithan Creek is within the Piedmont Uplands physiographic province; the Piedmont Uplands section has old, hard upland rocks that eroded from the Appalachian Mountains. The rocks in the watershed date to the Precambrian Era and Lower Paleozoic Era; the surficial geology consist of felsic gneiss and mafic gneiss formations, with small amounts of serpentinite near the mouth of the creek. Silvery mica schist is exposed along the creek. According to a report by the Geological Society of Pennsylvania, the exposures are rare in the vicinity of Ithan Creek.
Two soil associations exist in the Ithan Creek watershed. The Neshaminy-Lehigh-Glenlg soil association is present in a small part of the watershed, it consists of silty, well drained and deep soil that rests on gabbro and granodiorite bedrock. The Chester-Glenlg-Manor soil association is prevalent through the middle of the watershed, it consists of silty and shallow to deep soil that rests on brown schist and gneiss bedrock. Most of the watershed is considered to have erodible soil; the watershed of Ithan Creek has an area of 7.39 square miles. Its source is in the United States Geological Survey quadrangle of Valley Forge, but its mouth is in the quadrangle of Lansdowne. Ithan Creek's watershed has a diversity of land uses, including residential, transportation facilities, college campuses, historic sites, its culverts from Sproul Road to Iven Avenue are not sized to manage moderate floods. There are brick structures located alongside the creek. Major roads in the watershed include Interstate 476, U.
S. Route 30, Pennsylvania Route 320. Ithan Creek is not considered to be impaired. Ithan Creek was entered into the Geographic Names Information System on August 2, 1979, its identifier in the Geographic Names Information System is 1177888. The village of Ithan along the creek was the first European settlement in modern-day Radnor Township in the seventeenth century. In 1826, an official report stated the following about mills on the creek: On Ithan creek in Radnor, a mill seat, on land of the heirs of Andrew Steel, deceased. On Ithan creek, in Radnor, a grist-mill and saw-mill and fall about twenty-three feet and occupied by John and David Evans. Near the head of Ithan creek, in Radnor, a grist mill and saw-mill and fall about sixteen feet, grinds from eight to ten thousand bushels of grain per annum, about fifty tons gypsum per annum, saw-mill employed owned and occupied by Jesse Brooke. On August 5, 1843, heavy rains caused massive flooding on Ithan Creek. About a quarter million dollars of damage in property was assessed, several lives were lost.
Bridges on Ithan Creek sustained a damage of about $475. The Wayne Sewerage Company was incorporated on December 1, 1902 and constructed and maintained sewers in Radnor township, it purchased an eleven-acre tract along the creek to build a sewer system and built an engine house with boilers to purify sewage. After it was purified, the water would be released into Ithan Creek where, the company claimed, it posed no threat to human health. Despite this, on December 4, 1905, the State Board of Health filed a lawsuit against the company alleging raw sewage was being illegally dumped into the creek; as a result, a judge sided with the Board of Health and a new plant was constructed. Several bridges have been built across Ithan Creek. A concrete tee beam bridge with a length of 27.9 feet carries Sproul Road over the creek and was built in 1922. A 25.9 feet bridge of the same type carries Conestoga Road over the creek. In 1932, a 40 feet concrete arch bridge was constructed. A concrete slab bridge with a length of 27.9 feet carries Clyde Road across the creek and was built that same year.
Built in 1964, a 27.9 feet prestressed box beam carries Bryn Mawr Avenue over Ithan Creek. Three years two concrete slab br
Valley Forge Military Academy and College
Valley Forge Military Academy and College is an American independent college preparatory boarding school and, as of Fall 2006, coeducational independent military junior college located in Wayne, Pennsylvania that follows in the traditional military school format with Army tradition. Though military in tradition and form, the high school portion of VFMAC, Valley Forge Military Academy, is a college preparatory boarding institution specializing on student leadership. VFMAC's administration is composed entirely of current or retired military; the Board of Trustees are entirely alumni. Some graduates pursue careers in the armed services, VFMAC has one Rhodes Scholarship recipient; the school has established a tradition with the British Monarchy and follows an American military academy model and practices the American Army tradition. VFMAC has a British Army Garrison Sergeant Major with William'Billy' Mott, OBE MVO, Welsh Guards as the first Garrison Sergeant Major appointed as VFMAC staff; the Valley Forge Corps of Cadets, student run, is the only American military organization that maintained British rank, drill and ceremonies.
All cadets must earn a "Capshield" to be a member of the Corps of Cadets. It is the only Corps of Cadets in the United States to still have a traditional mounted battalion of one cavalry troop and one artillery battery. College cadet uniforms are styled after the Royal Military Academy Sandhurst. VFMAC Regimental Sergeant Major, Drum Major and Field Music Drum Major wears the British Army Foot Guard uniform. Cadet Senior NCOs carry a British Military pace stick. Valley Forge Military College, "The Military College of Pennsylvania", is the only private military junior college in the United States where the entire college student body consists of military cadets from the United States and international cadets. All students are members of the Corps of Cadets; the Academy and College was once residential, but in recent years the academy offers a day student program. VFMC is the only junior military college that caters to all branches of the United States military through the Reserve Officers' Training Corps and the "Prepster" program for all five United States service academies.
Valley Forge Military Academy was founded in 1928 by Lieutenant General Milton G. Baker, Pennsylvania Guard. For the first five months of its existence, the school was located in Devon, Pennsylvania, on the south side of Berkley Road, between Dorset and Waterloo roads, several miles away from the campus's current location. After a fire during the night of January 17–18, 1929 destroyed the original single-building campus, the former Devon Park Hotel, the Academy was moved to its present site in Wayne, the former Saint Luke's School; the highest decoration in the institution, the Order of Anthony Wayne, was made in tribute to the heroism of the first Corps of Cadets on the night that the first campus burned down. General Baker devised an American Revolutionary War motif for the school; the school colors are the colors of the uniforms of the Continental Army. The buildings in the Wayne campus were named for Revolutionary War leaders, while the uniforms, Alma Mater, rank structure were patterned from those of the United States Military Academy at West Point, New York.
During the 1935–1936 school year Baker expanded the academy to include a two-year college program, with the first college cadets joining the corps that year. Subsequently, the school was known as Valley Forge Military Junior College. Today, it is known as "Valley Forge Military Academy and College". In the late 1940s to 1950s, Baker, an Anglophile, began changing the concept and modeled many of the school's drills and ceremonies after a British motif; the Full Dress Uniforms are modeled from those of the British Army, while others are ostensibly West Point and British hybrids. The corps expanded to include artillery in the late 1930s; the school was granted military junior college status by the Department of Defense sometime between the 1940s and the 1960s. Baker retired as superintendent in 1971, died at his home on July 31, 1976, at the age of 80; the 1981 film Taps was filmed at the school. Superintendents:Lieutenant General Milton G. Baker, Pennsylvania Guard, 1928–1971 Lieutenant General Milton H. Medenbach, Pennsylvania Guard, 1971 Major General Robert W. Strong, Jr. United States Air Force, 1971–1973 Lieutenant General Willard Pearson, United States Army, 1973–1985 Lieutenant General Alexander M. Weyand, United States Army 1985–1989 Colonel Harold J. Fraley, United States Army, 1989–1990 Vice Admiral N. Ronald Thunman, United States Navy, 1990–1993Title changed to President in 1992Rear Admiral Virgil L. Hill, Jr. United States Navy 1993–2000 Rear Admiral Peter A.
C. Long, United States Navy 2000–2004 Charles A. McGeorge 2004–2009 William R. Floyd, Jr. 2009–2010 Colonel David R. Gray, United States Army 2010–2012 Col. James J. Doyle, USMC, Interim President, 2012–2013 Stacey R. Sauchuk, 2013–2016 Col. John C. Church, Jr. USMC 2016–2018 Major General Walter T. Lord U. S. Army Class of 1984 2018-2019 The school has, as of 2011 about 500 students, representing 38 states and 25 nations; the college had the largest enrollment at the start of the 2009–2010 academic year: 334 cadets. By 2014, the school had grown to more than 650 cadets; the Army ROTC Early Commissionin
The United States of America known as the United States or America, is a country composed of 50 states, a federal district, five major self-governing territories, various possessions. At 3.8 million square miles, the United States is the world's third or fourth largest country by total area and is smaller than the entire continent of Europe's 3.9 million square miles. With a population of over 327 million people, the U. S. is the third most populous country. The capital is Washington, D. C. and the largest city by population is New York City. Forty-eight states and the capital's federal district are contiguous in North America between Canada and Mexico; the State of Alaska is in the northwest corner of North America, bordered by Canada to the east and across the Bering Strait from Russia to the west. The State of Hawaii is an archipelago in the mid-Pacific Ocean; the U. S. territories are scattered about the Pacific Ocean and the Caribbean Sea, stretching across nine official time zones. The diverse geography and wildlife of the United States make it one of the world's 17 megadiverse countries.
Paleo-Indians migrated from Siberia to the North American mainland at least 12,000 years ago. European colonization began in the 16th century; the United States emerged from the thirteen British colonies established along the East Coast. Numerous disputes between Great Britain and the colonies following the French and Indian War led to the American Revolution, which began in 1775, the subsequent Declaration of Independence in 1776; the war ended in 1783 with the United States becoming the first country to gain independence from a European power. The current constitution was adopted in 1788, with the first ten amendments, collectively named the Bill of Rights, being ratified in 1791 to guarantee many fundamental civil liberties; the United States embarked on a vigorous expansion across North America throughout the 19th century, acquiring new territories, displacing Native American tribes, admitting new states until it spanned the continent by 1848. During the second half of the 19th century, the Civil War led to the abolition of slavery.
By the end of the century, the United States had extended into the Pacific Ocean, its economy, driven in large part by the Industrial Revolution, began to soar. The Spanish–American War and World War I confirmed the country's status as a global military power; the United States emerged from World War II as a global superpower, the first country to develop nuclear weapons, the only country to use them in warfare, a permanent member of the United Nations Security Council. Sweeping civil rights legislation, notably the Civil Rights Act of 1964, the Voting Rights Act of 1965 and the Fair Housing Act of 1968, outlawed discrimination based on race or color. During the Cold War, the United States and the Soviet Union competed in the Space Race, culminating with the 1969 U. S. Moon landing; the end of the Cold War and the collapse of the Soviet Union in 1991 left the United States as the world's sole superpower. The United States is the world's oldest surviving federation, it is a representative democracy.
The United States is a founding member of the United Nations, World Bank, International Monetary Fund, Organization of American States, other international organizations. The United States is a developed country, with the world's largest economy by nominal GDP and second-largest economy by PPP, accounting for a quarter of global GDP; the U. S. economy is post-industrial, characterized by the dominance of services and knowledge-based activities, although the manufacturing sector remains the second-largest in the world. The United States is the world's largest importer and the second largest exporter of goods, by value. Although its population is only 4.3% of the world total, the U. S. holds 31% of the total wealth in the world, the largest share of global wealth concentrated in a single country. Despite wide income and wealth disparities, the United States continues to rank high in measures of socioeconomic performance, including average wage, human development, per capita GDP, worker productivity.
The United States is the foremost military power in the world, making up a third of global military spending, is a leading political and scientific force internationally. In 1507, the German cartographer Martin Waldseemüller produced a world map on which he named the lands of the Western Hemisphere America in honor of the Italian explorer and cartographer Amerigo Vespucci; the first documentary evidence of the phrase "United States of America" is from a letter dated January 2, 1776, written by Stephen Moylan, Esq. to George Washington's aide-de-camp and Muster-Master General of the Continental Army, Lt. Col. Joseph Reed. Moylan expressed his wish to go "with full and ample powers from the United States of America to Spain" to seek assistance in the revolutionary war effort; the first known publication of the phrase "United States of America" was in an anonymous essay in The Virginia Gazette newspaper in Williamsburg, Virginia, on April 6, 1776. The second draft of the Articles of Confederation, prepared by John Dickinson and completed by June 17, 1776, at the latest, declared "The name of this Confederation shall be the'United States of America'".
The final version of the Articles sent to the states for ratification in late 1777 contains the sentence "The Stile of this Confederacy shall be'The United States of America'". In June 1776, Thomas Jefferson wrote the phrase "UNITED STATES OF AMERICA" in all capitalized letters in the headline of his "original Rough draught" of the Declaration of Independence; this draft of the document did not surface unti
George Washington was an American political leader, military general and Founding Father who served as the first president of the United States from 1789 to 1797. He led Patriot forces to victory in the nation's War of Independence, he presided at the Constitutional Convention of 1787 which established the new federal government, he has been called the "Father of His Country" for his manifold leadership in the formative days of the new nation. Washington received his initial military training and command with the Virginia Regiment during the French and Indian War, he was elected to the Virginia House of Burgesses and was named a delegate to the Continental Congress, where he was appointed Commanding General of the nation's Continental Army. Washington allied with France, in the defeat of the British at Yorktown. Once victory for the United States was in hand in 1783, Washington resigned his commission. Washington played a key role in the adoption and ratification of the Constitution and was elected president by the Electoral College in the first two elections.
He implemented a strong, well-financed national government while remaining impartial in a fierce rivalry between cabinet members Thomas Jefferson and Alexander Hamilton. During the French Revolution, he proclaimed a policy of neutrality while sanctioning the Jay Treaty, he set enduring precedents for the office of president, including the title "President of the United States", his Farewell Address is regarded as a pre-eminent statement on republicanism. Washington utilized slave labor and trading African American slaves, but he became troubled with the institution of slavery and freed them in his 1799 will, he was a member of the Anglican Church and the Freemasons, he urged tolerance for all religions in his roles as general and president. Upon his death, he was eulogized as "first in war, first in peace, first in the hearts of his countrymen." He has been memorialized by monuments, geographical locations and currency, many scholars and polls rank him among the top American presidents. Washington's great-grandfather John Washington immigrated in 1656 from Sulgrave, England to the British Colony of Virginia where he accumulated 5,000 acres of land, including Little Hunting Creek on the Potomac River.
George Washington was born February 22, 1732 at Popes Creek in Westmoreland County and was the first of six children of Augustine and Mary Ball Washington. His father was a justice of the peace and a prominent public figure who had three additional children from his first marriage to Jane Butler; the family moved to Little Hunting Creek to Ferry Farm near Fredericksburg, Virginia. When Augustine died in 1743, Washington inherited ten slaves. Washington did not have the formal education that his older brothers received at Appleby Grammar School in England, but he did learn mathematics and surveying, he was talented in draftsmanship and map-making. By early adulthood, he was writing with "considerable force" and "precision."Washington visited Mount Vernon and Belvoir, the plantation that belonged to Lawrence's father-in-law William Fairfax, which fueled ambition for the lifestyle of the planter aristocracy. Fairfax became Washington's patron and surrogate father, Washington spent a month in 1748 with a team surveying Fairfax's Shenandoah Valley property.
He received a surveyor's license the following year from the College of Mary. He resigned from the job in 1750 and had bought 1,500 acres in the Valley, he owned 2,315 acres by 1752. In 1751, Washington made his only trip abroad when he accompanied Lawrence to Barbados, hoping that the climate would cure his brother's tuberculosis. Washington contracted smallpox during that trip, which immunized him but left his face scarred. Lawrence died in 1752, Washington leased Mount Vernon from his widow. Lawrence's service as adjutant general of the Virginia militia inspired Washington to seek a commission, Virginia's Lieutenant Governor Robert Dinwiddie appointed him as a major in December 1752 and as commander of one of the four militia districts; the British and French were competing for control of the Ohio Valley at the time, the British building forts along the Ohio River and the French doing between Lake Erie and the Ohio River. In October 1753, Dinwiddie appointed Washington as a special envoy to demand that the French vacate territory which the British had claimed.
Dinwiddie appointed him to make peace with the Iroquois Confederacy and to gather intelligence about the French forces. Washington met with Half-King Tanacharison and other Iroquois chiefs at Logstown to secure their promise of support against the French, his party reached the Ohio River in November, they were intercepted by a French patrol and escorted to Fort Le Boeuf where Washington was received in a friendly manner. He delivered the British demand to vacate to French commander Saint-Pierre, but the French refused to leave. Saint-Pierre gave Washington his official answer in a sealed envelope after a few days' delay, he gave Washington's party food and extra winter clothing for the trip back to Virginia. Washington completed the precarious mission in 77 days in difficult winter conditions and achieved a measure of distinction when his report was published in Virginia and London. In February 1754, Dinwiddie promoted Washington to lieutenant colonel and second-in-command of the 300-strong Virginia R
William Penn was the son of Sir William Penn, was an English nobleman, early Quaker, founder of the English North American colony the Province of Pennsylvania. He was an early advocate of democracy and religious freedom, notable for his good relations and successful treaties with the Lenape Native Americans. Under his direction, the city of Philadelphia was developed. In 1681, King Charles II handed over a large piece of his American land holdings to Penn to pay the debts the king owed to Penn's father; this land included present-day Delaware. Penn set sail and took his first step on American soil in New Castle in 1682 after his trans-Atlantic journey. On this occasion, the colonists pledged allegiance to Penn as their new proprietor, the first general assembly was held in the colony. Afterward, Penn founded Philadelphia. However, Penn's Quaker government was not viewed favorably by the Dutch and English settlers in what is now Delaware, they had no "historical" allegiance to Pennsylvania, so they immediately began petitioning for their own assembly.
In 1704 they achieved their goal when the three southernmost counties of Pennsylvania were permitted to split off and become the new semi-autonomous colony of Lower Delaware. As the most prominent and influential "city" in the new colony, New Castle became the capital; as one of the earlier supporters of colonial unification, Penn wrote and urged for a union of all the English colonies in what was to become the United States of America. The democratic principles that he set forth in the Pennsylvania Frame of Government served as an inspiration for the United States Constitution; as a pacifist Quaker, Penn considered the problems of peace deeply. He developed a forward-looking project for a United States of Europe through the creation of a European Assembly made of deputies who could discuss and adjudicate controversies peacefully, he is therefore considered the first thinker to suggest the creation of a European Parliament. A man of deep religious convictions, Penn wrote numerous works in which he exhorted believers to adhere to the spirit of Primitive Christianity.
He was imprisoned several times in the Tower of London due to his faith, his book No Cross, No Crown, which he wrote while in prison, has become a Christian classic. William Penn was born in 1644 at Tower Hill, the son of English Admiral Sir William Penn, Margaret Jasper, from a Dutch family the widow of a Dutch captain, the daughter of a rich merchant from Rotterdam. William Penn, Sr. served in the Commonwealth Navy during the English Civil War and was rewarded by Oliver Cromwell with estates in Ireland. The lands were seized from Irish Catholics in retaliation for the failed Irish Rebellion of 1641. Admiral Penn took part in the restoration of Charles II and was knighted and served in the Royal Navy. At the time of his son's birth, Captain Penn was twenty-three and an ambitious naval officer in charge of quelling Irish Catholic unrest and blockading Irish ports. William Penn grew up during the rule of Oliver Cromwell, who succeeded in leading a Puritan rebellion against King Charles I. Penn's father was at sea.
Little William caught smallpox at a young age, losing all his hair, prompting his parents to move from the suburbs to an estate in Essex. The country life made a lasting impression on young Penn, kindled in him a love of horticulture, their neighbor was famed diarist Samuel Pepys, friendly at first but secretly hostile to the Admiral embittered in part by his failed seductions of both Penn's mother and his sister Peggy. Penn was educated first at Chigwell School, by private tutors whilst in Ireland, at Christ Church, Oxford. At that time, there were no state schools and nearly all educational institutions were affiliated with the Anglican Church. Children from poor families had to have a wealthy sponsor to get an education. Penn's education leaned on the classical authors and "no novelties or conceited modern writers" were allowed including William Shakespeare. Foot racing was Penn's favorite sport, he would run the more than three-mile distance from his home to the school; the school itself was cast in an Anglican mode – strict and somber – and teachers had to be pillars of virtue and provide sterling examples to their charges.
Though opposing Anglicanism on religious grounds, Penn absorbed many Puritan behaviors, was known for his serious demeanor, strict behavior and lack of humor. After a failed mission to the Caribbean, Admiral Penn and his family were exiled to his lands in Ireland, it was during this period, when Penn was about fifteen, that he met Thomas Loe, a Quaker missionary, maligned by both Catholics and Protestants. Loe was admitted to the Penn household and during his discourses on the "Inner Light", young Penn recalled that "the Lord visited me and gave me divine Impressions of Himself."A year Cromwell was dead, the royalists resurging, the Penn family returned to England. The middle class aligned itself with the royalists and Admiral Penn was sent on a secret mission to bring back exiled Prince Charles. For his role in restoring the monarchy, Admiral Penn was knighted and gained a powerful position as Commissioner of the Navy. In 1660, Penn enrolled as a gentleman scholar with an assigned servant; the student body was a volatile mix of swashbuckling Cavaliers, sober Puritans, nonconforming Quakers.
The new government's discouragement of religious dissent gave the Cavalier